Syntactic movementwikipedia
Syntactic movement is the means by which some theories of syntax address discontinuities.
movementtracesyntactic movementmovementstracestmovestrace (linguistics)movedhead to head movement

Wh-movement

wh-movementwh''-frontingwh-fronting
Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.
In languages with wh-movement, sentences or clauses with a wh-word show a special word order that has the wh-word (or phrase containing the wh-word) appear at the front of the sentence or clause (Who do you think about?) instead of in a more canonical position later in the sentence (I think about you) The opposite is called wh in situ.

Locality (linguistics)

localitydomainisland constraint
Since it was first proposed, the theory of syntactic movement yielded a new field of research aiming at providing the filters that block certain types of movement, also called locality theory.
Theories of transformational grammar use syntactic locality constraints to explain restrictions on argument selection, syntactic binding, and syntactic movement.

Empty category

empty categorylittle proempty categories
In transformational grammar, a trace is an empty (phonologically null) category that occupies a position in the syntactic structure following syntactic movement.

Discontinuity (linguistics)

discontinuitydiscontinuitieslong-distance dependencies
Syntactic movement is the means by which some theories of syntax address discontinuities.
Modern theories of transformational grammar (e.g. Government and Binding Theory and the Minimalist Program ) assume a movement or copying procedure that moves or copies constituents out of one position into another in the course of the derivation.

Government and binding theory

government and binding theorygovernment and bindingmaximal projection
The concept of movement is controversial; it is associated with so-called transformational or derivational theories of syntax (e.g. transformational grammar, government and binding theory, minimalist program). In government and binding theory, traces are subject to the empty category principle (ECP), which states that all traces must be "properly governed".
Another important application of the government relation constrains the occurrence and identity of traces as the Empty Category Principle requires them to be properly governed.

Movement paradox

movement paradox
Syntactic movement is controversial, especially in light of movement paradoxes.
Given a transformational approach to syntax, the following related sentences are explained in terms of movement:

Empty category principle

empty category principleempty categories
In government and binding theory, traces are subject to the empty category principle (ECP), which states that all traces must be "properly governed".
The ECP is supposed to be a universal syntactic constraint that requires certain types of empty categories, namely traces, to be properly governed.

Move α

movemove α
The term refers to the relation between an indexed constituent and its trace t, e.g., the relation of whom and [t] in the example

Topicalization

topicalizationtopicalizednon-topicalised
Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.
These more layered structures are likely to address topicalization in terms of movement or copying, as illustrated with the following two trees:

Scrambling (linguistics)

scramblingunbounded scramblingword scrambling
Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.
Constituency-based theories (phrase structure theories) that prefer strictly binary branching structures are likely to address most cases of scrambling in terms of movement (or copying).

Extraposition

extraposition
Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.
Derivational theories are likely to produce an analysis in terms of movement (or copying), and representational theories are likely to assume feature passing (instead of movement).

Syntax

syntaxsyntacticsyntactical
In transformational grammar, a trace is an empty (phonologically null) category that occupies a position in the syntactic structure following syntactic movement.

PRO (linguistics)

PRObig PRO
These principles allow control verbs to be explained by movement and what had previously been analyzed as PRO is instead treated as the trace of DP/NP-movement.

Pied-piping

pied-pipingpied-piped
In linguistics, pied-piping is a phenomenon of syntax whereby a given focused expression takes an entire encompassing phrase with it when it is "moved".

Raising (linguistics)

raisingsubject raisingVerb raising
In linguistics, raising constructions involve the movement of an argument from an embedded or subordinate clause to a matrix or main clause; in other words, a raising predicate/verb appears with a syntactic argument that is not its semantic argument, but is rather the semantic argument of an embedded predicate.

Subjacency

Subjacency ConditionSubjacency principle
Subjacency is a general syntactic locality constraint on movement.

Antisymmetry

antisymmetryantisymmetricKayne's theory of antisymmetry
Kayne hypothesizes that all phrases whose surface order is not specifier-head-complement have undergone movements that disrupt this underlying order.

Operator (linguistics)

operatoroperatorsquantifier raising
In generative grammar, the technical term operator denotes a type of expression that enters into an a-bar movement dependency.

Relaxed pronunciation

slurred speechrelaxed pronunciationslur
See trace (linguistics) for some further info.

Parasitic gap

parasitic gapparasitic gaps
Their appearance appears to be reliant on syntactic movement (e.g. wh-movement or topicalization).

Theta criterion

theta criterion
Since trace transmits theta-role, movements resulting in non-local relations between theta-role assigners and receivers in surface structure don't violate theta-criterion.

Welsh syntax

four periphrastic tenses
and have argued for an underlying subject-verb-object (SVO) word order with the surface VSO word order derived by syntactic movement of the verb to a higher position in the clause.

Resumptive pronoun

resumptive pronounresumptive
Crucial to understanding resumptive pronouns is grasping the concept of their counterpart: the trace.

Verb–object–subject

VOSverb–object–subjectverb-object-subject
In verb-initial languages, the extended projection principle causes overt specifier movement due to either strong tense [T], verb [V], or predicate [Pred] features.