Swedish language

SwedishSwedish-languageSwedish-speakingSwedish:modern SwedishOld SwedishSw.sv Swedishse
Swedish (svenska ) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.wikipedia
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Finnish language

FinnishFinnish-languagefi
Swedish (svenska ) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. There is considerable migration between the Nordic countries, but owing to the similarity between the cultures and languages (with the exception of Finnish), expatriates generally assimilate quickly and do not stand out as a group.
Finnish, along with Swedish, is an official language of Finland; Finnish is also an official minority language in Sweden.

Norwegian language

NorwegianNeutralNorwegian:
It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker.
Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a dialect continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional varieties; some Norwegian and Swedish dialects, in particular, are very close.

Finland

FinnishFINRepublic of Finland
Swedish (svenska ) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish is the second official language of Finland, which is mainly spoken in certain coastal areas and on Åland.

Standard Swedish

RikssvenskaSwedishHögsvenska
Standard Swedish, spoken by most Swedes, is the national language that evolved from the Central Swedish dialects in the 19th century and was well established by the beginning of the 20th century.
Standard Swedish (standardsvenska, rikssvenska, högsvenska) denotes Swedish as a spoken and written standard language.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
While being strongly related to its southern neighbour language German in vocabulary, the word order, grammatic system and pronunciation are vastly different.
There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group.

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
The standard word order is, as in most Germanic languages, V2, which means that the finite verb (V) appears in the second position (2) of a declarative main clause. Swedish is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic branch of the Germanic languages.
The largest North Germanic languages are Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, which are mutually intelligible and have a combined total of about 20 million native speakers in the Nordic countries and an additional five million second language speakers; since the middle ages these languages have however been strongly influenced by the West Germanic language Middle Low German, and Low German words account for about 30–60% of their vocabularies according to various estimates.

Estonian Swedish

Swedish
Swedish has also had historic use in Estonia, although the current status of the Estonian Swedish speakers is almost extinct.
Estonian Swedish (estlandssvenska, rannarootsi keel) are those eastern varieties of Swedish that were spoken in the formerly Swedish-populated areas of Estonia (locally known as Aiboland) on the islands of Ormsö (Vormsi), Ösel (Saaremaa), Dagö (Hiiumaa) and Runö (Ruhnu), and the peninsula (former island) of Nuckö (Noarootsi), by the local Estonian Swedes.

North Germanic languages

ScandinavianScandinavian languagesNorth Germanic
Swedish (svenska ) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. Swedish is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic branch of the Germanic languages.
The language group is also referred to as the "Nordic languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish scholars and laypeople.

Norway

NorwegianKingdom of NorwayNOR
Instead it is used in the Swedish diaspora, most notably in Oslo, Norway, with more than 50,000 resident Swedes.
In addition, the Norwegian languages share mutual intelligibility with Danish and Swedish.

Danish language

DanishDanish-languageDansk
It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker.
Danish is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Swedish.

Estonia

ESTRepublic of EstoniaEstonian
Swedish has also had historic use in Estonia, although the current status of the Estonian Swedish speakers is almost extinct.
Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to an area called Eistland, as the country is still called in Icelandic, with close parallels to the Danish, German, Dutch, Swedish and Norwegian terms Estland for the country.

Denmark

DanishKingdom of DenmarkConstituent country
However, because of several hundred years of sometimes quite intense rivalry between Denmark and Sweden, including a long series of wars from the 16th to 18th centuries, and the nationalist ideas that emerged during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the languages have separate orthographies, dictionaries, grammars, and regulatory bodies.
Denmark has close ties to its Scandinavian neighbours also linguistically, with the Danish language being partially mutually intelligible with both Norwegian and Swedish.

Mutual intelligibility

mutually intelligiblemutually unintelligibleintelligible
It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker.

Dialect continuum

dialect clusterdialect chaincontinuum
Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish are thus from a linguistic perspective more accurately described as a dialect continuum of Scandinavian (North Germanic), and some of the dialects, such as those on the border between Norway and Sweden, especially parts of Bohuslän, Dalsland, western Värmland, western Dalarna, Härjedalen, Jämtland, and Scania, could be described as intermediate dialects of the national standard languages.
The Scandinavian languages, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, are often cited as examples.

Germanic peoples

GermanicGermanic tribesGermanic tribe
Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.
North Germanic languages are Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Faroese and Icelandic.

Västgötalagen

Westrogothic lawLaw of VästergötlandLaw of the West Geats
The start date is usually set to 1225 since this is the year that Västgötalagen ("the Västgöta Law") is believed to have been compiled for the first time.
Västgötalagen ( or ) or the Westrogothic law is the oldest Swedish text written in Latin script and the oldest of all Swedish provincial laws.

Jämtland

JemtlandOvikenRödön
Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish are thus from a linguistic perspective more accurately described as a dialect continuum of Scandinavian (North Germanic), and some of the dialects, such as those on the border between Norway and Sweden, especially parts of Bohuslän, Dalsland, western Värmland, western Dalarna, Härjedalen, Jämtland, and Scania, could be described as intermediate dialects of the national standard languages.
It involved the Swedish governor of Jämtland and he had the song translated into Swedish from Jamtish and sent to the king.

Swedish literature

SwedishSwedenSwedish author
With the industrialization and urbanization of Sweden well under way by the last decades of the 19th century, a new breed of authors made their mark on Swedish literature.
Swedish literature refers to literature written in the Swedish language or by writers from Sweden.

Swedish orthography

older spelling
It was a major step towards a more consistent Swedish orthography.
Swedish orthography is the set of rules and conventions used for writing Swedish.

Sj-sound

voiceless palatal-velar fricativeɧSj''-sound
Swedish is also notable for the voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative, a highly variable consonant phoneme.
This sound has been reported in certain dialects of Swedish, where it is most often known as the sj-sound.

Gustav Vasa Bible

Vasa Bible
The New Testament was published in 1526, followed by a full Bible translation in 1541, usually referred to as the Gustav Vasa Bible, a translation deemed so successful and influential that, with revisions incorporated in successive editions, it remained the most common Bible translation until 1917.
The Gustav Vasa Bible (Gustav Vasas bibel) is the common name of the Swedish Bible translation published in 1540-41.

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
Swedish is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic branch of the Germanic languages.

Ö

also spelledo:Öö
These three were later to evolve into the separate letters ä, å and ö.
The letter ö also occurs in two other Germanic languages: Swedish and Icelandic, but it is regarded there as a separate letter, not as an umlauted version of o.

Nordic countries

NordicNordic regionNordic country
There is considerable migration between the Nordic countries, but owing to the similarity between the cultures and languages (with the exception of Finnish), expatriates generally assimilate quickly and do not stand out as a group.
The native languages Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese are all North Germanic languages rooted in Old Norse.

Tone (linguistics)

tonetonal languagetones
The prosody features both stress and in most dialects tonal qualities.
Swedish, Norwegian and Scots have simple word tone systems, often called pitch accent (although they are actually contour tones), appearing only in words of two or more syllables.