Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntacticallysyntactic structuresentence structuresyntacticiansyntactic theoryarrangementstructuresyntactic structures
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences (sentence structure) in a given language, usually including word order.wikipedia
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Word order

free word orderConstituent orderbasic word order
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences (sentence structure) in a given language, usually including word order.
Correlations between orders found in different syntactic sub-domains are also of interest.

Verb

verbssubject-verb agreementv.
One basic description of a language's syntax is the sequence in which the subject (S), verb (V), and object (O) usually appear in sentences.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences (sentence structure) in a given language, usually including word order.
These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences).

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
4th century BC in Ancient India), is often cited as an example of a premodern work that approaches the sophistication of a modern syntactic theory (as works on grammar were written long before modern syntax came about).
The term refers also to the study of such rules and this field includes phonology, morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics and pragmatics.

Logic

logicianlogicallogics
It became apparent that there was no such thing as the most natural way to express a thought, and therefore logic could no longer be relied upon as a basis for studying the structure of language.
There is no universal agreement as to the exact scope and subject matter of logic (see, below), but it has traditionally included the classification of arguments, the systematic exposition of the 'logical form' common to all valid arguments, the study of proof and inference, including paradoxes and fallacies, and the study of syntax and semantics.

Pāṇini

PaniniAshtadhyayiAṣṭādhyāyī
The Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini (c.
Pāṇini is known for his text Aṣṭādhyāyī, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar, 3,959 "verses" or rules on linguistics, syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" which is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period.

Government and binding theory

government and bindingmaximal projectionChomsky's Binding Theory
Government and binding (GB, GBT) is a theory of syntax and a phrase structure grammar in the tradition of transformational grammar developed principally by Noam Chomsky in the 1980s.

Generalized phrase structure grammar

Generalised phrase structure grammargeneralized phrase structureGeneralized phrase structure grammar (GPSG)
Generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG) is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages.

Natural language

linguisticnaturalnatural languages
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences (sentence structure) in a given language, usually including word order.
Such examples include bees' waggle dance and whale song, to which researchers have found or applied the linguistic cognates of dialect and even syntax.

Arc pair grammar

In linguistics, arc pair grammar (APG) is a theory of syntax that aims to formalize and expand upon relational grammar.

Categorial grammar

Lambek calculussyntactic calculus
Categorial grammar is an approach that attributes the syntactic structure not to rules of grammar, but to the properties of the syntactic categories themselves.
Categorial grammar is a term used for a family of formalisms in natural language syntax motivated by the principle of compositionality and organized according to the view that syntactic constituents should generally combine as functions or according to a function-argument relationship.

Nanosyntax

Nanosyntax is an approach to syntax in which the terminal nodes of syntactic parse trees may be reduced to units smaller than a morpheme.

Relational grammar

relationalRelational grammar (RG)
In linguistics, relational grammar (RG) is a syntactic theory which argues that primitive grammatical relations provide the ideal means to state syntactic rules in universal terms.

Phrase structure rules

phrase structurephrase structure rulePhrase structure trees
For example, rather than asserting that sentences are constructed by a rule that combines a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP) (e.g., the phrase structure rule S → NP VP), in categorial grammar, such principles are embedded in the category of the head word itself.
Phrase structure rules are a type of rewrite rule used to describe a given language's syntax and are closely associated with the early stages of transformational grammar, proposed by Noam Chomsky in 1957.

Head (linguistics)

headheadsheaded
For example, rather than asserting that sentences are constructed by a rule that combines a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP) (e.g., the phrase structure rule S → NP VP), in categorial grammar, such principles are embedded in the category of the head word itself.
In linguistics, the head or nucleus of a phrase is the word that determines the syntactic category of that phrase.

Optimality Theory

optimality theoreticOptimality Theory (OT)OT
Although much of the interest in Optimality Theory has been associated with its use in phonology, the area to which Optimality Theory was first applied, the theory is also applicable to other subfields of linguistics (e.g. syntax and semantics).

Lexical functional grammar

Lexical-functional grammarLFGLexical functional grammar (LFG)
It mainly focuses on syntax, including its relation with morphology and semantics.

Operator grammar

Operator Grammar proposes that each human language is a self-organizing system in which both the syntactic and semantic properties of a word are established purely in relation to other words.

Musical syntax

When analysing the regularities and structure of music as well as the processing of music in the brain, certain findings lead to the question of whether music is based on a syntax that could be compared with linguistic syntax.

Formal system

logical systemdeductive systemsystem of logic
Other linguists (e.g., Gerald Gazdar) take a more Platonistic view, since they regard syntax to be the study of an abstract formal system.

Syntactic category

syntactic categoriesfunctional categoriescategories
Categorial grammar is an approach that attributes the syntactic structure not to rules of grammar, but to the properties of the syntactic categories themselves.
A syntactic category is a type of syntactic unit that theories of syntax assume.

Verb–object–subject

VOSverb-object-subjectverb–object–subject (VOS)
The other possible sequences are VSO, VOS, OVS, and OSV, the last three of which are rare.
The Principles and Parameters theory sets VOS and SVO clause structure as syntactically identical, but the theory does not account for why SVO is typologically more common than VOS structure.

Head-driven phrase structure grammar

HPSGHead-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG)
A word has two features: [PHON] (the sound, the phonetic form) and [SYNSEM] (the syntactic and semantic information), both of which are split into subfeatures.

Dionysius Thrax

Dionysius the ThracianDionysios ThraxDionysios Trax
In the West, the school of thought that came to be known as "traditional grammar" began with the work of Dionysius Thrax.
It concerns itself primarily with a morphological description of Greek, lacking any treatment of syntax.