A report on Synthetic fiber

Joseph Swan created the first synthetic fiber.
Nylon was first synthesized by Wallace Carothers at DuPont.
A device for spinning Viscose Rayon dating from 1901

Synthetic fibers or synthetic fibres (in British English; see spelling differences) are fibers made by humans through chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that are directly derived from living organisms, such as plants (like cotton) or fur from animals.

- Synthetic fiber
Joseph Swan created the first synthetic fiber.

24 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Structure of Twaron and Kevlar. The aromatic rings appear as hexagons. The rings are attached alternately to either two NH groups or two CO groups. The attachment points on each ring are diametrically opposite each other, meaning this is classed as a para-aramid.

Aramid

4 links

Structure of Twaron and Kevlar. The aromatic rings appear as hexagons. The rings are attached alternately to either two NH groups or two CO groups. The attachment points on each ring are diametrically opposite each other, meaning this is classed as a para-aramid.

Aramid fibers, short for aromatic polyamide, are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers.

A bundle of optical fibers

Fiber

3 links

Natural or man-made substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.

Natural or man-made substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.

A bundle of optical fibers

Synthetic come entirely from synthetic materials such as petrochemicals, unlike those man-made fibers derived from such natural substances as cellulose or protein.

Rifle protection police shield used by the National Police of Colombia. Stops 7.62 mm and 5.56 mm caliber rounds. Made from light ceramics and Twaron.

Twaron

3 links

Para-aramid.

Para-aramid.

Rifle protection police shield used by the National Police of Colombia. Stops 7.62 mm and 5.56 mm caliber rounds. Made from light ceramics and Twaron.

It is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibre developed in the early 1970s by the Dutch company Akzo Nobel's division Enka BV, later Akzo Industrial Fibers.

A coil of right-handed laid three-strand rope

Rope

2 links

Group of yarns, plies, fibres, or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form.

Group of yarns, plies, fibres, or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form.

A coil of right-handed laid three-strand rope
Construction of cable
Hawser-laid rope (Seaman's Pocket-Book, 1943)
Three-strand natural fibre laid line
Bollard and mooring line
Ancient Egyptians were the first to document tools for ropemaking
Illustration of the S and Z naming convention
Rope making using the twisted rope method on a 1928 Metters Rope Making Machine
A rope braiding machine at the Arbetets Museum (Museum of Work) in Norrköping, Sweden
Dynamic kernmantle rock climbing rope with its braided sheath cut to expose the twisted core yarns and core yarn plies
Section through kernmantle rope
Cordage aboard the French training ship Mutin
A ropemaker at work, {{circa|1425}}
A German ropemaker, {{circa|1470}}
Public demonstration of historical ropemaking technique
A piece of preserved rope found on board the 16th century carrack Mary Rose
A ropewalk in Karlskrona, Sweden

Rope may be constructed of any long, stringy, fibrous material, but generally is constructed of certain natural or synthetic fibres.

Ester group (blue) which defines polyesters.

Polyester

2 links

Category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in every repeat unit of their main chain.

Category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in every repeat unit of their main chain.

Ester group (blue) which defines polyesters.
Close-up of a polyester shirt
SEM picture of a bend in a high-surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section
A drop of water on a water resistant polyester
frameless
frameless
frameless
frameless
frameless
frameless
frameless
frameless

Synthetic fibers using polyester have high water, wind and environmental resistance compared to plant-derived fibers.

Inventor of Kevlar, Stephanie Kwolek, an American chemist

Kevlar

2 links

Inventor of Kevlar, Stephanie Kwolek, an American chemist
The reaction of 1,4-phenylene-diamine (para-phenylenediamine) with terephthaloyl chloride yielding Kevlar
Molecular structure of Kevlar: bold represents a monomer unit, dashed lines indicate hydrogen bonds.
Pieces of a Kevlar helmet used to help absorb the blast of a grenade
Kevlar is a very popular material for racing canoes.
Fire poi on a beach in San Francisco
Kevlar mooring line

Kevlar (para-aramid) is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora.

Raw silk

Animal fiber

1 links

Animal fibers are natural fibers that consist largely of certain proteins.

Animal fibers are natural fibers that consist largely of certain proteins.

Raw silk
Wool
Bison-hair gloves and a wool blanket used by a stagecoach company
Handspun llama yarn from Patagonia

With animal fibers, and natural fibers in general, the individual fibers look different, whereas all synthetic fibers look the same.

Weaving at Finlayson factory in Tampere, Finland in 1951

Textile manufacturing

1 links

Major industry.

Major industry.

Weaving at Finlayson factory in Tampere, Finland in 1951
Platt Bros. Picker
Carding machine
A Combing machine
A Warper
A Draper loom in textile museum, Lowell, Massachusetts
A circular knitting machine.
Close-up on the needles.
Traditional spinner in her family's house in Old Bagan, Myanmar (2019).
Mule spinning
Mule spinning
Ring spinning
Ring spinning

Most spinning today is done using break, or open-end spinning. This is a technique where the fibres are blown by air into a rotating drum, where they attach themselves to the tail of formed yarn that is continually being drawn out of the chamber. Other methods of break spinning use needles and electrostatic forces. This method has replaced the older methods of ring and mule spinning. It is also easily adapted for artificial fibres.

Sailcloth is typically made from PET fibers also known as polyester or under the brand name Dacron; colorful lightweight spinnakers are usually made of nylon.

Polyethylene terephthalate

1 links

Sailcloth is typically made from PET fibers also known as polyester or under the brand name Dacron; colorful lightweight spinnakers are usually made of nylon.
Replacing terephthalic acid (right) with isophthalic acid (center) creates a kink in the PET chain, interfering with crystallization and lowering the polymer's melting point.
Polyesterification reaction in the production of PET
Polycondensation reaction in the production of PET
600px
A finished PET drink bottle compared to the preform from which it is made. Worldwide, 480 billion plastic drinking bottles were made in 2016 (and less than half were recycled).
50px
PET has SPI resin ID code 1
PET preform for injection stretch blow moulding of a bottle
A finished PET bottle
A PET bottle which has been heated by a candle and has recrystallized, making it opaque.
PET clamshell packaging, used to sell fruit, hardware, etc.
Polyester yarn
Microfiber towels and cleaning cloths
Aluminized Mylar balloons filled with helium

Polyethylene terephthalate (or poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P), is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, and thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.

A road cyclist wearing spandex compression garments

Spandex

1 links

A road cyclist wearing spandex compression garments
Synthesis of polyurethane, tetrahydrofuran (THF) is used instead of ethylene glycol in spandex production
A hurdler in a spandex uniform

Spandex, Lycra, or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity.