A report on Sweden

A Vendel-era helmet, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities
Viking expeditions (blue lines)
The Tjängvide image stone dating from 800 to 1099, example of Viking art
Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), a site of religious and political importance in the early days of Sweden
Skog tapestry, made most probably during the late 13th century.
Gustav I liberated Sweden from Christian II of Denmark, ending the Kalmar Union. He established the House of Vasa which ruled Sweden and Poland until the 17th century
Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631.
The Swedish Empire between 1611 and 1815, with its absolute peak between 1658 and 1660.
The Battle of Poltava in 1709. In the following years, Russia and her allies occupied all Swedish dominions on the Baltic coast and even Finland.
Illustration of starvation in northern Sweden, Famine of 1867–1869
Swedish emigrants boarding ship in Gothenburg in 1905
A Swedish soldier during World War II. Sweden remained neutral during the conflict.
Tage Erlander (left), Prime Minister under the ruling Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1946 to 1969.
Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Second day of the Stockholm Husby riots. The picture shows three cars on fire in the Stockholm suburb of Husby, 20 May 2013
View of the Stora Sjöfallet National Park
Scania in southern Sweden
Sandhamn island, Stockholm archipelago
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the 0°C isotherm
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the -3°C isotherm
Map of Sweden's five major vegetation zones
The current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, and his consort, Queen Silvia
Rosenbad, in central Stockholm, has been the seat of the Government since 1981.
The Riksdag chamber, at the time of a vote, in 2009
The party leaders lined up before the start of the televised live debate on 12 September 2014.
Municipal divisions of Sweden
Kingdoms of Svear (Sweonas) and Götar (Geats) in the 12th century, with modern borders in grey
The Riksdag, the Swedish Parliament in 2014
Bonde Palace in Stockholm, seat of the Supreme Court of Sweden
The EU parliament in Brussels. Sweden is a member state of the European Union.
Development aid measured in GNI in 2009. Source: OECD. As a percentage Sweden is the largest donor.
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen is an advanced Swedish multi-role fighter aircraft of the Swedish Air Force.
The Infantry fighting vehicle CV90, which is produced and used by Sweden
Gross regional product (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2014)
A proportional representation of Sweden exports, 2019
Sweden is home to Volvo Cars, an automobile company with its headquarters in Gothenburg
Real GDP growth in Sweden, 1996–2006
Sweden is part of the Schengen Area and the EU single market.
Nordstan is one of the largest shopping malls in northern Europe
Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, located south of Gothenburg
The Öresund Bridge between Malmö and Copenhagen in Denmark
Stockholm Central Station
Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and institutor of the Nobel Prize
Population density in the counties of Sweden.
Distribution of speakers of the Swedish language
The Protestant Katarina Church in Stockholm
The second oldest mosque in Sweden is the Malmö Mosque, inaugurated in 1984
Historical development of life expectancy in Sweden
Uppsala University (established 1477)
Nationalmuseum in Stockholm
The Swedish band ABBA in April 1974, a few days after they won the Eurovision Song Contest
Kalmar Cathedral
Headquarters of Sveriges Television in Stockholm
The writer and playwright August Strindberg
Walpurgis Night bonfire in Sweden
Cinnamon rolls originated in Sweden and Denmark.
Former World No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg
Former world No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg

Country in Northern Europe.

- Sweden

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Typical Östgöta plains
The Palace in Finspång
The church tower at Bjälbo
The Provincial Museum in Linköping
Winter scene at Ekenäs Castle
Former Industrial landscape in Norrköping
Övralid Manor, with view over Lake Vättern
The Göta Canal at Söderköping
Tidersrum Church, the oldest wooden church in Sweden
Vadstena Castle in Vadstena
The Cathedral in Linköping
Vreta Abbey from the early 12th century

Östergötland (English exonym: East Gothland) is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish) in the south of Sweden.

Viking Age picture stone, Gotland, Sweden.

Viking Age

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The period during the Middle Ages when Norsemen known as Vikings undertook large-scale raiding, colonizing, conquest, and trading throughout Europe and reached North America.

The period during the Middle Ages when Norsemen known as Vikings undertook large-scale raiding, colonizing, conquest, and trading throughout Europe and reached North America.

Viking Age picture stone, Gotland, Sweden.
Viking voyages in the North Atlantic
Viking expansion in Europe between the 8th and 11th centuries: The yellow colour corresponds to the expansion of the Normans, only partly descending from the Vikings
Viking-era towns of Scandinavia
Viking expeditions (blue line): depicting the immense breadth of their voyages through most of Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Northern Africa, Asia Minor, the Arctic, and North America. Lower Normandy, depicted as a ″Viking territory in 911″, was not part of the lands granted by the king of the Franks to Rollo in 911, but Upper Normandy.
Anglo-Saxon-Viking coin weight, used for trading bullion and hacksilver: Material is lead and weighs around 36 g. It is embedded with an Anglo-Saxon sceat (Series K type 32a) dating to 720–750 and minted in Kent. It is edged in a dotted triangle pattern. Origin is the Danelaw region and dates to 870–930.
"Irishmen oppose the landing of the Viking fleet", a painting in Dublin City Hall by James Ward (c.1914).
The Iru Fort in Northern Estonia
Longship on Tjängvide image stone, Sweden 800–1099.
Stone ships at Altes Lager Menzlin
Statue in Catoira, Galicia, commemorating the Viking invasions
The last written records of the Norse Greenlanders are from a 1408 marriage in the Church of Hvalsey.
Modern replica of a Viking longship
A typical fortified Viking town. This is a model of the town of Aros about 950. The town is now known as Aarhus
The fortified Viking Age town of Aros

Voyaging by sea from their homelands in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, the Norse people settled in the British Isles, Ireland, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, Normandy, and the Baltic coast and along the Dnieper and Volga trade routes in eastern Europe, where they were also known as Varangians.


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Summertime agricultural landscape around Flo, south of Vänern. These plains are part of the geographical Central Swedish lowland and the geological Sub-Cambrian peneplain.
Husaby Church
Läckö Castle

Västergötland, also known as West Gothland or the Latinized version Westrogothia in older literature, is one of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), situated in the southwest of Sweden.

Kalmar Union

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The Kalmar Union, c. 1400
The Kalmar Union, c. 1400

The Kalmar Union (Danish, Norwegian, and Kalmarunionen; Finnish: Kalmarin unioni; Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union in Scandinavia, agreed at Kalmar in Sweden, that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of present-day Finland), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas colonies (then including Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and the Northern Isles of Orkney and Shetland).


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Stone slab from The King's Grave in southern Sweden, Nordic Bronze Age, 1400 BC
The Vendel I helmet, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities.
Eric the Victorious praying to Odin; 1895 illustration by Jenny Nyström.
Viking expeditions (red): going into Russia were Swedish Vikings
Gustav Vasa starts a revolution in Dalarna. After the Swedish War of Liberation Sweden is a free nation in 1523 after 126 years of the Danish-dominated Kalmar Union; idealized depiction by Johan Gustaf Sandberg, 1836
The Swedish Empire between 1560 and 1815
Death of Gustav II Adolf at the Battle of Lützen
The Battle of Poltava in 1709. In the years following Poltava, Russia occupied all the Swedish annexations on the Baltic coast and even Finland.
Swedish emigrants boarding ship in Gothenburg in 1905
Swedish soldier during World War II
Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Swedes celebrating Midsummer in 2010
Today, Zlatan Ibrahimović, professional footballer and son of two immigrants, is one of the world's most notable immigrant Swedes.
Children from the Stockholm suburb of Hjulsta studying archeology.
Sweden in the ninth century. Svealand in yellow, Götaland in blue and Gotland in green.

Swedes (svenskar) are a North Germanic ethnic group native to the Nordic region, primarily their nation state of Sweden, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and language.


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The historical four divisions of Swedish territory.
Svealand. Värmland was counted to Götaland until the 19th century, which is indicated on the map by a darker shade.

Svealand, Swealand is the historical core region of Sweden.

September 2015 view from an aeroplane

Øresund Bridge

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September 2015 view from an aeroplane
Øresund Bridge, Øresund
Aerial photo of Øresund Bridge. In the foreground is Copenhagen Airport on the island of Amager, to the left of the bridge is the Danish island of Saltholm, and in the background, the bridge connects to Malmö.
Cross-section of the Drogden Tunnel
Satellite image of the Øresund Bridge
The bridge's full stretch between Peberholm and Malmö
View from Klagshamn
On the bridge
In the tunnel

The Öresund or Øresund Bridge (Øresundsbroen ; Öresundsbron ; hybrid name: Øresundsbron) is a combined railway and motorway bridge across the Øresund strait between Denmark and Sweden.


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Country in the Baltic region of Europe.

Country in the Baltic region of Europe.

Lithuania's name in writing, 1009
Baltic amber was once a valuable trade resource. It was transported from the region of modern-day Lithuania to the Roman Empire and Egypt through the Amber Road.
Changes in the territory of Lithuania from the 13th to 15th century. At its peak, Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. Lithuania's strength was its toleration of various cultures and religions.
Trakai Island Castle, the former residence of the Grand Dukes and capital city of the medieval state
Battle of Grunwald and Vytautas the Great in the centre
The victory of the Polish-Lithuanian forces over the Muscovites at the Battle of Orsha in 1514
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania in Vilnius, marked 6, in 1600
Emilia Plater, often nicknamed as a Lithuanian Joan of Arc, leading peasant scythemen during the 1831 uprising
Bishop Motiejus Valančius resisted Russification. He urged protest against the closing of Catholic churches and organised book printing in Lithuanian in Lithuania Minor
The original 20 members of the Council of Lithuania after signing the Act of Independence of Lithuania, 16 February 1918.
Lithuanian armoured train Gediminas 3, used in Lithuanian Wars of Independence and Lithuanian soldiers
Antanas Smetona was the first and last president of interbellum Lithuania (1919–1920, 1926–1940)
Lituanica above New York in 1933. The transatlantic flight was one of the most precise in aviation history. It equaled, and in some aspects surpassed, Charles Lindbergh's classic flight.
Soldiers of the Red Army enter the territory of Lithuania during the first Soviet occupation in 1940.
Lithuanian resistance fighters. The armed resistance was 50,000 strong at its peak.
Site of the Paneriai massacre, where the German Nazis and their collaborators executed up to 100,000 people of various nationalities. About 70,000 of them were Jews.
Monument in Naujoji Vilnia in memory of the Soviet deportations from Lithuania
The Baltic Way was a mass anti-Soviet demonstration where approx. 25% of the population of the Baltic states participated
An Anti-Soviet rally in Vingis Park of about 250,000 people. Sąjūdis was a movement which led to the restoration of an Independent State of Lithuania.
On 13 January 1991, Soviet forces fired live rounds at unarmed independence supporters and crushed two of them with tanks, killing 13 in total. To this day, Russia refuses to extradite the perpetrators, who were convicted of war crimes.
Physical map and geomorphological subdivision of Lithuania.
White stork is the national bird of Lithuania which has the highest-density stork population in Europe.
Seimas — Parliament of Lithuania
Commemoration of the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania in the historical Seimas hall where it was originally signed in 1990. The ceremony is attended by the Lithuanian President, Prime Minister, Chairman of the Seimas and other high-ranking officials.
Statutes of Lithuania were the central piece of Lithuanian law in 1529–1795
Lithuanian police cruiser in Gediminas Avenue, Vilnius
Stamp dedicated to Lithuania's presidency of the European Union. Post of Lithuania, 2013.
Lithuania was recently a member of the United Nations Security Council. Its representatives are on the right side.
Lithuanian Army soldiers with their NATO allies during Iron Sword 2014
Lithuanian Army soldiers marching with their dress uniforms in Vilnius. An officer stands out with a sword.
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Lithuania's GDP per capita compared to rest of the world (2020)
Lithuania, GNI per capita, PPP (current international $), 2016
A proportional representation of Lithuania exports, 2019
Nasdaq Vilnius Stock Exchange, located in K29 business centre in Konstitucijos Avenue, Vilnius
LituanicaSAT-2 in the thermal-vacuum chamber.
Druskininkai is a popular spa town
Telia (skyscraper with the old Teo LT logo) and Huawei headquarters in Vilnius
Major highways in Lithuania
Marijampolė railway station, completed in 1924
Mineral water spring in Birštonas
FSRU Independence in port of Klaipėda
Kruonis Pumped Storage Plant
Population of Lithuania 1915–2014
Population density
Kaunas Clinics is the largest and the most advanced medical institution in Lithuania.
Hill of Crosses near Šiauliai
Vilnius University, one of the oldest universities in the region. It was established by Stephen Báthory, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, in 1579.
Vilnius University Life Sciences Center in the Sunrise Valley
The earliest known Lithuanian glosses (between 1520 and 1530) written in the margins of Johannes Herolt book Liber Discipuli de eruditione Christifidelium. Words: teprÿdav[ſ]ʒÿ (let it strike), vbagÿſte (indigence)
The first Lithuanian printed book Catechism of Martynas Mažvydas (1547, Königsberg)
The title page of Radivilias (1592, Vilnius). The poem celebrating commander Mikalojus Radvila Rudasis (1512–1584) and recounts the famous victory of Lithuanian Armed Forces over Moscow troops (1564).
Vilnius Cathedral by Laurynas Gucevičius
Gryčia (traditional dwelling house, built in the 19th century)
Kings' Fairy Tale (1908–1909) by Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis
Lithuanian National Drama Theatre
Romuva Cinema, the oldest still operational cinema in Lithuania
Painter and composer M.K. Čiurlionis
Rock band Antis, which under firm censorship actively mocked the Soviet Union regime by using metaphors in their lyrics, during an Anti-Sovietism, Anti-communism concert in 1987
Lithuanian dark rye bread
Cepelinai, a potato-based dumpling dish characteristic of Lithuanian cuisine with meat, curd or mushrooms
Lithuania has longlasting beer brewing traditions
Lithuania men's national basketball team is ranked eighth worldwide in FIBA Rankings.

It has a maritime border with Sweden to the west on the Baltic Sea.

The Lingsberg Runestone, Sweden, known as U 240


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Typically a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock.

Typically a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock.

The Lingsberg Runestone, Sweden, known as U 240
An early runestone: the Möjbro Runestone from Hagby (first placed near Möjebro), Uppland, Sweden. As with other early runic inscriptions, (e.g. Kylver Stone from about 300–400 CE) this is written from right to left, while later Runestones were written from left to right. The text is "Frawaradaz anahaha is laginaz".
The Snoldelev stone, one of the oldest runestones in Denmark
Distribution of runestones in Sweden, the country with the highest density. Runestones / 100 km2:
The Stenkvista runestone in Södermanland, Sweden, shows Thor's lightning hammer instead of a cross. Only two such runestones are known.
The Mask Stone (DR 66) found in Aarhus, Denmark commemorates a battle between two kings and features a stylized depiction of a mask.
Piraeus Lion drawing of curved lindworm. The runes on the lion tell of Swedish warriors, most likely Varangians, mercenaries in the service of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Emperor.
The Kälvesten Runestone, Sweden
The Djulafors Runestone, Sweden
The Yttergärde Runestone, Sweden
The Valleberga Runestone, Sweden, reports that two Vikings had died in London.
Modern runestone on Adelsö near Stockholm, Sweden
A drawing of the Ramsund inscription, in the province of Södermanland, Sweden
Odin attacked by Fenrir on the Ledberg stone, Sweden
A runestone from the church of Resmo on Öland has been repainted. It is presently at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities in Stockholm.
The Jelling stones which triggered the great runestone trend in Scandinavia{{According to whom|date=November 2015}}
The Kingittorsuaq Runestone from Greenland
Runestone from Tirsted in the National Museum of Denmark
Runestone from Tirsted drawing from 1765

The vast majority of runestones are found in Sweden.

Map showing the major Varangian trade routes: the Volga trade route (in red) and the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (in purple). Sufficiently controlling strongholds, market places and portages along the routes was necessary for the Scandinavian raiders and traders.

Rus' people

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Ethnos in early medieval eastern Europe.

Ethnos in early medieval eastern Europe.

Map showing the major Varangian trade routes: the Volga trade route (in red) and the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (in purple). Sufficiently controlling strongholds, market places and portages along the routes was necessary for the Scandinavian raiders and traders.
Europe in the 9th century. Roslagen is located along the coast of the northern tip of the pink area marked "Swedes and Goths".
Map showing Varangian settlement (in red) and location of Slavic tribes (in grey), mid-9th century Khazar influence indicated with blue outline.
The Kälvesten runestone from the 9th century.
Guests from Overseas, Nicholas Roerich (1899)
Ship burial of a Rus chieftain as described by the Arab traveler Ahmad ibn Fadlan who visited north-eastern Europe in the 10th century.
Henryk Siemiradzki (1883)
"Each woman wears on either breast a box of iron, silver, copper, or gold; the value of the box indicates the wealth of the husband."
The Pilgårds runestone, which tells of two locations at the Dniepr cataracts, Eifor (one of the rapids) and Rufstein (Rvanyj Kamin ).
The Baptism of Kievans, a painting by Klavdiy Lebedev
"Olga, Viking Princess, and Russian Saint". In Helga/Olga's time, the Norse elite turned bilingual.
Birch bark letter.
Two 12th-13th c. runic inscriptions from Maskovichi.
"A vitjaz at the Crossroads" (Витязь на распутье), by Viktor Vasnetsov (1882)
Early 9th-century Khazar coin, found in the Spillings Hoard in Gotland.

The scholarly consensus holds that they were originally Norse people, mainly originating from present-day Sweden, settling and ruling along the river-routes between the Baltic and the Black Seas from around the 8th to 11th centuries AD. They formed a state known in modern historiography as Kievan Rus', which was initially a multiethnic society where the ruling Norsemen merged and assimilated with East Slavic, Baltic and Finnic tribes, ending up with Old East Slavic as their common language.