Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntacticallysyntactic structuresentence structuresyntactic theorysyntacticianarrangementSyntacticsstructure
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences (sentence structure) in a given language, usually including word order.wikipedia
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Word order

free word orderconstituent orderword-order
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences (sentence structure) in a given language, usually including word order.
Correlations between orders found in different syntactic sub-domains are also of interest.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences (sentence structure) in a given language, usually including word order.
These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences).

Verb

verbsv.verbal morphology
One basic description of a language's syntax is the sequence in which the subject (S), verb (V), and object (O) usually appear in sentences.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

Formal language

formal language theoryformal languageslanguage
In mathematics, syntax refers to the rules governing the notation of mathematical systems, such as formal languages used in logic.
The field of formal language theory studies primarily the purely syntactical aspects of such languages—that is, their internal structural patterns.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
The Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini (c. 4th century BC in Ancient India), is often cited as an example of a premodern work that approaches the sophistication of a modern syntactic theory (as works on grammar were written long before modern syntax came about).
The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.

Pāṇini

PaniniAṣṭādhyāyīPaninian
The Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini (c. 4th century BC in Ancient India), is often cited as an example of a premodern work that approaches the sophistication of a modern syntactic theory (as works on grammar were written long before modern syntax came about).
Pāṇini is known for his text Ashtadhyayi, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar, 3,959 "verses" or rules on linguistics, syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" which is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period.

Government and binding theory

government and bindingmaximal projectionChomsky's Binding Theory
Government and binding theory (GB) (revised theory in the tradition of TG developed mainly by Chomsky in the 1970s and 1980s)
Government and binding (GB, GBT) is a theory of syntax and a phrase structure grammar in the tradition of transformational grammar developed principally by Noam Chomsky in the 1980s.

Generalized phrase structure grammar

generalised phrase structure grammargeneralized phrase structureGPSG
Generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG; now largely out of date)
Generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG) is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages.

Natural language

linguisticnaturalnatural languages
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences (sentence structure) in a given language, usually including word order.
Such examples include bees' waggle dance and whale song, to which researchers have found or applied the linguistic cognates of dialect and even syntax.

Verb–object–subject

VOSverb-object-subjectverb–object–subject (VOS)
The other possible sequences are VSO, VOS, OVS, and OSV, the last three of which are rare.
The Principles and Parameters theory sets VOS and SVO clause structure as syntactically identical, but the theory does not account for why SVO is typologically more common than VOS structure.

Arc pair grammar

Arc pair grammar
In linguistics, arc pair grammar (APG) is a theory of syntax that aims to formalize and expand upon relational grammar.

Categorial grammar

syntactic calculus
Categorial grammar is an approach that attributes the syntactic structure not to rules of grammar, but to the properties of the syntactic categories themselves.
Categorial grammar is a term used for a family of formalisms in natural language syntax motivated by the principle of compositionality and organized according to the view that syntactic constituents should generally combine as functions or according to a function-argument relationship.

Nanosyntax

Nanosyntax
Nanosyntax is an approach to syntax in which the terminal nodes of syntactic parse trees may be reduced to units smaller than a morpheme.

Relational grammar

relational
Relational grammar (RG) (now largely out of date)
In linguistics, relational grammar (RG) is a syntactic theory which argues that primitive grammatical relations provide the ideal means to state syntactic rules in universal terms.

Phrase structure rules

phrase structurephrase structure rulePhrase structure trees
For example, rather than asserting that sentences are constructed by a rule that combines a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP) (e.g., the phrase structure rule S → NP VP), in categorial grammar, such principles are embedded in the category of the head word itself.
Phrase structure rules are a type of rewrite rule used to describe a given language's syntax and are closely associated with the early stages of transformational grammar, being first proposed by Noam Chomsky in 1957.

Head (linguistics)

headheadsheaded
For example, rather than asserting that sentences are constructed by a rule that combines a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP) (e.g., the phrase structure rule S → NP VP), in categorial grammar, such principles are embedded in the category of the head word itself.
In linguistics, the head or nucleus of a phrase is the word that determines the syntactic category of that phrase.

Lexical functional grammar

lexical-functional grammarLFG
Lexical functional grammar (LFG)
It mainly focuses on syntax, including its relation with morphology and semantics.

Formal system

logical systemdeductive systemsystem of logic
Other linguists (e.g., Gerald Gazdar) take a more Platonistic view, since they regard syntax to be the study of an abstract formal system.
the syntax of a language is what the language looks like (more formally: the set of possible expressions that are valid utterances in the language) studied in formal language theory

Operator grammar

Operator grammar
Operator Grammar proposes that each human language is a self-organizing system in which both the syntactic and semantic properties of a word are established purely in relation to other words.

Musical syntax

Musical syntax
When analysing the regularities and structure of music as well as the processing of music in the brain, certain findings lead to the question of whether music is based on a syntax that could be compared with linguistic syntax.

Syntactic category

syntactic categoriesfunctional categoriescategories
Categorial grammar is an approach that attributes the syntactic structure not to rules of grammar, but to the properties of the syntactic categories themselves.
A syntactic category is a type of syntactic unit that theories of syntax assume.

Word grammar

Word grammar
It started as a model of syntax, whose most distinctive characteristic is its use of dependency grammar, an approach to syntax in which the sentence's structure is almost entirely contained in the information about individual words, and syntax is seen as consisting primarily of principles for combining words.

Head-driven phrase structure grammar

HPSG
Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG)
A word has two features: [PHON] (the sound, the phonetic form) and [SYNSEM] (the syntactic and semantic information), both of which are split into subfeatures.

Construction grammar

constructionBerkeley Construction Grammarconstructionally
Construction grammar (CxG)
The formal aspect of a construction is typically described as a syntactic template, but the form covers more than just syntax, as it also involves phonological aspects, such as prosody and intonation.