Symphony

symphoniessymphonicsymphonic workssymphonistsymphoniesymphonic musicsymphonists20th4-movement standardchoral symphony
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.wikipedia
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Classical music

classicalWestern classical musicEuropean classical music
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.
In contrast to most popular styles that adopted the song (strophic) form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of highly sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, concerto, fugue, sonata, and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera, cantata, and mass.

Sonata form

sonata-allegro formsonata-allegrodevelopment
Although the term has had many meanings from its origins in the ancient Greek era, by the late 18th century the word had taken on the meaning common today: a work usually consisting of multiple distinct sections or movements, often four, with the first movement in sonata form.
After its establishment, the sonata form became the most common form in the first movement of works entitled "sonata", as well as other long works of classical music, including the symphony, concerto, string quartet, and so on.

Orchestra

symphony orchestraorchestralchamber orchestra
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.
Orchestras that specialize in the Baroque music of, for example, Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, or Classical repertoire, such as that of Haydn and Mozart, tend to be smaller than orchestras performing a Romantic music repertoire, such as the symphonies of Johannes Brahms.

Ludwig van Beethoven

BeethovenLudwig von BeethovenBeethoven, Ludwig van
Some symphonies also contain vocal parts (e.g., Beethoven's Ninth Symphony).
During this period, his hearing began to deteriorate, but he continued to conduct, premiering his third and fifth symphonies in 1804 and 1808, respectively.

Joseph Haydn

HaydnFranz Joseph HaydnJ. Haydn
The young Joseph Haydn, taking up his first job as a music director in 1757 for the Morzin family, found that when the Morzin household was in Vienna, his own orchestra was only part of a lively and competitive musical scene, with multiple aristocrats sponsoring concerts with their own ensembles. The three-movement symphony died out slowly; about half of Haydn's first thirty symphonies are in three movements; and for the young Mozart, the three-movement symphony was the norm, perhaps under the influence of his friend Johann Christian Bach.
His contributions to musical form have earned him the epithets "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet".

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

MozartW. A. MozartW.A. Mozart
The three-movement symphony died out slowly; about half of Haydn's first thirty symphonies are in three movements; and for the young Mozart, the three-movement symphony was the norm, perhaps under the influence of his friend Johann Christian Bach.
He composed more than 600 works, many of which are acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral music.

Sonata

sonatassonata formClassical sonata
In the 17th century, for most of the Baroque period, the terms symphony and sinfonia were used for a range of different compositions, including instrumental pieces used in operas, sonatas and concertos—usually part of a larger work.
But increasingly instrumental works were laid out in four, not three movements, a practice seen first in string quartets and symphonies, and reaching the sonata proper in the early sonatas of Beethoven.

Piano

grand pianopianistacoustic piano
A keyboard continuo instrument (harpsichord or piano) remained an option.
In the nineteenth century, a family's piano played the same role that a radio or phonograph played in the twentieth century; when a nineteenth-century family wanted to hear a newly published musical piece or symphony, they could hear it by having a family member play it on the piano.

Overture

concert overtureouvertureovertures
The opera sinfonia, or Italian overture had, by the 18th century, a standard structure of three contrasting movements: fast, slow, fast and dance-like.
In this context, they became important in the early history of the symphony.

Mannheim school

Mannheim RocketMannheim orchestraMannheim court orchestra
The Mannheim school included Johann Stamitz.
Composers of the Mannheim school played an important role in the development of the classical period's genres and of the classical symphony form.

Composer

music composercomposedmusic
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.
It was dominated by further development of musical forms initially defined in the Baroque period: the sonata, the concerto, and the symphony.

Scherzo

scherziBadineriescherzo and trio
A scherzo (, UK also ; ; plural scherzos or scherzi), in western classical music, is a short composition – sometimes a movement from a larger work such as a symphony or a sonata.

Giovanni Battista Sammartini

SammartiniG. B. SammartiniG.B. Sammartini
The Milanese school centred around Giovanni Battista Sammartini and included Antonio Brioschi, Ferdinando Galimberti and Giovanni Battista Lampugnani.
Sammartini is especially associated with the formation of the concert symphony through both the shift from a brief opera-overture style and the introduction of a new seriousness and use of thematic development that prefigure Haydn and Mozart.

Antonio Brioschi

The Milanese school centred around Giovanni Battista Sammartini and included Antonio Brioschi, Ferdinando Galimberti and Giovanni Battista Lampugnani.
c. 1725 – 1750) was an Italian symphony composer who wrote at least twenty six symphonies; most of which were preserved in the collection of Pierre Philibert de Blancheton.

Choral symphony

choral symphonieschoralSymphony-Cantata
His Symphony No. 9 includes parts for vocal soloists and choir in the last movement, making it a choral symphony.
A choral symphony is a musical composition for orchestra, choir, and sometimes solo vocalists that, in its internal workings and overall musical architecture, adheres broadly to symphonic musical form.

Franz Schubert

SchubertFranz Peter SchubertSchubert’s
Of the symphonies of Franz Schubert, two are core repertory items and are frequently performed.
Despite his short lifetime, Schubert left behind a vast oeuvre, including more than 600 secular vocal works (mainly lieder), seven complete symphonies, sacred music, operas, incidental music and a large body of piano and chamber music.

Felix Mendelssohn

MendelssohnFelix Mendelssohn BartholdyFelix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy
Of the early Romantics, Felix Mendelssohn (five symphonies) and Robert Schumann (four) continued to write symphonies in the classical mold, though using their own musical language.
Mendelssohn's compositions include symphonies, concertos, piano music and chamber music.

Robert Schumann

SchumannRobertR. Schumann
Of the early Romantics, Felix Mendelssohn (five symphonies) and Robert Schumann (four) continued to write symphonies in the classical mold, though using their own musical language.
He composed four symphonies, one opera, and other orchestral, choral, and chamber works.

Georg Matthias Monn

MonnMatthias Georg Monn
Early exponents of the form in Vienna included Georg Christoph Wagenseil, Wenzel Raimund Birck and Georg Matthias Monn, while later significant Viennese composers of symphonies included Johann Baptist Wanhal, Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf and Leopold Hofmann.
However, his successful introduction of the secondary theme in the symphony was an important element for the First Viennese School (Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert) that would come some fifty years later.

Minuet

MenuettoMenuetminuet and trio
The term also describes the musical form that accompanies the dance, which subsequently developed more fully, often with a longer musical form called the minuet and trio, and was much used as a movement in the early classical symphony.

Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale

Symphonie funèbre et triomphaleGrande symphonie funebre et triomphaleGrande symphonie funèbre et triomphale, Op. 15
His fourth and last symphony, the Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale (originally titled Symphonie militaire) was composed in 1840 for a 200-piece marching military band, to be performed out of doors, and is an early example of a band symphony.
Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale (English: Grand Funeral and Triumphal Symphony), Op. 15, is the fourth and last symphony by the French composer Hector Berlioz, first performed on 28 July 1840 in Paris.

Symphonic poem

tone poemtone poemssymphonic poems
Indeed, after Schumann's last symphony, the "Rhenish" composed in 1850, for two decades the Lisztian symphonic poem appeared to have displaced the symphony as the leading form of large-scale instrumental music.
While many symphonic poems may compare in size and scale to symphonic movements (or even reach the length of an entire symphony), they are unlike traditional classical symphonic movements, in that their music is intended to inspire listeners to imagine or consider scenes, images, specific ideas or moods, and not (necessarily) to focus on following traditional patterns of musical form such as sonata form.

Alexander Borodin

BorodinAleksandr BorodinA. Borodin
If the symphony had been eclipsed, it was not long before it re-emerged in a "second age" in the 1870s and 1880s, with the symphonies of Anton Bruckner, Johannes Brahms, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Camille Saint-Saëns, Alexander Borodin, Antonín Dvořák, and César Franck—works which continued to dominate the concert repertory for at least a century.
Borodin is known best for his symphonies, his two string quartets, the symphonic poem In the Steppes of Central Asia and his opera Prince Igor.

Symphony No. 4 (Beethoven)

Symphony No. 4Beethoven's 4thFourth Symphony
This is, for instance, the scoring used in Beethoven's symphonies numbered 1, 2, 4, 7, and 8.
4''' in B major, Op. 60, is the fourth-published symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven.

Symphony No. 8 (Mahler)

Symphony No. 8Eighth SymphonySymphony of a Thousand
His Eighth Symphony, for example, was composed in 1906 and is nicknamed the "Symphony of a Thousand" because of the large number of voices required to perform the work.
The last of Mahler's works that was premiered in his lifetime, the symphony was a critical and popular success when he conducted the Munich Philharmonic in its first performance, in Munich, on 12 September 1910.