Syria

Syrian Arab RepublicSyrianEtymology of SyriaAssad regimeSyrian governmentYabrudBa'athist SyriaSport in SyriaArab Republic of SyriaSyrie
Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.wikipedia
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Lebanon

LebaneseLebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon
Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Palestine to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea.

Iraq

Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Iraq (, or ; ٱلْعِرَاق, '; عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

Jordan

Hashemite Kingdom of JordanTransjordanKingdom of Jordan
Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south and the east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and Israel and the Palestinian West Bank to the west.

Turkey

TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south.

Demographics of Syria

SyrianSyriansSyria
A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians, Mandeans and Turkemens.
Syria's estimated population is at about 22 ±.5 million (pre-Syrian Civil War 2011) permanent inhabitants, which include

Armenians in Syria

ArmeniansArmenianSyria
A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians, Mandeans and Turkemens.
The Armenians in Syria are Syrian citizens of either full or partial Armenian descent.

Greeks in Syria

GreeksGreco-SyrianGreek
A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians, Mandeans and Turkemens.
Today, there is a Greek community of about 4,500 in Syria, most of whom have Syrian nationality and who live mainly in Aleppo (the country's main trading and financial centre), Baniyas, Tartous, and Damascus, the capital.

Syrian Jews

Syrian JewishSyrianSyrian-Jewish
Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Isma'ilis, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Yazidis, and Jews.
Syrian Jews ( Yehudey Surya, الْيَهُود السُّورِيُّون al-Yahūd as-Sūriyyūn, colloquially called SYs in the United States) are Jews who lived in the region of the modern state of Syria, and their descendants born outside Syria.

Circassians in Syria

CircassiansCircassianCircassian community
A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians, Mandeans and Turkemens.
The Circassians in Syria (Circassian: Сирием ис адыгэхэр) refers to the Circassian diaspora, some of whom settled in Syria (then part of the Ottoman Empire) in the 19th century.

Yazidis

YazidiYezidiYezidis
Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Isma'ilis, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Yazidis, and Jews.
Yazidis (also written as Yezidis) are an endogamous and mostly Kurmanji-speaking group of contested ethnic origin, indigenous to Iraq, Syria, and Turkey.

Aleppo

Emirate of AleppoHalabAleppo, Syria
Aleppo and the capital city Damascus are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
Aleppo (ﺣَﻠَﺐ / ALA-LC:, ; Alep) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate.

Damascus

Damascus, SyriaSultanate of DamascusDamascene
Aleppo and the capital city Damascus are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian Arabic:, Damas) is the capital of Syria; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

Governorates of Syria

GovernorategovernoratesSyrian Governorate
Syria is a unitary republic consisting of 14 governorates and is the only country that politically espouses Ba'athism.
Syria is a unitary state, but for administrative purposes, it is divided into fourteen governorates, also called provinces or counties in English (Arabic muḥāfaẓāt, singular muḥāfaẓah).

Arab League

League of Arab StatesArab StatesArab
It is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it has been suspended from the Arab League in November 2011 and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and self-suspended from the Union for the Mediterranean.
The Arab League was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 initially with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.

Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon

French MandateFrench Mandate of SyriaFrench Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon
The modern Syrian state was established in the mid-20th century after centuries of Ottoman and a brief period French mandate, and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman-ruled Syrian provinces.
The Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon (Mandat pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان ) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.

Human rights in Syria

human rightsdiscrimination against womenhuman rights abuses
Through his rule, Syria and the ruling Ba'ath Party was condemned and criticized for human rights abuses, frequent executions of citizens and political prisoners, and massive censorship.
The situation for human rights in Syria is considered egregiously poor among international observers.

Bashar al-Assad

Bashar AssadAssadBashar Al Assad
Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1971 to 2000.
In addition, he is commander-in-chief of the Syrian Armed Forces and Regional Secretary of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's branch in Syria.

Syrian Civil War

civil warSyriaSyrian uprising
Since March 2011, Syria has been embroiled in an armed conflict, with a number of countries in the region and beyond involved militarily or otherwise.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah) is an ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria fought between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, along with domestic and foreign allies, and various domestic and foreign forces opposing both the Syrian government and each other in varying combinations.

Internet censorship in Syria

Syriablocked intermittently between 2008 and February 2011internet gateways to and from Syria were cut off
Through his rule, Syria and the ruling Ba'ath Party was condemned and criticized for human rights abuses, frequent executions of citizens and political prisoners, and massive censorship.
Syria bans websites for political reasons and arrests people accessing them.

Syrian Republic (1946–1963)

SyriaSyrian RepublicSyrian Republic (1946–63)
It gained de jure independence as a parliamentary republic on 24 October 1945, when Republic of Syria became a founding member of the United Nations, an act which legally ended the former French Mandate – although French troops did not leave the country until April 1946.
In 1958, Syria joined with the Republic of Egypt in forming the United Arab Republic, though Syria withdrew from the union in 1961 and adopted the name Syrian Arab Republic.

Syrian opposition

oppositionSyrian rebelsSyrian rebel
As a result, a number of self-proclaimed political entities have emerged on Syrian territory, including the Syrian opposition, Rojava, Tahrir al-Sham and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
The Syrian opposition evolved since the beginning of the Syrian conflict from groups calling for the overthrow of the Assad government in Syria and who have opposed its Ba'athist government.

Mandaeans

MandeansMandaeanMandean
A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians, Mandeans and Turkemens.
In the aftermath of the Iraq War of 2003, the Mandaean community of Iraq, which used to number 60,000–70,000 persons, collapsed; most of the community relocated to nearby Iran, Syria and Jordan, or formed diaspora communities beyond the Middle East.

Druze

DruzesDruzismDruse
Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Isma'ilis, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Yazidis, and Jews.
They are found primarily in Syria, Lebanon (where the Druze are considered part of their Muslim population), and Israel, with small communities in Jordan.

Assyria

Assyrian EmpireAssyriansAssyrian
Several sources indicate that the name Syria is derived from the 8th century BC Luwian term "Sura/i", and the derivative ancient Greek name: Σύριοι, ', or Σύροι, ', both of which originally derived from Aššūrāyu (Assyria) in northern Mesopotamia.
A largely Semitic-speaking realm, Assyria was centred on the Tigris in Upper Mesopotamia (modern northern Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and the northwestern fringes of Iran).

Israel

State of IsraelIsraeliISR
Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest.