A report on Sympathomimetic drug

Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.

- Sympathomimetic drug

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Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets

Stimulant

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Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets
A chart comparing the chemical structures of different amphetamine derivatives
Roasted coffee beans, a common source of caffeine.
Tablets containing MDMA
Lines of illicit cocaine, used as a recreational stimulant
Catha edulis

Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

Skeletal formula of dopamine

Dopamine

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Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Skeletal formula of dopamine
Dopamine processing in a synapse. After release dopamine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
TH: tyrosine hydroxylase
DOPA: L-DOPA
DAT: dopamine transporter
DDC: DOPA decarboxylase
VMAT: vesicular monoamine transporter 2
MAO: Monoamine oxidase
COMT: Catechol-O-methyl transferase
HVA: Homovanillic acid
Major dopamine pathways. As part of the reward pathway, dopamine is manufactured in nerve cell bodies located within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and is released in the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. The motor functions of dopamine are linked to a separate pathway, with cell bodies in the substantia nigra that manufacture and release dopamine into the dorsal striatum.
Main circuits of the basal ganglia. The dopaminergic pathway from the substantia nigra pars compacta to the striatum is shown in light blue.
Illustration of dopaminergic reward structures
Dopamine HCl preparation, single dose vial for intravenous administration
Cocaine increases dopamine levels by blocking dopamine transporters (DAT), which transport dopamine back into a synaptic terminal after it has been emitted.
Methamphetamine hydrochloride also known as crystal meth
Dopamine can be found in the peel and fruit pulp of bananas.

Dopaminergic stimulants can be addictive in high doses, but some are used at lower doses to treat ADHD.

Phenylpropanolamine

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Space filling model of phenylpropanolamine.

Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a sympathomimetic agent which is used as a decongestant and appetite suppressant.

Amphetamine

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Strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

Strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4-hydroxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxynorephedrine, and norephedrine.

Skeletal formula of noradrenaline

Norepinephrine

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Organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as both a hormone and neurotransmitter.

Organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as both a hormone and neurotransmitter.

Skeletal formula of noradrenaline
Norepinephrine degradation. Metabolizing enzymes are shown in boxes.
Norepinephrine (labeled "noradrénaline" in this drawing) processing in a synapse. After release norepinephrine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
Schema of the sympathetic nervous system, showing the sympathetic ganglia and the parts of the body to which they connect.
Brain areas containing noradrenergic neurons.
Chemical structure of octopamine, which serves as the homologue of norepinephrine in many invertebrate species

It is found that the endocannabinoid anandamide and the cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 can modify the overall response to sympathetic nerve stimulation, which indicates that prejunctional CB1 receptors mediate the sympatho-inhibitory action.

Ephedrine Sulphate (1932), Ephedrine Compound (1932), and Swan-Myers Ephedrine Inhalant No. 66 (circa 1940)

Ephedrine

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Central nervous system stimulant that is often used to prevent low blood pressure during anesthesia.

Central nervous system stimulant that is often used to prevent low blood pressure during anesthesia.

Ephedrine Sulphate (1932), Ephedrine Compound (1932), and Swan-Myers Ephedrine Inhalant No. 66 (circa 1940)
Ephedrine tablets
Proposed biosynthetic pathway of ephedrine from L -phenylalanine and pyruvic acid.
The four stereoisomers of ephedrine
<center>Norephedrine</center>
<center>Ephedrine</center>
<center>N-Methylephedrine</center>

Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine and substituted amphetamine.

Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Ecstasy was ranked 18th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.

MDMA

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Potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant primarily used for recreational purposes.

Potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant primarily used for recreational purposes.

Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Ecstasy was ranked 18th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
MDMA induced transporter reversal on human serotonin transporters (SERT), which leads to serotonin release.
In the serotonergic neurons of humans, extracellular MDMA releases serotonin via serotonin transporters (SERT). Intracellular MDMA inhibits VMAT2 and, to a much lesser extent, MAO-A.
Main metabolic pathways of MDMA in humans.
Alexander and Ann Shulgin in December 2011
A 1995 Vibe Tribe rave in Erskineville, New South Wales, Australia being broken up by police. MDMA use spread globally along with rave culture.
UNODC map showing the use of ecstasy by country in 2014 for the global population aged 15–64

Acute toxicity is mainly caused by serotonin syndrome and sympathomimetic effects.

Two pairs of enantiomers: ephedrine (top) and pseudoephedrine (bottom)

Pseudoephedrine

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Two pairs of enantiomers: ephedrine (top) and pseudoephedrine (bottom)
A warning at an Australian pharmacy

Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.

Skeletal structor formula of phenylephrine, a common nasal decongestant

Alpha-adrenergic agonist

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Skeletal structor formula of phenylephrine, a common nasal decongestant
Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

Alpha-adrenergic agonists are a class of sympathomimetic agents that selectively stimulates alpha adrenergic receptors.

Skeletal structure formula of salbutamol (albuterol) — a widely used medication to treat asthma attacks

Beta-adrenergic agonist

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Beta adrenergic agonists or beta agonists are medications that relax muscles of the airways, causing widening of the airways and resulting in easier breathing.

Beta adrenergic agonists or beta agonists are medications that relax muscles of the airways, causing widening of the airways and resulting in easier breathing.

Skeletal structure formula of salbutamol (albuterol) — a widely used medication to treat asthma attacks
Epinephrine (adrenaline)

They are a class of sympathomimetic agents, each acting upon the beta adrenoceptors.