Syracuse, Sicily

SyracuseSiracusaSyracusanSyracusansSyracuse, ItalySyracusaeSiracusa, Italy SyracuseAncient SyracuseSiracusa, Sicily
Syracuse (Siracusa ; Sarausa ; ; ; ) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.wikipedia
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Province of Syracuse

SyracuseSiracusaProvince of Siracusa
Syracuse (Siracusa ; Sarausa ; ; ; ) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
Its capital is the city of Syracuse, a town established by Greek colonists arriving from Corinth in the 8th century BC.

Sicily

SicilianSiciliaSicilians
Syracuse (Siracusa ; Sarausa ; ; ; ) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
The most important colony was in Syracuse; others were located at Akragas, Selinunte, Gela, Himera and Zancle.

Archimedes

Archimedes of SyracuseArchimedeanArchimedes Heat Ray
The city is notable for its rich Greek history, culture, amphitheatres, architecture, and as the birthplace of the preeminent mathematician and engineer Archimedes.
He is credited with designing innovative machines, such as his screw pump, compound pulleys, and defensive war machines to protect his native Syracuse from invasion.

Ancient Corinth

CorinthCorinthiansCorinthian
The city was founded by Ancient Greek Corinthians and Teneans and became a very powerful city-state. Syracuse was allied with Sparta and Corinth and exerted influence over the entirety of Magna Graecia, of which it was the most important city.
In 733 BC, Corinth established colonies at Corcyra and Syracuse.

Ancient Greece

Greekancient Greekancient Greeks
The city is notable for its rich Greek history, culture, amphitheatres, architecture, and as the birthplace of the preeminent mathematician and engineer Archimedes.
The emigration process also determined a long series of conflicts between the Greek cities of Sicily, especially Syracuse, and the Carthaginians.

Epicharmus of Kos

Epicharmus
A possible origin of the city's name was given by Vibius Sequester citing first Stephanus Byzantius in that there was a Syracusian marsh called Syrako and secondly Marcian's Periegesis wherein Archias gave the city the name of a nearby marsh; hence one gets Syrako (and thereby Syrakousai and other variants) for the name of Syracuse, a name also attested by Epicharmus.
Epicharmus of Kos or Epicharmus Comicus or Epicharmus Comicus Syracusanus, thought to have lived between c. 550 and c. 460 BC, was a Greek dramatist and philosopher who is often credited with being one of the first comic writers, having originated the Doric or Sicilian comedic form.

Akrai

AcraeAkrai-Palazzolo
Colonies were founded at Akrai (664 BC), Kasmenai (643 BC), Akrillai (7th century BC), Helorus (7th century BC) and Kamarina (598 BC).
Akrai (Acrenses ) was a Greek colony founded in Sicily by the Syracusans in 663 BC.

Ortygia

Ortigiaisland
The nucleus of the ancient city was the small island of Ortygia.
Ortygia (Ortigia; ) is a small island which is the historical centre of the city of Syracuse, Sicily.

Magna Graecia

Magna GreciaGreekGreater Greece
Syracuse was allied with Sparta and Corinth and exerted influence over the entirety of Magna Graecia, of which it was the most important city.
These Hellenic colonies became very rich and powerful, and some still stand today, like Neapolis ("New City", now Naples), Syracuse, Akragas (Agrigento), Taras (Taranto), Rhegion (Reggio Calabria), or Kroton (Crotone).

Roman Republic

RomanRepublicRomans
It later became part of the Roman Republic and the Byzantine Empire.
They plundered the surroundings until Hiero II, the new tyrant of Syracuse, defeated them (in either 269 or 265).

Gelon

GeloGelon of SyracuseGelon I
The former, however, returned to power in 485 BC, thanks to the help of Gelo, ruler of Gela.
Gelon aka Gelo (Greek: Γέλων Gelon, gen.: Γέλωνος; died 478 BC), son of Deinomenes, was a 5th-century BC ruler of Gela and Syracuse and first of the Deinomenid rulers.

Casmenae

KasmenaiCasmeneKasmene
Colonies were founded at Akrai (664 BC), Kasmenai (643 BC), Akrillai (7th century BC), Helorus (7th century BC) and Kamarina (598 BC).
Casmenae or Kasmenai (Casmene in Italian) was an ancient Greek colony located on the Hyblaean Mountains, founded in 644 BC by the Syracusans at a strategic position for the control of central Sicily.

Necropolis of Pantalica

PantalicaRocky Necropolis of PantalicaPantalica culture
In the modern day, the city is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site along with the Necropolis of Pantalica.
Together with the city of Syracuse, Pantalica was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2005.

Tenea

The city was founded by Ancient Greek Corinthians and Teneans and became a very powerful city-state.
Under the leadership of Archias in 734 or 733 BC, Teneans and Corinthians established the joint colony of Syracuse in Sicily, the homeland of Archimedes.

Gela

Gela, SicilyTerranovaGelas
The former, however, returned to power in 485 BC, thanks to the help of Gelo, ruler of Gela.
The city was founded around 688 BC by colonists from Rhodes and Crete, 45 years after the founding of Syracuse.

History of Sparta

SpartaSpartansSpartan
Syracuse was allied with Sparta and Corinth and exerted influence over the entirety of Magna Graecia, of which it was the most important city.
In 415 BC, Athens decided to capture Syracuse, a colony of Dorian Corinth.

Saint Lucy's Day

LuciaSaint Lucia's DaySt. Lucia Day
The patron saint of the city is Saint Lucy; she was born in Syracuse and her feast day, Saint Lucy's Day, is celebrated on 13 December.
An inscription in Syracuse dedicated to Euskia mentioning St Lucy's Day as a local feast dates back to the 4th century A.D., which states "Euskia, the irreproachable, lived a good and pure life for about 25 years, died on my Saint Lucy's feast day, she for whom I cannot find appropriate words of praise: she was a Christian, faithful, perfection itself, full of thankfulness and gratitude".

Battle of Cumae

Cumaefought
Gelo was succeeded by his brother Hiero, who fought against the Etruscans at Cumae in 474 BC.
The Battle of Cumae was a naval battle in 474 BCE between the combined navies of Syracuse and Cumae against the Etruscans.

Hiero I of Syracuse

Hiero IHieronHiero
Gelo was succeeded by his brother Hiero, who fought against the Etruscans at Cumae in 474 BC.
Hieron I (Ἱέρων Α΄; usually Latinized Hiero) was the son of Deinomenes, the brother of Gelon and tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily from 478 to 467 BC.

Agrigento

AgrigentumAkragasAcragas
In the Battle of Himera, Gelo, who had allied with Theron of Agrigento, decisively defeated the African force led by Hamilcar.
Although the city remained neutral in the conflict between Athens and Syracuse, its democracy was overthrown when the city was sacked by the Carthaginians in 406 BC.

Constans II

Constans II PogonatosEmperor Constans IIConstans
Under Emperor Constans II, it served as the capital of the Byzantine Empire (663–669).
However, having attracted the hatred of the citizens of Constantinople, Constans decided to leave the capital and to move to Syracuse in Sicily.

Peloponnesian War

Peloponnesian WarsArchidamian WarPeloponesian War
In the late 5th century BC, Syracuse found itself at war with Athens, which sought more resources to fight the Peloponnesian War.
In 415 BC, Athens dispatched a massive expeditionary force to attack Syracuse, Sicily; the attack failed disastrously, with the destruction of the entire force in 413 BC.

Sicilian Expedition

Battle of SyracuseAthenian expeditionsiege of Syracuse
The Syracusans enlisted the aid of a general from Sparta, Athens' foe in the war, to defeat the Athenians, destroy their ships, and leave them to starve on the island (see Sicilian Expedition).
The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian military expedition to Sicily, which took place from 415–413 BC during the Peloponnesian War between the Athenian empire, or the Delian League, on one side and Sparta, Syracuse and Corinth on the other.

Akrillai

AcrillaeAcrille
Colonies were founded at Akrai (664 BC), Kasmenai (643 BC), Akrillai (7th century BC), Helorus (7th century BC) and Kamarina (598 BC).
The city was founded by the Corinthian and Syracusan colonists at the same time of Kamarina (598 BC), overlooking the Valley of the Hipparis to establish their power against the city of Gela, founded by a Cretan-Rhodian effort.

Megara

MegarianMegariansMegarid
Gelo himself became the despot of the city, and moved many inhabitants of Gela, Kamarina and Megara to Syracuse, building the new quarters of Tyche and Neapolis outside the walls.
In historical times, Megara was an early dependency of Corinth, in which capacity colonists from Megara founded Megara Hyblaea, a small polis north of Syracuse in Sicily.