Sutlej

Sutlej RiverSatlujSatluj RiverRiver SutlejLangqên ZangboSutudrithe SutlejHesudrusShutudriSutlaj
The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) (Hindi: सतलज नदी satalaj nadee; ਸਤਲੁਜ; शतद्रुम (shatadrum); undefined), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan.wikipedia
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Rajasthan

Rajasthan, IndiaRajasthan StateRajastan
The river basin area in India is located in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Haryana states.
Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert (also known as the "Great Indian Desert") and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley.

Bhakra Dam

Bhakra Nangal DamBhakhra DamBhakra-Nangal Dam
There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,325 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,500 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam.
Bhakra Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Sutlej River in Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh in northern India.

Indus Waters Treaty

Indus Water TreatyIndus Basin Development Fund (Supplemental) Agreement, 1964Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement
The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India.
According to this agreement, control over the water flowing in three "eastern" rivers of India — the Beas, the Ravi and the Sutlej with the mean annual flow of 33 million acre-feet (MAF) — was given to India, while control over the water flowing in three "western" rivers of India — the Indus, the Chenab and the Jhelum with the mean annual flow of 80 MAF — was given to Pakistan.

Nathpa Jhakri Dam

Nathpa JhakriSatluj Jal Vidyut NigamNathpa Dam
There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,325 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,500 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam.
The Nathpa Jhakri Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Sutlej river in Himachal Pradesh, India.

Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant

There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,325 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,500 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam.
The Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant is a 1000 MW run-of-the-river hydroelectric power station on the Sutlej River in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh, India.

Punjab, India

PunjabIndian PunjabPunjab state
It then turns slightly, heading west-southwest for about 360 km to meet the Beas River near Makhu, Firozpur district, Punjab state. Ropar Wetland in Punjab state is located on the Sutlej river basin.
The five tributary rivers of the Indus River from which the region took its name are Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum Rivers; Sutlej, Ravi and Beas are part of the Indian Punjab.

Beas River

BeasRiver BeasHyphasis
It then turns slightly, heading west-southwest for about 360 km to meet the Beas River near Makhu, Firozpur district, Punjab state.
The river rises in the Himalayas in central Himachal Pradesh, India, and flows for some 470 km to the Sutlej River in the Indian state of Punjab.

Himachal Pradesh

HimachalHPHimachal Pradesh, India
The nascent river flows at first west-northwest for about 260 km under the Tibetan name Langqên Zangbo (Elephant River or Elephant Spring) to the Shipki La pass, entering India in Himachal Pradesh state.
They came into direct conflict with the British along the tarai belt after which the British expelled them from the provinces of the Satluj.

Ropar Wetland

Ropar Wetland in Punjab state is located on the Sutlej river basin.
This important ecological zone is located in the Shivalik foothills of the Lower Himalayas and was created in 1952 on the Sutlej River, in the Punjab state of India, by building a head regulator to store and divert water for beneficial uses of irrigation, drinking and industrial water supply.

Shipki La

ShipkilaShipki
The nascent river flows at first west-northwest for about 260 km under the Tibetan name Langqên Zangbo (Elephant River or Elephant Spring) to the Shipki La pass, entering India in Himachal Pradesh state.
The river Sutlej, which is called Langqên Zangbo in Tibet, enters India (from Tibet) near this pass.

Lake Manasarovar

MansarovarManasarovarKailash Mansarovar
Rakshastal in turn is ephemerally connected by Ganga Chhu to sacred Lake Manasarovar about 4 km further east.
Lake Manasarovar is near the source of the Sutlej, which is the easternmost large tributary of the Indus.

Lake Rakshastal

RakshastalRakshas Tal
The source of the Sutlej is west of Lake Rakshastal in Tibet, as springs in an ephemeral stream channel descending from this lake.
The Sutlej River (also known by the Tibetan name Langqen Zangbo in this area) originates at Rakshastal's northwestern tip.

Punjab, Pakistan

PunjabPunjab ProvincePunjab (Pakistan)
Continuing west-southwest, the Sutlej enters Pakistan about 15 km east of Bhedian Kalan, Kasur District, Punjab province, continuing southwest to water the ancient and historical former Bahawalpur princely state.
The five rivers, namely Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, flow via the Panjnad River into the Indus River and eventually into the Arabian Sea.

Bahawalpur (princely state)

BahawalpurBahawalpur StateNawab of Bahawalpur
Continuing west-southwest, the Sutlej enters Pakistan about 15 km east of Bhedian Kalan, Kasur District, Punjab province, continuing southwest to water the ancient and historical former Bahawalpur princely state.
Bahawalpur along with other Cis-Sutlej states were a group of states, lying between the Sutlej River on the north, the Himalayas on the east, the Yamuna River and Delhi District on the south, and Sirsa District on the west.

Makhu

It then turns slightly, heading west-southwest for about 360 km to meet the Beas River near Makhu, Firozpur district, Punjab state.
It is 5 km away from the confluence of Satluj and Beas rivers.

Panjnad River

PanjnadPanjnad River (Pakistan)
About 17 km north of Uch Sharif, the Sutlej unites with the Chenab River, forming the Panjnad River, which finally flows into the Indus river about 100 km west of the city of Bahawalpur.
Panjnad River is formed by successive confluence or merger of the five rivers of the Punjab, namely Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej.

Sarasvati River

Saraswati RiverSarasvatiSaraswati
There is substantial geologic evidence to indicate that prior to 1700 BC, and perhaps much earlier, the Sutlej was an important tributary of the Ghaggar-Hakra River (thought to be the legendary Sarasvati River) rather than the Indus, with various authors putting the redirection from 2500 to 2000 BC, from 5000 to 3000 BC, or before 8000 BC.
The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda (10.75) mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west.

Kasur District

KasurKasuMustafaabad
Continuing west-southwest, the Sutlej enters Pakistan about 15 km east of Bhedian Kalan, Kasur District, Punjab province, continuing southwest to water the ancient and historical former Bahawalpur princely state.
The district is bounded by the Ravi River in the north-west and river Sutlej in the south-east.

Thar Desert

TharRajasthan Desertagriculture
The area to the southeast on the Pakistani side of the Indian border is called the Cholistan Desert and, on the Indian side, the Thar Desert.
The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata mention that the Sarasvati dried up in a desert.

Sutlej Yamuna link canal

Sutlej-Yamuna LinkSYLSYL link canal
There has been a proposal to build a 214 km long heavy freight and irrigation canal, to be known as the Sutlej-Yamuna Link (SYL) to connect the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers.
Satluj Yamuna Link Canal or SYL as it is popularly known, is a proposed 214 km long canal in India to connect the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers.

Zhangzhung

Zhang Zhung cultureZhang ZhungZhang-zhung
The drop in height is 3,256 m. Historically, the river was the centre of the Zhangzhung Kingdom until its fall in the 8th century AD.
The capital city of Zhang Zhung was called Khyunglung ( or ), the "Silver Palace of Garuda", southwest of Mount Kailash (Mount Ti-se), which is identified with palaces found in the upper Sutlej Valley.

Stream capture

river capturecapturedstream piracy
However, the Sutlej may have already been captured by the Indus thousands of years earlier.

Ghaggar-Hakra River

GhaggarGhaggar RiverGhaggar-Hakra
There is substantial geologic evidence to indicate that prior to 1700 BC, and perhaps much earlier, the Sutlej was an important tributary of the Ghaggar-Hakra River (thought to be the legendary Sarasvati River) rather than the Indus, with various authors putting the redirection from 2500 to 2000 BC, from 5000 to 3000 BC, or before 8000 BC.
Several times, but not continuously, it carried the water of the Sutlej and Ghaggar during the Bronze Age period.

Mount Kailash

KailashKailasaKailas
The Zhangzhung built a towering palace in the Upper Sutlej Valley called Kyunglung, the ruins of which still exist today near the village of Moincêr, southwest of Mount Kailash (Mount Ti-se).
The mountain is located near Lake Manasarovar and Lake Rakshastal, close to the source of some of the longest Asian rivers: the Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra, and Karnali also known as Ghaghara (a tributary of the Ganges) in India.

Yamuna

Yamuna RiverRiver YamunaJumna
There has been a proposal to build a 214 km long heavy freight and irrigation canal, to be known as the Sutlej-Yamuna Link (SYL) to connect the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers.
The drainage system of the river stretches between Giri-Sutlej catchment in Himachal and Yamuna-Bhilangna catchment in Garhwal, also draining the ridge of Shimla.