Sydenham's chorea

Sydenham choreaRheumatic choreaChorea minorSt. Vitus' danceSt. Vitus DanceSt. Vitus's DanceSaint Vitus danceSt Vitus' DanceSt Vitus's danceSt Vitus’ Dance
Sydenham's chorea, also known as chorea minor and historically referred to as St Vitus' dance, is a disorder characterized by rapid, uncoordinated jerking movements primarily affecting the face, hands and feet.wikipedia
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Chorea

Chorea (disease)hemichoreaSt. Vitus Dance
Adult onset of Sydenham's chorea is comparatively rare and the majority of the adult cases are associated with exacerbation of chorea following childhood Sydenham's chorea. Throughout the nineteenth century the term "chorea" referred to an ill-defined spectrum of hyperkinesias, including those recognised today as chorea, tics, dystonia, or myoclonus.
Sydenham's chorea occurs as a complication of streptococcal infection.

Rheumatic fever

rheumatic heart diseaseAcute rheumatic feverrheumatic
Sydenham's chorea results from childhood infection with Group A beta-haemolytic Streptococcus and is reported to occur in 20–30% of people with acute rheumatic fever.

PANDAS

Childhood acute neuropsychiatric symptomsPANDAS syndromePediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections
The PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) syndrome is similar, but is not characterized by Sydenham's motor dysfunction.
Because the antibodies set off an immune reaction which damages those tissues, the child with rheumatic fever can get heart disease (especially mitral valve regurgitation), arthritis, and/or abnormal movements known as Sydenham's chorea or "St. Vitus' Dance".

Tourette syndrome

Tourette's syndromeTouretteTourettes
It may be confused with other conditions such as lupus and Tourette syndrome.
Other conditions that may manifest tics or stereotyped movements include developmental disorders; autism spectrum disorders and stereotypic movement disorder; Sydenham's chorea; idiopathic dystonia; and genetic conditions such as Huntington's disease, neuroacanthocytosis, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Wilson's disease, and tuberous sclerosis.

Chorea gravidarum

Other disorders that may be accompanied by chorea include abetalipoproteinemia, ataxia-telangiectasia, biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease, Fahr disease, familial dyskinesia-facial myokymia (Bird-Raskind syndrome) due to an ADCY5 gene mutation, glutaric aciduria, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, mitochondrial disorders, Wilson disease, hyperthyroidism, lupus erythematosus, pregnancy (chorea gravidarum), and side effects of certain anticonvulsants or psychotropic agents.
It is associated with history of Sydenham's chorea.

Erythema marginatum

Non-neurologic manifestations of acute rheumatic fever are carditis, arthritis, erythema marginatum, and subcutaneous nodules.
The four other major criteria include carditis, polyarthritis, Sydenham's Chorea, and subcutaneous nodules.

Group A streptococcal infection

group A streptococciGroup Ascarlet fever
PANDAS presents with tics and/or a psychological component (e.g., OCD) and occurs much earlier, days to weeks after GABHS infection rather than 6–9 months later.
ARF is often clinically diagnosed based on Jones Criteria, which include: pancarditis, migratory polyarthritis of large joints, subcutaneous nodules, erythema marginatum, and sydenham chorea (involuntary, purposeless movement).

Huntington's disease

HuntingtonHuntington diseaseHuntington’s disease
Unlike in Huntington's disease, which is generally of adult onset and associated with an unremitting autosomal dominant movement disorder and dementia, neuroimaging in Sydenham's chorea is normal and other family members are unaffected.

Thomas Sydenham

SydenhamLord Thomas SydenhamSydenham, Thomas
It is named after British physician Thomas Sydenham (1624–1689).
Among his many achievements was the discovery of a disease, Sydenham's Chorea, also known as St Vitus Dance.

Vitus

Saint VitusSt. VitusSt Vitus
The alternate eponym, "Saint Vitus Dance", is in reference to Saint Vitus, a Christian saint who was persecuted by Roman emperors and died as a martyr in AD 303.
This dancing became popular and the name "Saint Vitus Dance" was given to the neurological disorder Sydenham's chorea.

Tic

ticsnervous ticsnervous tic
Throughout the nineteenth century the term "chorea" referred to an ill-defined spectrum of hyperkinesias, including those recognised today as chorea, tics, dystonia, or myoclonus.
Conditions besides Tourette syndrome that may manifest tics or stereotyped movements include developmental disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and stereotypic movement disorder; Sydenham's chorea; idiopathic dystonia; and genetic conditions such as Huntington's disease, neuroacanthocytosis, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Wilson's disease, and tuberous sclerosis.

Dystonia

dystonicdystonia musculorum deformanssensory trick
Throughout the nineteenth century the term "chorea" referred to an ill-defined spectrum of hyperkinesias, including those recognised today as chorea, tics, dystonia, or myoclonus.

Streptococcus

streptococcistreptococcalstreptococcal infection
Sydenham's chorea results from childhood infection with Group A beta-haemolytic Streptococcus and is reported to occur in 20–30% of people with acute rheumatic fever.

Dysarthria

slurred speechdifficulty speakingdysarthric
Other neurologic symptoms include behavior change, dysarthria, gait disturbance, loss of fine and gross motor control with resultant deterioration of handwriting, headache, slowed cognition, facial grimacing, fidgetiness and hypotonia.

Headache

headacheschronic headacheheadach
Other neurologic symptoms include behavior change, dysarthria, gait disturbance, loss of fine and gross motor control with resultant deterioration of handwriting, headache, slowed cognition, facial grimacing, fidgetiness and hypotonia.

Hypotonia

low muscle tonefloppy infant syndromepoor muscle tone
Other neurologic symptoms include behavior change, dysarthria, gait disturbance, loss of fine and gross motor control with resultant deterioration of handwriting, headache, slowed cognition, facial grimacing, fidgetiness and hypotonia.

Fasciculation

fasciculationsmuscle twitchingtwitching
Also, there may be tongue fasciculations ("bag of worms") and a "milk sign", which is a relapsing grip demonstrated by alternate increases and decreases in tension, as if hand milking.

Milking

milkmilkedcow milker
Also, there may be tongue fasciculations ("bag of worms") and a "milk sign", which is a relapsing grip demonstrated by alternate increases and decreases in tension, as if hand milking.

Carditis

pancarditis
Non-neurologic manifestations of acute rheumatic fever are carditis, arthritis, erythema marginatum, and subcutaneous nodules.

Arthritis

arthriticjoint inflammationarthritic changes
Non-neurologic manifestations of acute rheumatic fever are carditis, arthritis, erythema marginatum, and subcutaneous nodules.

Nodule (medicine)

nodulesnodulenodular
Non-neurologic manifestations of acute rheumatic fever are carditis, arthritis, erythema marginatum, and subcutaneous nodules.

Systemic lupus erythematosus

lupusSLEsystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
It may be confused with other conditions such as lupus and Tourette syndrome.

Dominance (genetics)

autosomal recessiverecessiveautosomal dominant
Unlike in Huntington's disease, which is generally of adult onset and associated with an unremitting autosomal dominant movement disorder and dementia, neuroimaging in Sydenham's chorea is normal and other family members are unaffected.

Abetalipoproteinemia

abetalipoproteinaemiaBassen-Kornzweig syndromeBassen-Kornzweig disease
Other disorders that may be accompanied by chorea include abetalipoproteinemia, ataxia-telangiectasia, biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease, Fahr disease, familial dyskinesia-facial myokymia (Bird-Raskind syndrome) due to an ADCY5 gene mutation, glutaric aciduria, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, mitochondrial disorders, Wilson disease, hyperthyroidism, lupus erythematosus, pregnancy (chorea gravidarum), and side effects of certain anticonvulsants or psychotropic agents.

Ataxia–telangiectasia

ataxia telangiectasiaataxia-telangiectasiaAtaxia telangectasia
Other disorders that may be accompanied by chorea include abetalipoproteinemia, ataxia-telangiectasia, biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease, Fahr disease, familial dyskinesia-facial myokymia (Bird-Raskind syndrome) due to an ADCY5 gene mutation, glutaric aciduria, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, mitochondrial disorders, Wilson disease, hyperthyroidism, lupus erythematosus, pregnancy (chorea gravidarum), and side effects of certain anticonvulsants or psychotropic agents.