Switchboard operator

telephone operatoroperatortelephonistoperatorstelephone operatorsphone operatorinward operatorPBX/Communications Managerphone operatorsswitchboard operators
In the early days of telephony, through roughly the 1960s, companies used manual telephone switchboards, and switchboard operators connected calls by inserting a pair of phone plugs into the appropriate jacks.wikipedia
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Telephone switchboard

switchboardswitchboardscentral switchboard
In the early days of telephony, through roughly the 1960s, companies used manual telephone switchboards, and switchboard operators connected calls by inserting a pair of phone plugs into the appropriate jacks.
The switchboard was an essential component of a manual telephone exchange, and was operated by switchboard operators who used electrical cords or switches to establish the connections.

Long-distance calling

long distancelong-distancelong distance call
Before the advent of operator distance dialing and customer direct dial (DDD) calling, switchboard operators would work with their counterparts in the distant central office to complete long distance calls.
Before direct distance dialing (DDD), all long distance calls were established by special switchboard operators (long distance operators) even in exchanges where calls within the local exchange were dialed directly.

Telephone exchange

exchangescentral officeexchange
Before the advent of automatic exchanges, an operator's assistance was required for anything other than calling telephones across a shared party line.
Later exchanges consisted of one to several hundred plug boards staffed by switchboard operators.

Telephone call

callphone callphone calls
With the development of computerized telephone dialing systems, many telephone calls which previously required a live operator can be placed automatically by the calling party without additional human intervention. As well as the people that were employed by the public networks, operators were required at private branch exchanges (PBX) to answer incoming telephone calls and connect them to the correct extension.
In some (now very rare) cases, if the calling party cannot dial calls directly, they will be connected to an operator who places the call for them.

Business telephone system

PBXprivate branch exchangePABX
As well as the people that were employed by the public networks, operators were required at private branch exchanges (PBX) to answer incoming telephone calls and connect them to the correct extension.
The term PBX originated when switchboard operators managed company switchboards manually using cord circuits.

Emma Nutt

Emma Nutt Day
Emma Nutt became the first female telephone operator on 1 September 1878 when she started working for the Boston Telephone Dispatch company, because the attitude and behaviour of the teenage boys previously employed as operators was unacceptable.
Emma Nutt (July 1860 – 1915) became the world's first female telephone operator on September 1, 1878, when she started working for the Edwin Holmes Telephone Despatch [sic] Company (or the Boston Telephone Dispatch Company ) in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.

Party line (telephony)

party lineparty linestelephone party line
Before the advent of automatic exchanges, an operator's assistance was required for anything other than calling telephones across a shared party line.
With party-line service, particularly if there were more than two subscribers on the line, it was often necessary to complete a long-distance call through the operator to identify and correctly bill the calling party.

Extension (telephone)

extensionextensionstelephone extension
As well as the people that were employed by the public networks, operators were required at private branch exchanges (PBX) to answer incoming telephone calls and connect them to the correct extension.
For inbound calls, a switchboard operator or automated attendant may request the number of the desired extension or the call may be completed with direct inbound dialing if outside numbers are assigned to individual extensions.

Julia O'Connor

six-day strike
Julia O'Connor, a former telephone operator, led the Telephone Operators' Strike of 1919 and the Telephone Operators' Strike of 1923 against New England Telephone Company on behalf of the IBEW Telephone Operators' Department for better wages and working conditions.
After graduating from high school in 1908, she became a telephone operator in Boston and joined the Boston Telephone Operators' Union in 1912.

Operator assistance

operator-assistedStation-to-stationassist
Operator assistance refers to a telephone call in which the calling party requires an operator to provide some form of assistance in completing the call.

Phone connector (audio)

headphone jackTRRSTRS connector
In the early days of telephony, through roughly the 1960s, companies used manual telephone switchboards, and switchboard operators connected calls by inserting a pair of phone plugs into the appropriate jacks.

Cord circuit

junctors
Each pair of plugs was part of a cord circuit with a switch associated that let the operator participate in the call or ring the circuit for an incoming call.

Telephone magneto

magnetocrank telephoneDachshund
Each jack had a light above it that lit when the customer's telephone receiver was lifted (the earliest systems required the customer to hand-crank a magneto to alert the central office and, later, to "ring off" the completed call).

Direct distance dialing

direct dialdirect distance dialIDDD
Before the advent of operator distance dialing and customer direct dial (DDD) calling, switchboard operators would work with their counterparts in the distant central office to complete long distance calls.

Stored program control

Stored Program Control exchangecomputer controlcomputerized
With the development of computerized telephone dialing systems, many telephone calls which previously required a live operator can be placed automatically by the calling party without additional human intervention.

Calling party

callercall originatorA-Number
With the development of computerized telephone dialing systems, many telephone calls which previously required a live operator can be placed automatically by the calling party without additional human intervention.

Receptionist

front deskreception deskreceptionists
Smaller workplaces may have an automated system which allows callers to enter the extension of the called party, or a receptionist who answers calls and performs operator duties. Operators employed in healthcare settings have other duties, such as data entry, greeting patients and visitors, taking messages, triaging, or acting as an after hours answering service.

Wake-up call (service)

wake-up callwake-up callswake-up service
Depending on the employment setting, the roles and level of responsibilities of a PBX operator can vary greatly, from performing wake-up calls in a hotel to coordinating emergency responses, dispatching, and overhead paging in hospitals.

Data entry clerk

data entrytypistre-keying
Operators employed in healthcare settings have other duties, such as data entry, greeting patients and visitors, taking messages, triaging, or acting as an after hours answering service.

Call centre

call centercall centerscall centres
Operators employed in healthcare settings have other duties, such as data entry, greeting patients and visitors, taking messages, triaging, or acting as an after hours answering service.

Alexander Graham Bell

BellGraham BellAlexander Bell
Emma was hired by Alexander Graham Bell, and reportedly, could remember every number in the telephone directory of the New England Telephone Company.

New England Telephone and Telegraph Company

New England TelephoneNew England Telephone CompanyNew England Telephone and Telegraph
Emma was hired by Alexander Graham Bell, and reportedly, could remember every number in the telephone directory of the New England Telephone Company.

Harriot Daley

Harriot Daley became the first telephone switchboard operator at the United States Capitol in 1898.

United States Capitol

U.S. CapitolCapitolCapitol Building
Harriot Daley became the first telephone switchboard operator at the United States Capitol in 1898.