Sword

swordsbeam swordbladedouble-edged swordhiltmedieval swordbluntsceremonial swordceremonial swordschurika
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger, consisting of a long blade attached to a hilt.wikipedia
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Spatha

The spatha, as it developed in the Late Roman army, became the predecessor of the European sword of the Middle Ages, at first adopted as the Migration Period sword, and only in the High Middle Ages, developed into the classical arming sword with crossguard. The late Roman Empire introduced the longer spatha (the term for its wielder, spatharius, became a court rank in Constantinople), and from this time, the term longsword is applied to swords comparatively long for their respective periods.
The spatha was a type of straight and long sword, measuring between 0.75 and 1 m (29.5 and 39.4 in), with a handle length between 18 and 20 cm (7.1 and 7.9 in), in use in the territory of the Roman Empire during the 1st to 6th centuries AD. Later swords, from the 7th to 10th centuries, like the Viking swords, are recognizable derivatives and sometimes subsumed under the term spatha.

Iron Age sword

iron swordsLong SwordCeltic long swords
Historically, the sword developed in the Bronze Age, evolving from the dagger; the earliest specimens date to about 1600 BC. The later Iron Age sword remained fairly short and without a crossguard.
Swords made of iron (as opposed to bronze) appear from the Early Iron Age (c. 12th century BC), but do not become widespread before the 8th century BC.

Migration Period sword

swordgold-hilted spathaMerovingian sword
The spatha, as it developed in the Late Roman army, became the predecessor of the European sword of the Middle Ages, at first adopted as the Migration Period sword, and only in the High Middle Ages, developed into the classical arming sword with crossguard.
The type of sword popular during the Migration Period and the Merovingian period of European history (c. 4th to 7th centuries AD), particularly among the Germanic peoples was derived from the Roman era spatha, and gave rise to the Carolingian or Viking sword type of the 8th to 11th centuries AD.

Edged and bladed weapons

bladed weaponedged weaponbladed weapons
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger, consisting of a long blade attached to a hilt.
Bladed weapons include swords, knives and, in more recent times, bayonets.

Urnfield culture

UrnfieldUrnfield periodUrnfield people
This type first appears in c. the 13th century BC in Northern Italy (or a general Urnfield background), and survives well into the Iron Age, with a life-span of about seven centuries.
Some graves contain a combination of tumulus-culture pottery and Urnfield swords (Kressbronn, Bodenseekreis) or tumulus culture incised pottery together with early Urnfield types (Mengen).

Katana

samurai swordswordsamurai swords
Non-European weapons called "sword" include single-edged weapons such as the Middle Eastern scimitar, the Chinese dao and the related Japanese katana.
The katana is generally defined as the standard sized, moderately curved (as opposed to the older tachi featuring more curvature) Japanese sword with a blade length greater than 60 cm (23 1⁄2 inches).

Gladius

gladiiswordGladius Hispaniensis
The Greek xiphos and the Roman gladius are typical examples of the type, measuring some 60 to 70 cm.
Gladius was one Latin word for sword, and is used to represent the primary sword of Ancient Roman foot soldiers.

Scabbard

sheathsayasheaths
In many late Iron Age graves, the sword and the scabbard were bent at 180 degrees.
A scabbard is a sheath for holding a sword, knife, or other large blade.

Longsword

long swordhand-and-a-half swordlongswords
The late Roman Empire introduced the longer spatha (the term for its wielder, spatharius, became a court rank in Constantinople), and from this time, the term longsword is applied to swords comparatively long for their respective periods.
A longsword (also spelled as long sword or long-sword) is a type of European sword characterized as having a cruciform hilt with a grip for two-handed use (around 16 to 28 cm), a straight double-edged blade of around 85 to 110 cm, and weighing approximately 1 to 1.5 kg.

Jian

Jianshuswordchien
The Chinese Dao (刀 pinyin dāo) is single-edged, sometimes translated as sabre or broadsword, and the Jian (劍 or 剑 pinyin jiàn) is double-edged.
The jian (pronunciation, English approximation:, ; Cantonese: Gim) is a double-edged straight sword used during the last 2,500 years in China.

Terramare culture

terramareNorthern Italystilt houses
This type first appears in c. the 13th century BC in Northern Italy (or a general Urnfield background), and survives well into the Iron Age, with a life-span of about seven centuries.
Of bronze (the chief material) axes, daggers, swords, razors, and knives are found, as also minor implements, such as sickles, needles, pins, brooches, etc. Also remarkable is the finding of a large number of stone moulds, needed to obtain the bronze objects.

Ulfberht swords

UlfberhtUlfbehrtUlfberth
The Frankish 'Ulfberht' blades (the name of the maker inlaid in the blade) were of particularly consistent high quality.
The Ulfberht swords are a group of medieval swords found in Europe, dated to the 9th to 11th centuries, with blades inlaid with the inscription +VLFBERHT+ (and variants).

Knightly sword

arming swordarming swordsarming-sword
The spatha, as it developed in the Late Roman army, became the predecessor of the European sword of the Middle Ages, at first adopted as the Migration Period sword, and only in the High Middle Ages, developed into the classical arming sword with crossguard.
In the European High Middle Ages, the typical sword (sometimes academically categorized as the knightly sword, arming sword, or in full, knightly arming sword) was a straight, double-edged weapon with a single-handed, cruciform (i.e., cross-shaped) hilt and a blade length of about 70 to 80 cm. This type is frequently depicted in period artwork, and numerous examples have been preserved archaeologically.

Sword of Goujian

King Goujian's Swordsword of Gou JianSwords of Goujian
Amongst the Warring States period swords, some unique technologies were used, such as casting high tin edges over softer, lower tin cores, or the application of diamond shaped patterns on the blade (see sword of Goujian).
More than 2,000 artifacts were recovered from the sites, including an ornate bronze sword, found inside a casket together with a human skeleton.

Kampilan

campilan
In The Philippines, traditional large swords known as the Kampilan and the Panabas were used in combat by the natives.
The kampilan (Baybayin: ; Abecedario: Campilan) is a type of single-edged long sword, traditionally used by various ethnic groups in the Philippine archipelago.

Spatharios

spathariusspatharioispătar
The late Roman Empire introduced the longer spatha (the term for its wielder, spatharius, became a court rank in Constantinople), and from this time, the term longsword is applied to swords comparatively long for their respective periods.
According to the Klētorologion, the insignia of the dignity was a gold-hilted sword.

Plate armour

plate armorsuit of armoursuit of armor
These swords were designed as cutting weapons, although effective points were becoming common to counter improvements in armour, especially the 14th-century change from mail to plate armour.
Plate armour was virtually invulnerable to sword slashes.

Knife

knivesfish knifeanio
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger, consisting of a long blade attached to a hilt.
Sword

Sabre

sabersaberscavalry saber
The Chinese Dao (刀 pinyin dāo) is single-edged, sometimes translated as sabre or broadsword, and the Jian (劍 or 剑 pinyin jiàn) is double-edged. The saber (sabre) and similar blades such as the cutlass were built more heavily and were more typically used in warfare.
Lightsaber, a fictional sword-like melee weapon used in the Star Wars universe

Rapier

rapiersespada roperarapier and dagger
The thrusting swords such as the rapier and eventually the smallsword were designed to impale their targets quickly and inflict deep stab wounds.
Rapier, or espada ropera, is a loose term for a type of large, slender, sharply pointed sword.

Melid

ArslantepeArchaeological Site of Arslantepe
The first weapons that can be described as "swords" date to around 3300 BC. They have been found in Arslantepe, Turkey, are made from arsenical bronze, and are about 60 cm long.
The first swords known in the Early Bronze Age (c. 33rd to 31st centuries) are based on finds at Arslantepe by Marcella Frangipane of Rome University.

Side arm

sidearmsidearmsside arms
A single-edged type of sidearm used by the Hussites was popularized in 16th-century Germany under its Czech name Dusack, also known as Säbel auf Teutsch gefasst ("sabre fitted in the German manner").
A side arm or sidearm is a weapon, usually a handgun but sometimes a sword, dagger, knife, bayonet or other mêlée weapon, which is worn on the body in a holster or sheath (in the case of a sword, dagger, knife, or bayonet) to permit immediate access and use.

Spada da lato

side-swordcut and thrust swordsidesword
The side-sword was a type of war sword used by infantry during the Renaissance of Europe.
The spada da lato (Italian) or side-sword is a type of sword popular during the late 16th century, corresponding to the Spanish espada ropera.

Panabas

In The Philippines, traditional large swords known as the Kampilan and the Panabas were used in combat by the natives.
The forward-curved shape of its blade makes it unique not only in terms of its appearance, but in terms of handling as well.

Backsword

single-edgedback-swordingBacksword – overview
Later in the 17th century, the swords used by cavalry became predominantly single-edged.
A backsword is a type of sword characterised by having a single-edged blade and a hilt with a single-handed grip.