Syntactic movement

movementtracemovementsa-bar movement dependencyhead to head movementmovedmovesovert specifier movementttrace (linguistics)
Syntactic movement is the means by which some theories of syntax address discontinuities.wikipedia
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Wh-movement

wh''-frontingwh-frontingfronted
Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.
In languages with wh-movement, sentences or clauses with a wh-word show a special word order that has the wh-word (or phrase containing the wh-word) appear at the front of the sentence or clause (Who do you think about?) instead of in a more canonical position later in the sentence (I think about you) The opposite is called wh in situ.

Discontinuity (linguistics)

discontinuitydiscontinuitieslong-distance dependencies
Syntactic movement is the means by which some theories of syntax address discontinuities.
Modern theories of transformational grammar (e.g. Government and Binding Theory and the Minimalist Program ) assume a movement or copying procedure that moves or copies constituents out of one position into another in the course of the derivation.

Government and binding theory

government and bindingmaximal projectionChomsky's Binding Theory
The concept of movement is controversial; it is associated with so-called transformational or derivational theories of syntax (e.g. transformational grammar, government and binding theory, minimalist program).
Another important application of the government relation constrains the occurrence and identity of traces as the Empty Category Principle requires them to be properly governed.

Locality (linguistics)

localitydomainExtralocality
Since it was first proposed, the theory of syntactic movement yielded a new field of research aiming at providing the filters that block certain types of movement, also called locality theory.
Theories of transformational grammar use syntactic locality constraints to explain restrictions on argument selection, syntactic binding, and syntactic movement.

Topicalization

topicalizedfrontingnon-topicalised
Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.
These more layered structures are likely to address topicalization in terms of movement or copying, as illustrated with the following two trees:

Extraposition

Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.
Derivational theories are likely to produce an analysis in terms of movement (or copying), and representational theories are likely to assume feature passing (instead of movement).

Scrambling (linguistics)

scramblingScramblescrambled
Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.
Constituency-based theories (phrase structure theories) that prefer strictly binary branching structures are likely to address most cases of scrambling in terms of movement (or copying).

Empty category

little proempty categoriesempty preposition
More details and examples can be found in the article on empty categories.
Trace

Movement paradox

Syntactic movement is controversial, especially in light of movement paradoxes.
Given a transformational approach to syntax, the following related sentences are explained in terms of movement:

Move α

Move
Move alpha
The term refers to the relation between an indexed constituent and its trace t, e.g., the relation of whom and [t] in the example

PRO (linguistics)

PRObig PRO
PRO (linguistics)
These principles allow control verbs to be explained by movement and what had previously been analyzed as PRO is instead treated as the trace of DP/NP-movement.

Constituent (linguistics)

constituentconstituentssyntactic constituents
Certain constituents appear to have been displaced from the position where they receive important features of interpretation.

Transformational grammar

transformationaltransformational generative grammartransformational-generative grammar
The concept of movement is controversial; it is associated with so-called transformational or derivational theories of syntax (e.g. transformational grammar, government and binding theory, minimalist program). In transformational grammar, movement has been signaled by a trace t since at least the 1970s proposal by Noam Chomsky, e.g.

Minimalist program

bare phrase structureMinimalismMinimalist
The concept of movement is controversial; it is associated with so-called transformational or derivational theories of syntax (e.g. transformational grammar, government and binding theory, minimalist program).

Head-driven phrase structure grammar

HPSG
Representational theories (e.g. head-driven phrase structure grammar, lexical functional grammar, construction grammar, and most dependency grammars), in contrast, reject the notion of movement, often addressing discontinuities in terms of feature passing or persistent structural identities instead.

Lexical functional grammar

lexical-functional grammarLFG
Representational theories (e.g. head-driven phrase structure grammar, lexical functional grammar, construction grammar, and most dependency grammars), in contrast, reject the notion of movement, often addressing discontinuities in terms of feature passing or persistent structural identities instead.

Construction grammar

constructionBerkeley Construction Grammarconstructionally
Representational theories (e.g. head-driven phrase structure grammar, lexical functional grammar, construction grammar, and most dependency grammars), in contrast, reject the notion of movement, often addressing discontinuities in terms of feature passing or persistent structural identities instead.

Dependency grammar

dependentdependencydependency grammars
Representational theories (e.g. head-driven phrase structure grammar, lexical functional grammar, construction grammar, and most dependency grammars), in contrast, reject the notion of movement, often addressing discontinuities in terms of feature passing or persistent structural identities instead.

Inversion (linguistics)

inversioninvertedinverting
Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.

Shifting (syntax)

shifting
Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.

Noam Chomsky

ChomskyChomsky, NoamChomskyan
In transformational grammar, movement has been signaled by a trace t since at least the 1970s proposal by Noam Chomsky, e.g.

Head (linguistics)

headheadsheaded
Phrasal movement occurs when the head of a phrase moves together with all its dependents in such a manner that the entire phrase moves.

Phrase

phrasesphrasalword-group
Phrasal movement occurs when the head of a phrase moves together with all its dependents in such a manner that the entire phrase moves.

Inflectional phrase

inflection phraseAgreement phrasetensed I
On the assumption that the auxiliaries has and will are the heads of phrases – of IPs (inflection phrases), for instance – the b-sentences are the result of head movement, whereby the auxiliary verbs has and will move leftward without taking with them the rest of the phrase that they head.

Subject–auxiliary inversion

subject-auxiliary inversioninversioninversion of subject and auxiliary
An analysis of subject-auxiliary inversion that acknowledges rightward movement can dispense with head movement entirely, e.g.