Swallowing

swalloweddeglutitionswallowGulpswallowing reflexswallowabledeglutition disordersgulpinggulpspharyngeal phase of swallowing
Swallowing, sometimes called deglutition in scientific contexts, is the process in the human or animal body that allows for a substance to pass from the mouth, to the pharynx, and into the esophagus, while shutting the epiglottis.wikipedia
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Epiglottis

epiglottic cartilageepiglotticpalate
Swallowing, sometimes called deglutition in scientific contexts, is the process in the human or animal body that allows for a substance to pass from the mouth, to the pharynx, and into the esophagus, while shutting the epiglottis.
During swallowing, it closes to prevent aspiration of food into the lungs, forcing the swallowed liquids or food to go along the esophagus toward the stomach instead.

Drinking

hydrateddrinkchugging
Swallowing is an important part of eating and drinking.
When a liquid enters a human mouth, the swallowing process is completed by peristalsis which delivers the liquid to the stomach; much of the activity is abetted by gravity.

Dysphagia

difficulty swallowingdifficulty in swallowingtrouble swallowing
However, from the viewpoints of physiology, of speech-language pathology, and of health care for people with difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia), it is an interesting topic with extensive scientific literature.
Dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing.

Esophagus

oesophagusesophageallower esophageal sphincter
Swallowing, sometimes called deglutition in scientific contexts, is the process in the human or animal body that allows for a substance to pass from the mouth, to the pharynx, and into the esophagus, while shutting the epiglottis. Swallowing is a complex mechanism using both skeletal muscle (tongue) and smooth muscles of the pharynx and esophagus.
Opening of the upper esophageal sphincter is triggered by the swallowing reflex.

Tongue

Glossusforamen cecumblade
Swallowing is a complex mechanism using both skeletal muscle (tongue) and smooth muscles of the pharynx and esophagus.
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.

Autonomic nervous system

autonomicautonomous nervous systemautonomic functions
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) coordinates this process in the pharyngeal and esophageal phases.
Autonomic functions include control of respiration, cardiac regulation (the cardiac control center), vasomotor activity (the vasomotor center), and certain reflex actions such as coughing, sneezing, swallowing and vomiting.

Pulmonary aspiration

aspirationaspiratedaspirating
If the process fails and the material (such as food, drink, or medicine) goes through the trachea, then choking or pulmonary aspiration can occur.
The lungs are normally protected against aspiration by a series of protective reflexes such as coughing and swallowing.

Neck

cervicalnuchalcervical region
The portion of food, drink, or other material that will move through the neck in one swallow is called a bolus.
Acting synchronously, both groups facilitate speech and swallowing.

Larynx

laryngealvoice boxlaryngologist
For the pharyngeal phase to work properly all other egress from the pharynx must be occluded—this includes the nasopharynx and the larynx.
During swallowing, elevation of the posterior portion of the tongue levers (inverts) the epiglottis over the glottis' opening to prevent swallowed material from entering the larynx which leads to the lungs, and provides a path for a food or liquid bolus to "slide" into the esophagus; the hyo-laryngeal complex is also pulled upwards to assist this process.

Bolus (digestion)

bolusbolusesgobbet
The reflex is initiated by touch receptors in the pharynx as a bolus of food is pushed to the back of the mouth by the tongue, or by stimulation of the palate (palatal reflex).
Under normal circumstances, the bolus is swallowed, and travels down the esophagus to the stomach for digestion.

Eating

ediblefeedingeat
Swallowing is an important part of eating and drinking.

Medulla oblongata

medullabulbarmedullary
The pharyngeal swallow is started by the oral phase and subsequently is coordinated by the swallowing center on the medulla oblongata and pons.

Salpingopharyngeus muscle

salpingopharyngeus
The pharynx is pulled upwards and forwards by the suprahyoid and longitudinal pharyngeal muscles – stylopharyngeus (IX), salpingopharyngeus (pharyngeal plexus—IX, X) and palatopharyngeus (pharyngeal plexus—IX, X) to receive the bolus.
The salpingopharyngeus is known to raise the pharynx and larynx during deglutition (swallowing) and laterally draws the pharyngeal walls up.

Death rattle

gasp and spasmrattlerespiratory secretions
In terminally ill patients, a failure of the reflex to swallow leads to a build-up of mucus or saliva in the throat and airways, producing a noise known as a death rattle (not to be confused with agonal respiration, which is an abnormal pattern of breathing due to cerebral ischemia or hypoxia).
Those who are dying may lose their ability to swallow and may have increased production of bronchial secretions, resulting in such an accumulation.

Peristalsis

peristalticgut motilityperistaltic contractions
The bolus moves down towards the esophagus by pharyngeal peristalsis which takes place by sequential contraction of the superior, middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles (pharyngeal plexus—IX, X).
After food is chewed into a bolus, it is swallowed and moved through the esophagus.

Oropharyngeal dysphagia

oropharyngealswallowing disorders
Abnormalities of the pharynx and/or oral cavity may lead to oropharyngeal dysphagia.

Suprahyoid muscles

suprahyoid
The pharynx is pulled upwards and forwards by the suprahyoid and longitudinal pharyngeal muscles – stylopharyngeus (IX), salpingopharyngeus (pharyngeal plexus—IX, X) and palatopharyngeus (pharyngeal plexus—IX, X) to receive the bolus.
These four muscles have different actions, but in general assist in elevating the hyoid bone and widening the esophagus during swallowing.

Speech-language pathology

speech therapyspeech pathologyspeech therapist
However, from the viewpoints of physiology, of speech-language pathology, and of health care for people with difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia), it is an interesting topic with extensive scientific literature.

Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

inferior pharyngeal constrictorcricopharyngeal musclecricopharyngeus muscle
The lower part of the inferior constrictor (cricopharyngeus) is normally closed and only opens for the advancing bolus.
Motor incoordination of the cricopharyngeus can cause difficulty swallowing.

Mouth

oral cavityoralorally
Swallowing, sometimes called deglutition in scientific contexts, is the process in the human or animal body that allows for a substance to pass from the mouth, to the pharynx, and into the esophagus, while shutting the epiglottis.

Trachea

windpipetrachealtracheae
If the process fails and the material (such as food, drink, or medicine) goes through the trachea, then choking or pulmonary aspiration can occur.

Choking

chokedHeimlich Maneuverchoke
If the process fails and the material (such as food, drink, or medicine) goes through the trachea, then choking or pulmonary aspiration can occur.

Reflex

reflexesreflex actioninvoluntary action
In the human body the automatic temporary closing of the epiglottis is controlled by the swallowing reflex.

Physiology

physiologistphysiologicalphysiologically
However, from the viewpoints of physiology, of speech-language pathology, and of health care for people with difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia), it is an interesting topic with extensive scientific literature.

Health care

healthcarehealth servicesmedical care
However, from the viewpoints of physiology, of speech-language pathology, and of health care for people with difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia), it is an interesting topic with extensive scientific literature.