Sweden

A Vendel-era helmet, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities
Viking expeditions (blue lines)
The Tjängvide image stone dating from 800 to 1099, example of Viking art
Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), a site of religious and political importance in the early days of Sweden
Skog tapestry, made most probably during the late 13th century.
Gustav I liberated Sweden from Christian II of Denmark, ending the Kalmar Union. He established the House of Vasa which ruled Sweden and Poland until the 17th century
Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631.
The Swedish Empire between 1611 and 1815, with its absolute peak between 1658 and 1660.
The Battle of Poltava in 1709. In the following years, Russia and her allies occupied all Swedish dominions on the Baltic coast and even Finland.
Illustration of starvation in northern Sweden, Famine of 1867–1869
Swedish emigrants boarding ship in Gothenburg in 1905
A Swedish soldier during World War II. Sweden remained neutral during the conflict.
Tage Erlander (left), Prime Minister under the ruling Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1946 to 1969.
Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Second day of the Stockholm Husby riots. The picture shows three cars on fire in the Stockholm suburb of Husby, 20 May 2013
View of the Stora Sjöfallet National Park
Scania in southern Sweden
Sandhamn island, Stockholm archipelago
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the 0°C isotherm
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the -3°C isotherm
Map of Sweden's five major vegetation zones
The current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, and his consort, Queen Silvia
Rosenbad, in central Stockholm, has been the seat of the Government since 1981.
The Riksdag chamber, at the time of a vote, in 2009
The party leaders lined up before the start of the televised live debate on 12 September 2014.
Municipal divisions of Sweden
Kingdoms of Svear (Sweonas) and Götar (Geats) in the 12th century, with modern borders in grey
The Riksdag, the Swedish Parliament in 2014
Bonde Palace in Stockholm, seat of the Supreme Court of Sweden
The EU parliament in Brussels. Sweden is a member state of the European Union.
Development aid measured in GNI in 2009. Source: OECD. As a percentage Sweden is the largest donor.
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen is an advanced Swedish multi-role fighter aircraft of the Swedish Air Force.
The Infantry fighting vehicle CV90, which is produced and used by Sweden
Gross regional product (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2014)
A proportional representation of Sweden exports, 2019
Sweden is home to Volvo Cars, an automobile company with its headquarters in Gothenburg
Real GDP growth in Sweden, 1996–2006
Sweden is part of the Schengen Area and the EU single market.
Nordstan is one of the largest shopping malls in northern Europe
Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, located south of Gothenburg
The Öresund Bridge between Malmö and Copenhagen in Denmark
Stockholm Central Station
Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and institutor of the Nobel Prize
Population density in the counties of Sweden.
people/km²
Distribution of speakers of the Swedish language
The Protestant Katarina Church in Stockholm
The second oldest mosque in Sweden is the Malmö Mosque, inaugurated in 1984
Historical development of life expectancy in Sweden
Uppsala University (established 1477)
Nationalmuseum in Stockholm
The Swedish band ABBA in April 1974, a few days after they won the Eurovision Song Contest
Djurgårdsbron
Kalmar Cathedral
Headquarters of Sveriges Television in Stockholm
The writer and playwright August Strindberg
Walpurgis Night bonfire in Sweden
Cinnamon rolls originated in Sweden and Denmark.
Former World No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg
Former world No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg

Nordic country in Northern Europe.

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Map of the Baltic Sea region

Baltic Sea

Map of the Baltic Sea region
Danish Straits and southwestern Baltic Sea
Åland between Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia
Cape Arkona on the island of Rügen in Germany, was a sacred site of the Rani tribe before Christianization.
Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League (Hanse).
In 1649 the settlement of the Latvian-speaking Kursenieki spanned from Klaipėda to Gdańsk along the coast of the Baltic Sea.
The naval Battle of the Sound took place on 8 November 1658 during the Dano-Swedish War.
The burning Cap Arcona shortly after the attacks, 3 May 1945. Only 350 survived of the 4,500 prisoners who had been aboard
Baltic drainage basins (catchment area), with depth, elevation, major rivers and lakes
Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Regions and basins of the Baltic Sea: 
1 = Bothnian Bay
2 = Bothnian Sea
1 + 2 = Gulf of Bothnia, partly also 3 & 4
3 = Archipelago Sea
4 = Åland Sea
5 = Gulf of Finland
6 = Northern Baltic Proper
7 = Western Gotland Basin
8 = Eastern Gotland Basin
9 = Gulf of Riga
10 = Bay of Gdańsk/Gdansk Basin
11 = Bornholm Basin and Hanö Bight
12 = Arkona Basin 6–12 = Baltic Proper
13 = Kattegat, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
14 = Belt Sea (Little Belt and Great Belt)
15 = Öresund (The Sound) 14 + 15 = Danish Straits, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
Satellite image of the Baltic Sea in a mild winter
Traversing Baltic Sea and ice
On particularly cold winters, the coastal parts of the Baltic Sea freeze into ice thick enough to walk or ski on.
Piles of drift ice on the shore of Puhtulaid, near Virtsu, Estonia, in late April
Depths of the Baltic Sea in meters
Baltic Sea near Klaipėda (Karklė).
Skerries form an integral and typical part of many of the archipelagos of the Baltic Sea, such as these in the archipelago of Åland, Finland.
Stockholm archipelago
Aerial view of Bornholm, Denmark
Population density in the Baltic Sea catchment area
Vasilyevsky Island in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Stockholm in Sweden
Riga in Latvia
Helsinki in Finland
Gdańsk in Poland
Tallinn in Estonia
Satellite photo of the Baltic Sea surrounding Gotland, Sweden, with algae bloom (phytoplankton) swirling in the water
Pedestrian pier in Sellin, Germany
Svetlogorsk resort town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Mrzeżyno beach in Poland

The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain.

Scandinavia

Subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties between its constituent peoples.

Subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties between its constituent peoples.

Galdhøpiggen is the highest point in Scandinavia and is a part of the Scandinavian Mountains.
Scandinavia originally referred vaguely to Scania, a formerly Danish region that became Swedish in the seventeenth century.
The original areas inhabited (during the Bronze Age) by the peoples now known as Scandinavians included what is now Northern Germany (particularly Schleswig-Holstein), all of Denmark, southern Sweden, the southern coast of Norway and Åland in Finland while namesake Scania found itself in the centre.
Scandinavism—a Norwegian, a Dane and a Swede.
Historically verified distribution of the Sami languages ([[:File:Sami languages large 2.png|legend]])
The Kalmar Union (c. 1400)

In English usage, Scandinavia most commonly refers to Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

Kalmar Union

The Kalmar Union, c. 1400
The Kalmar Union, c. 1400

The Kalmar Union (Danish, Norwegian, and Kalmarunionen; Finnish: Kalmarin unioni; Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union in Scandinavia, agreed at Kalmar in Sweden, that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of present-day Finland), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas colonies (then including Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and the Northern Isles of Orkney and Shetland).

Union between Sweden and Norway

Sweden–Norway in 1904
Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France, Crown Prince of Sweden in 1810 and Norway in 1814, and King of Sweden and Norway in 1818. Portrait by Joseph Nicolas Jouy, after François-Joseph Kinson
King Charles XIII (Charles II in Norway)
Christian Frederik, hereditary prince of Denmark and Norway, King of Norway May–October 1814, and King of Denmark (as Christian VIII) 1839–48. Portrait by Johan Ludwig Lund 1813
Count Johan Caspar Herman Wedel-Jarlsberg, who warned Christian Frederik
Oscar Wergeland: The Norwegian Constitutional Assembly in 1814
Christian Magnus Falsen, at 32, was credited as being the constitution's father.
Swedish Crown Prince Charles John (Bernadotte), who staunchly opposed Norwegian independence, only to offer generous terms of a union
Map of Norway and Sweden in 1847, by Peter Andreas Munch
King Charles XIV John (Charles III John in Norway). Portrait by Fredric Westin
Poster promoting Scandinavism between Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
King Oscar II
Swedish and Norwegian flags in 1899, after the removal of the union badge from the merchant flag of Norway
The peace monument of Karlstad was erected on the city square in 1955, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the dissolution of the union.
Norwegian soldiers at the border in September 1905. Photo by Narve Skarpmoen
State flag of Sweden (pre-1814–1815)
Flag of Norway (1814–1821)
Flag of Sweden and Norway (1818–1844)
State flag and naval ensign of Sweden and Norway (1815–1844)
Union naval jack and diplomatic flag (1844–1905)
Flag of Sweden (1844–1905)
Flag of Norway (1821–1844)
Flag of Norway (1844–1899)
Flag of Norway (1899–present)
State flag and naval ensign of Sweden (1844–1905)
Naval ensign of Norway (1844–1905) and state flag (1844–1899)
State flag of Norway (1899–present)
Royal standard in Sweden (1844–1905)
Royal standard in Norway (1844–1905)
Royal Swedish coat of arms (1814–1844)
Union and royal coat of arms (1844–1905)

Sweden and Norway or Sweden–Norway (Svensk-norska unionen; Den svensk-norske union(en)), officially the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, and known as the United Kingdoms, was a personal union of the separate kingdoms of Sweden and Norway under a common monarch and common foreign policy that lasted from 1814 until its peaceful dissolution in 1905.

A postcard from around the time of the Norwegian plebiscite. Ja, vi elsker dette landet ("Yes, we love this country") are the opening words of the Norwegian national anthem.

Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden

A postcard from around the time of the Norwegian plebiscite. Ja, vi elsker dette landet ("Yes, we love this country") are the opening words of the Norwegian national anthem.
The Norwegian Storting passes the "revolutionary" resolution
The Norwegian flag, without the union mark, is raised at Akershus Fortress following the dissolution resolution
Peace monument in Karlstad, erected on the city square on the 50th anniversary of the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden
The new king Haakon VII arrives in Norway with Crown Prince Olav on his arm and is greeted on board the ship Heimdal by Prime Minister Christian Michelsen
The swearing in as king of Haakon VII in the Parliament of Norway Building
Statue of King Haakon VII in 7th of June Square, Oslo

The dissolution of the union (Unionsoppløysinga; Landsmål: Unionsoppløysingi; Unionsupplösningen) between the kingdoms of Norway and Sweden under the House of Bernadotte, was set in motion by a resolution of the Storting on 7 June 1905.

Unicameralism

Type of legislature, which consists of one house or assembly, that legislates and votes as one.

Type of legislature, which consists of one house or assembly, that legislates and votes as one.

Provincial legislatures in Argentina

Sometimes, as in New Zealand and Denmark, unicameralism comes about through the abolition of one of two bicameral chambers, or, as in Sweden, through the merger of the two chambers into a single one, while in others a second chamber has never existed from the beginning.

Finland

Nordic country in Northern Europe.

Nordic country in Northern Europe.

Finland on a medieval map, which is part of the Carta marina (1539)
Reconstruction of Stone Age dwelling from Kierikki, Oulu
Stone Age bear head gavel found in Paltamo, Kainuu.
An ancient Finnish man's outfit according to the findings of the Tuukkala Cemetery in Mikkeli, interpretation of 1889. The cemetery dates from the late 13th century to the early 15th century.
Late Iron Age swords found in Finland
The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658.
Dark green: Sweden proper, as represented in the Riksdag of the Estates. Other greens: Swedish dominions and possessions
Now lying within Helsinki, Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of an inhabited 18th-century sea fortress built on six islands. It is one of Finland's most popular tourist attractions.
Pioneers in Karelia (1900) by Pekka Halonen
White firing squad executing Red soldiers after the Battle of Länkipohja (1918)
Finnish military leader and statesman C. G. E. Mannerheim as general officer leading the White Victory Parade at the end of the Finnish Civil War in Helsinki, 1918
J. K. Paasikivi and P. E. Svinhufvud, both at the time future presidents of the Republic of Finland, discuss the Finnish monarchy project in 1918.
Finnish troops raise a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the World War II in Finland
Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after World War II. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956.
Urho Kekkonen, the eighth president of Finland (1956–1982)
Finland joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Topographic map of Finland
There are some 187,888 lakes in Finland larger than 500 square metres and 75,818 islands of over 0,5 km2 area, leading to the denomination "the land of a thousand lakes". Picture of Lake Pielinen in North Karelia.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland's national animal. It is also the largest carnivore in Finland.
Köppen climate classification types of Finland
The Parliament of Finland's main building along Mannerheimintie in Töölö, Helsinki
The Session Hall of the Parliament of Finland
The Court House of the Supreme Court
Martti Ahtisaari receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 2008
Finnish Leopard 2A4 tank Ps 273–106 in a combat demonstration at Comprehensive security exhibition 2015 in Tampere.
Sisu Nasu NA-110 tracked transport vehicle of the Finnish Army. Most conscripts receive training for warfare in winter, and transport vehicles such as this give mobility in heavy snow.
People gathering at the Senate Square, Helsinki, right before the 2011 Helsinki Pride parade started.
Angry Birds Land, a theme park in the Särkänniemi amusement park, in Tampere, Pirkanmaa; the mobile phone game Angry Birds, developed in Finland, has become a commercial hit both domestically and internationally.
A treemap representing the exports of Finland in 2017
The two existing units of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. On the far left is a visualization of a third unit, which, when completed, will become Finland's fifth commercial nuclear reactor.
Supply of electricity in Finland
The Oasis of the Seas was built at the Perno shipyard in Turku.
Flags of the Nordic countries from left to right: Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
Medieval old town in Porvoo is one of the most popular tourist destinations in summers for those who are fascinated by the old look.
The historical Tavastia Castle (or Häme Castle) in Hämeenlinna, Tavastia Proper is located close to the Lake Vanajavesi.
Municipalities of Finland:
The Evangelical Lutheran Helsinki Cathedral
The Meilahti Tower Hospital, part of the Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH) in Töölö, Helsinki
Development of life expectancy in Finland
Helsinki Central Library Oodi was chosen as the best new public library in the world in 2019
Pupils at the school of Torvinen in Sodankylä, Finland, in the 1920s
Auditorium in Aalto University's main building, designed by Alvar Aalto
The library of the University of Eastern Finland in Snellmania, the Kuopio campus of the university
The sauna is strongly associated with Finnish culture
A smoke sauna in Ruka, Kuusamo
Mikael Agricola (1510–1557), Bishop of Turku, a prominent Lutheran Protestant reformer and the father of the Finnish written language
Akseli Gallen-Kallela, The Defense of the Sampo, 1896, Turku Art Museum
The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957) was a significant figure in the history of classical music.
Perttu Kivilaakso of Apocalyptica
The Finnish filmmakers Edvin Laine and Matti Kassila in 1955
Linus Torvalds, the Finnish software engineer best known for creating the popular open-source kernel Linux
Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice. Butter, often mixed with boiled egg (egg butter or munavoi), is spread over the hot pastries before eating.
Paavo Nurmi lights the 1952 Summer Olympics flame
Finland's men's national ice hockey team is ranked as one of the best in the world. The team has won four world championships (1995, 2011, 2019 and 2022) and one Olympic gold medal (2022)
Kankkunen on the Laajavuori stage of the 2010 Rally Finland

It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland across Estonia to the south.

The three constitutional monarchs of the Scandinavian kingdoms of Sweden, Norway & Denmark gathered in November 1917 in Oslo.
From left to right: Gustaf V, Haakon VII & Christian X.

Constitutional monarchy

Form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises their authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding.

Form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises their authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding.

The three constitutional monarchs of the Scandinavian kingdoms of Sweden, Norway & Denmark gathered in November 1917 in Oslo.
From left to right: Gustaf V, Haakon VII & Christian X.
A meeting in the Japanese privy council in 1946 led by emperor Hirohito.

Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Liechtenstein, Monaco, Morocco, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Sweden, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, and Japan, where the monarch retains significantly less personal discretion in the exercise of their authority.

Swedish Empire

European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries .

European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries .

The Swedish Empire at its height in 1658, with overseas possessions not shown
Sweden's coat of arms (with erroneous tinctures) on a wall of City Hall at Lützen in Germany
The Swedish Empire at its height in 1658, with overseas possessions not shown
The development of Sweden and its empire from 1560 to 1815
The Swedish Empire at its height in 1658, with overseas possessions not shown
Triumph of King Charles X Gustav over the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1655
King Charles X Gustav
King Charles XI
Charles XII
Swedish possessions in 1658. The years in parentheses indicate when the possession was given up or lost.
Gustavus Adolphus.

Sweden is the only Nordic country to have ever reached the status of a military great power.

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NATO

Intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two North American.

Intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two North American.

Flag
Flag
West Germany joined NATO in 1955, which led to the formation of the rival Warsaw Pact during the Cold War.
The Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 marked a turning point in NATO's role in Europe, and a section of the wall is now displayed outside NATO Headquarters.
NATO planes engaging in aerial bombardments during Operation Deliberate Force after the Srebrenica massacre
German KFOR soldiers on patrol in southern Kosovo in 1999
KFOR-MSU Carabinieri Patrols in front of the Ibar Bridge in Mitrovica, Kosovo, 2019
The September 11 attacks in the United States caused NATO to invoke its collective defence article for the first time.
General Austin S. Miller (right) became commander of U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan in September 2018 and oversaw the withdrawal until July 2021.
USS Farragut (DDG-99) destroying a Somali pirate skiff in March 2010
Libyan Army Palmaria howitzers destroyed by the French Air Force near Benghazi in March 2011
Partnership for Peace conducts multinational military exercises like Cooperative Archer, which took place in Tbilisi in July 2007 with 500 servicemen from four NATO members, eight PfP members, and Jordan, a Mediterranean Dialogue participant.
The North Atlantic Council convening in 2010 with a defence/foreign minister configuration
Protestors at a February 2022 rally against Russia's invasion of Ukraine march past the statue of Tsar Alexander II in Senate Square in Helsinki

NATO currently recognizes Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, and Ukraine as aspiring members, and is in talks with Finland and Sweden regarding their applications for membership.