Susquehannock

SusquehannocksConestogaSusquehannaSusquehannock IndiansSusquehannock peopleConestoga IndiansMinquaAndasteConestogasSusquehannock nation
Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga by the English, were Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans who lived in areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries ranging from its upper reaches in the southern part of what is now New York (near the lands of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy), through eastern and central Pennsylvania West of the Poconos and the upper Delaware River (and the Delaware nations), with lands extending beyond the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland along the west bank of the Potomac at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay.wikipedia
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New York (state)

New YorkNew York StateNY
Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga by the English, were Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans who lived in areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries ranging from its upper reaches in the southern part of what is now New York (near the lands of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy), through eastern and central Pennsylvania West of the Poconos and the upper Delaware River (and the Delaware nations), with lands extending beyond the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland along the west bank of the Potomac at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay.
South of them, divided roughly along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie.

Pennsylvania

PACommonwealth of PennsylvaniaPa.
Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga by the English, were Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans who lived in areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries ranging from its upper reaches in the southern part of what is now New York (near the lands of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy), through eastern and central Pennsylvania West of the Poconos and the upper Delaware River (and the Delaware nations), with lands extending beyond the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland along the west bank of the Potomac at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay.
Historically, as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape (also Delaware), the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun (also Tionontati, Kentatentonga, Tobacco, Wenro) and the presumably Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali.

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga by the English, were Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans who lived in areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries ranging from its upper reaches in the southern part of what is now New York (near the lands of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy), through eastern and central Pennsylvania West of the Poconos and the upper Delaware River (and the Delaware nations), with lands extending beyond the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland along the west bank of the Potomac at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay.
During the war the Iroquois destroyed several large tribal confederacies, including the Huron, Neutral, Erie, Susquehannock, and Shawnee, and became dominant in the region and enlarged their territory.

West Virginia

WVwestern VirginiaState of West Virginia
Evidence of their habitation has also been found in northern West Virginia and portions of southwestern Pennsylvania, which could be reached via the gaps of the Allegheny or several counties to the south, via the Cumberland Narrows pass which held the Nemacolin Trail.
There was also the Iroquoian Susquehannock in the region approximately east of the Monongahela River and north of the Monongahela National Forest, a possible tribe called the Senandoa, or Shenandoah, in the Shenandoah Valley & the easternmost tip of the state may have been home to the Manahoac people.

Susquehanna River

SusquehannaSusquehanna ValleySusquehanna watershed
Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga by the English, were Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans who lived in areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries ranging from its upper reaches in the southern part of what is now New York (near the lands of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy), through eastern and central Pennsylvania West of the Poconos and the upper Delaware River (and the Delaware nations), with lands extending beyond the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland along the west bank of the Potomac at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay.
In the 1670s the Conestoga, or Susquehannock people, succumbed to Iroquois conquest by the powerful Five Nations based in present-day New York, and assimilated with them.

Lenape

DelawareLenni LenapeDelaware Indians
Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga by the English, were Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans who lived in areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries ranging from its upper reaches in the southern part of what is now New York (near the lands of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy), through eastern and central Pennsylvania West of the Poconos and the upper Delaware River (and the Delaware nations), with lands extending beyond the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland along the west bank of the Potomac at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay.
On the west side, the Lenape lived in numerous small towns along the rivers and streams that fed the waterways, and likely shared the hunting territory of the Schuylkill River watershed with the rival Iroquoian Susquehannock.

Wyandot people

HuronWyandotHurons
But all of the Iroquoian-speaking peoples shared some aspects of their culture, including the Erie people, any or all of the later Six Nations of the Iroquois, or the defunct Susquehannock tribe.

Conestoga, Pennsylvania

Conestoga
Both passes abutted their range and could be reached through connecting valleys from the West Branch Susquehanna and their large settlement at Conestoga, Pennsylvania.
Conestoga was first called Conestoga Manor by William Penn. The name came from the Conestoga Indians, a peaceful Christian tribe, whose principal village was located nearby.

New Sweden

SwedishWicacoNya Sverige
Before that time, it was the inland Susquehannock who had allied themselves to Dutch and Swedish traders (1600 & 1610) and Swedish settlers in New Sweden around-1640 who had a monopoly on European flintlock firearms, increasing the tribe's power.
Governor Minuit landed on the west bank of the river and gathered the sachems of the Delawares and Susquehannocks.

Iroquois

Iroquois ConfederacyHaudenosauneeSix Nations
Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga by the English, were Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans who lived in areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries ranging from its upper reaches in the southern part of what is now New York (near the lands of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy), through eastern and central Pennsylvania West of the Poconos and the upper Delaware River (and the Delaware nations), with lands extending beyond the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland along the west bank of the Potomac at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay. When they attempted to impose their will upon the Susquehannock circa 1666, the Susquehannock badly defeated the combined forces of the Seneca nation and Cayuga nation of the Five Nations of the Iroquois, severely damaging the southern populations of both these eastern Iroquois tribes.
The historic St. Lawrence Iroquoians, Wyandot (Huron), Erie, and Susquehannock, all independent peoples, also spoke Iroquoian languages.

Paxton Boys

Conestoga MassacrePaxton RiotsKillings by the Paxton Boys
Before the American Revolution, in mis-targeted response to rumors that they were supporting Pontiac's War, the Native Americans living in Conestoga were massacred by the Paxton Boys.
They are widely known for murdering 20 Susquehannock in events collectively called the Conestoga Massacre.

Beaver Wars

French and Iroquois WarsIroquois WarsIroquoian Wars
Ultimately, they were not strong enough to withstand the competition from colonists and other tribes in their piece of the so-called Beaver Wars of that century.
The Iroquois effectively destroyed several large tribal confederacies, including the Mahicans (Mohicans), Huron (Wyandot), Neutral, Erie, Susquehannock (Conestoga), and northern Algonquins.

Province of Maryland

MarylandColony of MarylandMaryland colony
Consequently, the nation also fought a war declared by the Province of Maryland from 1642-50s and won it, albeit with help from their long-time allies the Swedes.
In 1642, the Province of Maryland declared war on the Susquehannock Indian nation (Conestoga peoples).

Conestoga Town

About 1697, a few hundred surviving Susquehannock settled in a new village in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania called Conestoga Town.
The site is also one known to be among the last occupied of the Susquehannock town sites in Pennsylvania as they faded into obscurity.

New Netherland

New NetherlandsDutchNieuw-Nederland
During the early Dutch colonization of New Netherland, the Susquehannock traded furs with the Europeans.
The Munsee inhabited the Highlands, Hudson Valley, and northern New Jersey, while the Susquehannocks lived west of the Delaware River along the Susquehanna River, which the Dutch regarded as their boundary with Virginia.

Seneca people

SenecaSeneca nationSenecas
When they attempted to impose their will upon the Susquehannock circa 1666, the Susquehannock badly defeated the combined forces of the Seneca nation and Cayuga nation of the Five Nations of the Iroquois, severely damaging the southern populations of both these eastern Iroquois tribes.
The west and north were under constant attack from their powerful Iroquoian brethren, the Huron (Wyandot) To the South, the Iroquoian-speaking tribes of the Susquehannock (Conestoga) also threatened constant warfare.

Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

Lancaster CountyLancasterLancaster Counties
About 1697, a few hundred surviving Susquehannock settled in a new village in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania called Conestoga Town.
Historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter included the Shawnee, Susquehannock, Gawanese, Lenape (or Delaware), and Nanticoke peoples, who were from different language families and had distinct cultures.

Bacon's Rebellion

Bacon’s RebellionBacon's Rebellion of 1676Baconists
But the Susquehannock suffered from getting caught up in Bacon's Rebellion the following year.
After convincing the Occaneechi to attack the Susquehannock, Bacon and his men followed by killing most of the men, women, and children at the village.

John Lederer

Johann Lederer
In 1669-70, John Lederer was guided by a Susquehanna man on his journey to southwest Virginia and North Carolina (Mooney 1894:32).
Twenty-one members of the party turned back, but Lederer pushed on with Jackzetavon, one of his five Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannock guides.

Mohawk people

MohawkMohawksMohawk nation
But following the zenith of their tribal power in the early 1670s, the Susquehannock suffered an extremely rapid decline mid-decade in population and power, - presumably from infectious diseases such as smallpox, which also decimated other Native American groups such as the Mohawk and other Iroquois.

Neutral Nation

NeutralAttawandaronNeutrals
They were related to the Iroquois Confederation to their southeast, the Huron peoples also living around Lake Ontario, the Erie people of the south shore of Lake Erie, the Tabacco people situated east of Lake Erie, and the Susquehannocks of Central Pennsylvania.

Edmund Andros

Sir Edmund AndrosGovernor AndrosAndros
The Iroquois, who had a longer tradition of adopting defeated enemies into their tribe, and Governor Edmund Andros of the Province of New York told the Susquehannock they would be welcome in New York and protected from Maryland and Virginia.
At the same time Calvert was seeking an end to a frontier war with the Iroquois to the north, having persuaded the intervening Susquehannocks to move to the Potomac River, well within Maryland territory.

Meherrin

Meherrin NationMenchaerinck
To the southwest, the remnant Susquehannock merged with the Meherrin, and allied Nottoway or Mangoac, the Iroquoian-speaking tribes of Virginia.
In 1720 they made a treaty of peace with the Susquehanna, another Iroquoian tribe.

Akhrakouaeronon

The Akhrakouaeronon or Atrakouaehronon were a subtribe of the Susquehannock.

Erie people

ErieErie tribeErie Nation
They were destroyed in the mid-17th century by five years of prolonged warfare with the powerful neighboring Iroquois for helping the Huron in the Beaver Wars for control of the fur trade." Their villages were burned as a lesson to those who dared oppose the Iroquois. This destroyed their stored maize and other foods, added to their loss of life, and threatened their future, as they had no way to survive the winter. The attacks likely forced their emigration. The Iroquois League was known for adopting captives and refugees into their tribes. The surviving Erie are believed to have been largely absorbed by other Iroquoian tribes, particularly families of the Seneca, the westernmost of the Five Nations. Susquehannock families may also have adopted some Erie, as the tribes had shared the hunting grounds of the Allegheny Plateau and Amerindian paths that passed through the gaps of the Allegheny.