A report on Sushi

President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe at Sukiyabashi Jiro
Sushi by Hiroshige
Sushi platter in takeway
Chirashizushi with raw ingredients
Three pieces of inarizushi
Funa-zushi (narezushi made from nigorobuna)
Nigirizushi
Several types of nigirizushi, rice hand-pressed with various seafood, including tuna, eel, and sea urchin roe gunkanmaki
Japanese cutlassfish oshizushi at a restaurant in Minamata City, Kumamoto Prefecture
Oshi-zushi (Pressed sushi)
Norway roll (ノルウェー巻き). A Norwegian businessman introduced the use of salmon as a sushi ingredient to Japan in the 1980s.
Uramakizushi rolls
Rainbow roll, uramaki with multiple fillings including shrimp tempura, salmon, avocado, mango, with rice mixed with tobiko
Sushi chef preparing nigirizushi, Kyoto, Japan
Sheets of nori
Sushi made of meats other than fish (whether raw or cooked) is a variation often seen in Japan.
Yaki anago-ippon-nigiri (焼きアナゴ一本握り) – a roasted and sweet-sauced whole conger eel
Ebifurai-maki (エビフライ巻き) – fried-shrimp roll
Sushi in shops are usually sold in plastic trays.
Sushi served on a wooden platter at a sushi restaurant in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan
Sushi in restaurant in Vienna, Austria
Meat sushi
{{transl|ja|Makizushi}} topped with {{transl|ja|tobiko}}
{{transl|ja|Makizushi}} in preparation
{{transl|ja|Futomaki}}
{{transl|ja|Kappamaki}}
{{transl|ja|Nattōmaki}}
{{transl|ja|Tekkamaki}}
{{transl|ja|Ehōmaki}}
{{nihongo3|fatty tuna belly|鮪とろ握り|Toro nigiri}}
{{nihongo|Salmon roll|巻き鮭}}
{{nihongo3|persimmon leaf|柿の葉寿司|Kakinoha}} sushi
{{nihongo||茶巾寿司|Chakin-zushi}}, wrapped in thin omelette
{{nihongo|Sushi plate|盛り合わせ}}
{{nihongo||イクラ軍艦巻き|Ikura gunkan-maki}}
{{nihongo3|bamboo leaf|笹寿司|Sasa}} sushi
{{nihongo3|teriyaki-roasted freshwater eel|鰻寿司|Unagi}} sushi
{{transl|ja|Nigirizushi}} for sale at a supermarket in Tokyo
{{nihongo|Assorted sushi|盛り合わせ}}
{{nihongo|Assorted Western sushi|盛り合わせ}}
Western California roll and tuna roll {{transl|ja|uramaki}} ({{lang|ja|カリフォルニア巻き}})
{{nihongo|Western spicy tuna hand roll|スパイシーツナロール}}
{{nihongo|Western spicy shrimp roll|スパイシー海老ロール}}
{{transl|ja|Gari}} (ginger)
Wasabi
thumb|right|{{transl|ja|Tamago}} sushi

Japanese dish of prepared vinegared rice (鮨飯), usually with some sugar and salt, accompanied by a variety of ingredients (ねた), such as seafood, often raw, and vegetables.

- Sushi

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Sesame

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Flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.

Flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.

Flower of S. indicum
Sesame seed capsule
Sesame Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. from the Seikei Zusetsu agriculture encyclopedia
Sesame seeds are a rich source of oil.
Magnified image of white sesame seeds
Sesame seeds are commonly added to baked goods and creative confectionery
Rolled khao phan with black sesame seeds
Sesame seed breadsticks
Sesame sweet cake
Sesame seed ball confection
Til-patti – a sesame brittle-type confection from India
Simit, koulouri, or gevrek, a ring-shaped bread coated with sesame seeds

In Asia, sesame seeds are sprinkled onto some sushi-style foods.

Consonant mutation

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Change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.

Change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.

nigiri + sushi → nigirizushi ("grip (with the hand)" + "sushi" → "hand-shaped sushi")

A hangiri. This example is 41 cm in diameter.

Hangiri

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A hangiri. This example is 41 cm in diameter.

In Japanese cuisine, a hangiri (飯切 or 半切), also known a sushi oke, is a round, flat-bottomed wooden tub or barrel used in the final steps of preparing rice for sushi.

From left: brown rice, half-milled rice, white rice

Japanese rice

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Japanese rice refers to a number of short-grain cultivars of Japonica rice including ordinary rice (uruchimai) and glutinous rice (mochigome).

Japanese rice refers to a number of short-grain cultivars of Japonica rice including ordinary rice (uruchimai) and glutinous rice (mochigome).

From left: brown rice, half-milled rice, white rice
A Japanese rice field in Nara
A comparison between Koshihikari and Calrose cultivars. Koshihikari on the left, Calrose on the right.
Sushi by Hiroshige in Edo period
Rice cooker of the Edo period Fukagawa Edo Museum

It is used in sushi (寿司) and onigiri.

Kanpyō (raw), dried shavings of Lagenaria siceraria var. hispida

Kanpyō (food)

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Kanpyō (かんぴょう or 干瓢), sometimes romanized and pronounced kampyō, are dried shavings of Lagenaria siceraria var.

Kanpyō (かんぴょう or 干瓢), sometimes romanized and pronounced kampyō, are dried shavings of Lagenaria siceraria var.

Kanpyō (raw), dried shavings of Lagenaria siceraria var. hispida
The traditional new year dish kombu-maki tied with strips of kanpyō
Kanpyō-maki rolls
Kanpyō drying in Minakuchi-juku from The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō by Hiroshige

Cooked and flavored kanpyō is commonly used in futomaki sushi roll.

Scallop

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Common name that encompasses various species of marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family Pectinidae, the scallops.

Common name that encompasses various species of marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family Pectinidae, the scallops.

Anatomical diagram of an Atlantic bay scallop with the left (i.e., upper) valve removed; anterior is to the left, posterior to the right
Diagram of a scallop with two differently sized valves shown positioned in ocean floor sediment: the right valve (shown at the bottom) much deeper than the left, allowing the scallop to appear less visible to predators
A live opened scallop showing the internal anatomy: The pale orange circular part is the adductor muscle; the darker orange curved part is the "coral", a culinary term for the ovary or roe.
Neural map of a giant scallop
Overhead view of a scallop engaged in a zig-zag swimming motion
Overhead view of a scallop engaged in a unidirectional jumping motion
A scallop pearl
Fossil scallop Chlamys with encrusters; Nicosia Formation (Pliocene) of Cyprus
Pecten tigris Lamarck, 1819, museum specimens
Pearl nets used to grow spat to juveniles in scallop aquaculture
Scallops with wine sauce
Saint James by Carlo Crivelli, c. 1480
Shield with symbol of St. James the Great, Church of the Good Shepherd (Rosemont, Pennsylvania)
A scallop shell in a German coat of arms
Aphrodite Anadyomene, from Amisos, 1st century BC – 1st century AD
Large sculpture by Maggi Hambling titled The Scallop erected in 2003 on the beach at Aldeburgh, England
Adductor muscle meat of the giant scallop (seven white circular items) with a large shrimp
Dried scallops, also known as conpoy
Taiwanese steamed scallops
A scallop being grilled next to sausages in Japan
Fried scallops on stick served with rice
Pan seared scallops

In Japanese cuisine, scallops may be served in soup or prepared as sashimi or sushi.

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Mackerel as food

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Important food fish that is consumed worldwide.

Important food fish that is consumed worldwide.

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Indian mackerel deep-fried with salt and turmeric in mustard oil.

In Japan mackerel is commonly cured with salt and vinegar to make a type of sushi known as saba-zushi.

Inari and their fox spirits help the blacksmith Munechika forge the blade kogitsune-maru (Little Fox) in the late 10th century. This legend is the subject of the noh drama Sanjo Kokaji.

Inari Ōkami

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Japanese kami of foxes, fertility, rice, tea and sake, of agriculture and industry, of general prosperity and worldly success, and one of the principal kami of Shinto.

Japanese kami of foxes, fertility, rice, tea and sake, of agriculture and industry, of general prosperity and worldly success, and one of the principal kami of Shinto.

Inari and their fox spirits help the blacksmith Munechika forge the blade kogitsune-maru (Little Fox) in the late 10th century. This legend is the subject of the noh drama Sanjo Kokaji.
Inari appears to a warrior. This portrayal of Inari shows the influence of Dakiniten concepts from Buddhism.
The Hokkaido red fox
Searching the Seas with the Tenkei (天瓊を以て滄海を探るの図). Painting by Kobayashi Eitaku, 1880–90 (MFA, Boston). Izanagi to the right, Izanami to the left.
Statue of a kitsune adorned with a red votive bib in a shrine at Inuyama Castle. Many castles in Japan contain Inari shrines.
Red torii along a path at the Fushimi Inari shrine in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto.
Torii of ojiyama-inari
Kakigara-Inari at Hase-dera (Kamakura)

Inari-zushi, a Japanese sushi roll of packaged fried tofu, is another popular offering.

Korean rice vinegar

Rice vinegar

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Vinegar made from fermented rice in East Asia , as well as in Vietnam in Southeast Asia.

Vinegar made from fermented rice in East Asia , as well as in Vietnam in Southeast Asia.

Korean rice vinegar
Chinese black vinegar
Red rice vinegar
Hyeonmi-sikcho (brown rice vinegar)

Seasoned rice vinegar is added to cooked rice to be used in making sushi.

Sea urchin

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Sea urchins are spiny, globular echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.

Sea urchins are spiny, globular echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.

Sea urchin anatomy based on Arbacia sp.
Tube feet of a purple sea urchin
Dentition of a sea urchin
Aristotle's lantern in a sea urchin, viewed in lateral section
Digestive and circulatory systems of a regular sea urchin: a = anus ; m = madreporite ; s = aquifer canal ; r = radial canal ; p = podial ampulla ; k = test wall ; i = intestine ; b = mouth
Diadema setosum
Sea urchin blastula
The development of a regular sea urchin
Pluteus larva has bilateral symmetry.
The flower urchin is a dangerous, potentially lethally venomous species.
The thick spines (radiola) of Cidaridae were used for walking on the soft seabed.
Sea urchin injury on the top side of the foot. This injury resulted in some skin staining from the natural purple-black dye of the urchin.
A fossil sea urchin found on a Middle Saxon site in Lincolnshire, thought to have been used as an amulet
Paracentrotus lividus, a regular sea urchin (Euechinoidea, infraclass Carinacea)
A sand dollar, an irregular sea urchin (Irregularia)
Phyllacanthus imperialis, a cidaroid sea urchin (Cidaroidea)
Test of an Echinus esculentus, a regular sea urchin
Test of an Echinodiscus tenuissimus, an irregular sea urchin ("sand dollar")
Test of a Phyllacanthus imperialis, a cidaroid sea urchin. These are characterised by their big tubercles, bearing large radiola.
Close-up of the test showing an ambulacral groove with its two rows of pore-pairs, between two interambulacra areas (green). The tubercles are non-perforated.
Close-up of a cidaroid sea urchin apical disc: the 5 holes are the gonopores, and the central one is the anus ("periproct"). The biggest genital plate is the madreporite.<ref>{{cite web |title=Apical disc and periproct |url=https://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/data/echinoid-directory/morphology/regulars/discmorph.html |publisher=Natural History Museum, London |access-date=2 November 2019}}</ref>
Wolf eel, a highly specialized predator of sea urchins
A sea otter feeding on a purple sea urchin.
A crab (Carpilius convexus) attacking a slate pencil sea urchin (Heterocentrotus mamillatus)
A wrasse finishing the remains of a damaged Tripneustes gratilla
Purple sea urchins at low tide in California. They dig a cavity in the rock to hide from predators during the day.
Dermechinus horridus, an abyssal species, at thousands of meters deep
Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri) inhabits frozen seas.
The shape of the shingle urchin allows it to stay on wave-beaten cliffs.
Archaeocidaris brownwoodensis, Cidaroida, Carboniferous, c. 300 mya
Miocidaris coaeva, Cidaroida, Middle Triassic, c. 240 mya
Clypeus plotti, Irregularia, Middle Jurassic, c. 162 mya
Echinocorys, Holasteroida, Upper Cretaceous, c. 80 mya
Echinolampas ovalis, Cassiduloida, Middle Eocene, c. 40 mya
Clypeaster portentosus, Clypeasteroida, Miocene, c. 10 mya
Sea urchin (uni) as sashimi with a dab of wasabi
Japanese uni-ikura don, sea urchin egg and salmon egg donburi
Open sea urchins in Sicily

In Japan, sea urchin is known as uni (うに), and its roe can retail for as much as ¥40,000 ($360) per kilogram; it is served raw as sashimi or in sushi, with soy sauce and wasabi.