Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntacticallysyntactic structuresentence structuresyntactic theorysyntacticianarrangementsyntacticssyntactic structures
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.wikipedia
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Word order

free word orderconstituent orderword-order
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Correlations between orders found in different syntactic sub-domains are also of interest.

Verb

verbsv.action verb
A basic feature of a language's syntax is the sequence in which the subject (S), verb (V), and object (O) usually appear in sentences.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences).

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
Works on grammar were written long before modern syntax came about; in Ancient India, the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini (c. 4th century BC) is often cited as an example of a premodern work that approaches the sophistication of a modern syntactic theory.
The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.

Formal language

formal language theoryformal languageslanguage
In mathematics, syntax refers to the rules governing the notation of mathematical systems, such as formal languages used in logic.
The field of formal language theory studies primarily the purely syntactical aspects of such languages—that is, their internal structural patterns.

Government and binding theory

government and bindingmaximal projectionGovernment-Binding
Government and binding theory (GB) (revised theory in the tradition of TG developed mainly by Chomsky in the 1970s and 1980s)
Government and binding (GB, GBT) is a theory of syntax and a phrase structure grammar in the tradition of transformational grammar developed principally by Noam Chomsky in the 1980s.

Generalized phrase structure grammar

generalized phrase structuregeneralised phrase structure grammarGPSG
Generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG; now largely out of date)
Generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG) is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages.

Pāṇini

PaniniAṣṭādhyāyīVālmīkivyākaranam
Works on grammar were written long before modern syntax came about; in Ancient India, the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini (c. 4th century BC) is often cited as an example of a premodern work that approaches the sophistication of a modern syntactic theory.
Pāṇini is known for his text Ashtadhyayi, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar, 3,959 "verses" or rules on linguistics, syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" which is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period.

Categorial grammar

syntactic calculus
Categorial grammar is an approach that attributes the syntactic structure not to rules of grammar, but to the properties of the syntactic categories themselves.
Categorial grammar is a term used for a family of formalisms in natural language syntax motivated by the principle of compositionality and organized according to the view that syntactic constituents should generally combine as functions or according to a function-argument relationship.

Phrase structure rules

phrase structurephrase structure rulerules
For example, rather than asserting that sentences are constructed by a rule that combines a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP) (e.g., the phrase structure rule S → NP VP), in categorial grammar, such principles are embedded in the category of the head word itself.
Phrase structure rules are a type of rewrite rule used to describe a given language's syntax and are closely associated with the early stages of transformational grammar, being first proposed by Noam Chomsky in 1957.

Head (linguistics)

headheadsheaded
For example, rather than asserting that sentences are constructed by a rule that combines a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP) (e.g., the phrase structure rule S → NP VP), in categorial grammar, such principles are embedded in the category of the head word itself.
In linguistics, the head or nucleus of a phrase is the word that determines the syntactic category of that phrase.

Nanosyntax

Nanosyntax
Nanosyntax is an approach to syntax in which the terminal nodes of syntactic parse trees may be reduced to units smaller than a morpheme.

Relational grammar

relational
Relational grammar (RG) (now largely out of date)
In linguistics, relational grammar (RG) is a syntactic theory which argues that primitive grammatical relations provide the ideal means to state syntactic rules in universal terms.

Syntactic category

syntactic categoriesfunctional categoriescategories
Categorial grammar is an approach that attributes the syntactic structure not to rules of grammar, but to the properties of the syntactic categories themselves.
A syntactic category is a type of syntactic unit that theories of syntax assume.

Musical syntax

Musical syntax
When analysing the regularities and structure of music as well as the processing of music in the brain, certain findings lead to the question of whether music is based on a syntax that could be compared with linguistic syntax.

Arc pair grammar

Arc pair grammar
In linguistics, arc pair grammar is a syntactic theory developed by David E. Johnson and Paul Postal which is a formalized continuation of relational grammar developed by David M. Perlmutter and Paul M. Postal.

Adjective

adjectivesadjectivalattributive adjective
Adjective
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

Operator grammar

Operator grammar
Operator Grammar proposes that each human language is a self-organizing system in which both the syntactic and semantic properties of a word are established purely in relation to other words.

Verb–object–subject

VOSverb-object-subjectverb–object–subject (VOS)
The other possible sequences are VSO, VOS, OVS, and OSV, the last three of which are rare.
The Principles and Parameters theory sets VOS and SVO clause structure as syntactically identical, but the theory does not account for why SVO is typologically more common than VOS structure.

Natural language

linguisticnatural languagesnatural
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Such examples include bees' waggle dance and whale song, to which researchers have found or applied the linguistic cognates of dialect and even syntax.

Lexical functional grammar

lexical-functional grammarLFG
Lexical functional grammar (LFG)
It mainly focuses on syntax, including its relation with morphology and semantics.

Constituent (linguistics)

constituentconstituentssyntactic constituents
Constituent
In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure.

Catena (linguistics)

catenacatenae
Catena
In linguistics, the catena (English pronunciation:, plural catenas or catenae; from Latin for "chain") is a unit of syntax and morphology, closely associated with dependency grammars.

Coordination (linguistics)

coordinationcoordinatedcoordinate structure
Coordination
In linguistics, coordination is a frequently occurring complex syntactic structure that links together two or more elements, known as conjuncts or conjoins.