Female figurine, 5000 BC. Ancient Orient Museum.
Ishqi-Mari, king of the Second Kingdom of Mari, circa 2300 BC.
Amrit Phoenician Temple
Ancient city of Palmyra before the war
Roman Theatre at Bosra in the province of Arabia, present-day Syria
Temple of Jupiter, Damascus
The ancient city of Apamea, an important commercial center and one of Syria's most prosperous cities in classical antiquity
Umayyad fresco from Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbî, built in the early 7th century
The 1299 Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar. The Mongols under Ghazan defeated the Mamluks.
Syrian women, 1683
1803 Cedid Atlas, showing Ottoman Syria labelled as "Al Sham" in yellow
Armenian deportees near Aleppo during the Armenian genocide, 1915
The inauguration of President Hashim al-Atassi in 1936
Syrian rebels in Ghouta during the Great Syrian Revolt against French colonial rule in the 1920s
Aleppo in 1961
Quneitra village, largely destroyed before the Israeli withdrawal in June 1974.
Military situation in the Lebanese Civil War, 1983: Green – controlled by Syria
A Syrian Army soldier manning a checkpoint outside of Damascus shortly after the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War, 2012
Diplomatic missions of Syria
Map of world and Syria (red) with military involvement.
The Syrian Golan Heights occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War
Wounded civilians arrive at a hospital in Aleppo, October 2012
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Syria, since 1820
Aleppo soap
Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus in 2010
A cove in Latakia in 2014
Oil refinery in Homs
Expressway M5 near Al-Rastan
Damascus, traditional clothing
The ethno-religious composition of Syria
Great Mosque of Aleppo, Aleppo
Our Lady of Saidnaya Monastery in Saidnaya, Rif Dimashq
Damascus University headquarters in Baramkeh
UIS adult literacy rate of Syria
Dabke combines circle dance and line dancing and is widely performed at weddings and other joyous occasions.
Aleppo International Stadium
Fattoush, a Syrian bread salad

Western Asian country located in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Levant.

- Syria

500 related topics


Kurds in Syria

Kurdish-inhabited areas by CIA (2002)
The first licensed female doctors in India, Syria and Japan. Anandibai Joshee (Indian), Kei Okami (Japanese), Sabat Islambooly (Kurdish Jew from Syria) – 10 October 1885
Kurdish-inhabited areas
Provisions of the Treaty of Sèvres for an independent Kurdistan (in 1920).
Provisions of the Treaty of Sèvres
The flag of Kurdistan is banned in Syria, but it has begun to be flown during the Syrian uprising and civil war.
On 22 July 2012, the Arab town of Ras al-Ayn (pictured above) and a series of other towns in the northeastern Syria were captured by the People's Protection Units (YPG).
YPG's female units were fighting against ISIS in Syria
The flag of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria

The Kurdish population of Syria (كرد سورية) is the country's largest ethnic minority, usually estimated at around 10% of the Syrian population and 5% of the Kurdish population.


Damascus in spring seen from Spot satellite
Mount Qasioun overlooking the city
One of the rare periods the Barada river is high, seen here next to the Four Seasons hotel in downtown Damascus
Municipalities of Damascus
Annotated view of Damascus and surroundings from space.
Ruins of the Jupiter Temple at the entrance of Al-Hamidiyah Souq
The Biblical Street called Straight of Damascus
Remnants of ancient Damascus
Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque
View of Damascus with the Umayyad Mosque in center
The dome of Damascus' treasury in the Umayyad Mosque
Damascus was the capital of the Umayyad caliphate, which extended from Portugal to India
The twin domes of the funerary-Medresa of Nur ad-Din also Known as the Madrasah Nuriyya al-Kubra
Woodcut of 1497
Tekkiye Mosque
Photograph of the Christian quarter of Damascus after its destruction in 1860
The Turkish Hospital in Damascus on 1 October 1918, shortly after the entry of the Australian 4th Light Horse Regiment
King Faisal of Syria and T.E. Lawrence in Damascus during World War I, 1918.
The Damascus Opera House, opened in 2004
Damascus in 2006, taken from the International Space Station
The Four Seasons Hotel
Bank Al-Sharq and the Blue Tower Hotel, a 4 star hotel in Hamra Street.
Three Damascene women, 1873: peasant (left), Druze in tantour headdress, and urban lady wearing qabqab (i.e. kabkab or platform shoes)
Patriarch John the Tenth leading mass at the Mariamite Cathedral of Damascus
Typical historic Damascene street
Al-Hamidiyah Souq, dating back to the Ottoman era
Bab Tuma gate
The Chapel of Saint Paul
Saladin mausoleum
Grave of Bilal ibn Rabah in Bab al-Saghir cemetery, Damascus
Narrow alley in old Damascus
Damascus University
Al-Hejaz Station
National Museum of Damascus
Al-Fayhaa Sports Complex
Zabadani resort near Damascus
Booza being sold in the Bakdash ice cream shop in the Damascus market
The Greek-Melkite Patriarchal Cathedral of the Dormition of Our Lady
The Syriac Catholic Cathedral of Saint Paul
The Tekkiye Mosque
The Umayyad Mosque
The Sayyidah Ruqayya Mosque

Damascus (, ; دمشق, is the capital of Syria, the oldest capital in the world and, according to some, the fourth holiest city in Islam.


Yazidi chief in Bashiqa, Iraq - picture by Albert Kahn (1910s)
Yazidi women in traditional dress
Yazidi boy in traditional clothes. In Sinjar, male Yazidis used to wear pigtails.
Aziz Tamoyan, the President of the Yezidi National Union ULE in Armenia
Yazidi new year celebrations in Lalish, 18 April 2017
Two Yazidi men at the new year celebrations in Lalish, 18 April 2017
Yazidi men
The Ziarat temple in Aknalich, Armenia
Yazidi men in Mardin, Turkey, late 19th century
Image from A journey from London to Persepolis, 1865
Defend International provided humanitarian aid to Yazidi refugees in Iraqi Kurdistan in December 2014.
Yazidi Peshmerga at the shrine of Sharaf ad-Din in the Sinjar Mountains, 2019
Yazidi temple in Bashiqa, 2020

Yazidis or Yezidis (ئێزیدی) are a Kurmanji-speaking endogamous minority group who are indigenous to Kurdistan, a geographical region in Western Asia that includes parts of Iraq, Syria, Turkey and Iran.

Iraq–Syria border

Map of the Iraq-Syria border
ISIL's territory, in grey, at the time of its greatest territorial extent in May 2015

The Iraqi–Syrian border is the border between Syria and Iraq and runs for a total length of 599 km across Upper Mesopotamia and the Syrian desert, from the tripoint with Jordan in the south-west to the tripoint with Turkey in the north-east.


Arab nationalist ideology which promotes the creation and development of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party over a progressive revolutionary government.

The flag of the Baath Party, based on the flag of the Arab Revolt
Zaki Arsuzi, politician who influenced Ba'athist thought and that after the Ba'ath Party splintered became the chief ideologist of the Syrian-dominated Ba'ath Party
Michel Aflaq, the founder of Baathist thought, who, after the Baath Party splintered, became the chief ideologist for the Iraqi-dominated Baath Party.
Salah Jadid (pictured) is commonly considered to be the first Neo-Ba'athist leader.
Iraqi and Syrian Ba'athist leaders (belonging to the Ba'ath Party headquartered in Baghdad) during the funeral of Michel Aflaq in 1989.
Saddam Hussein (right) talking with Aflaq (left) in 1988.

The ideology is officially based on the theories of the Syrian intellectuals Michel Aflaq (per the Iraqi-led Ba'ath Party), Zaki al-Arsuzi (per the Syrian-led Ba'ath Party), and Salah al-Din al-Bitar.

Demographics of Syria

Syria population pyramid in 2020
Population density, 1993

Syria's estimated pre–Syrian Civil War 2011 population was 22 ±.5 million permanent inhabitants, which included 21,124,000 Syrians, as well as 1.3 million Iraqi refugees and over 500,000 Palestinians.


Ruins of the outer wall and the "Damascus Gate"
The first kingdom at its greatest extent, including vassals
Royal palace "G"
Approximate borders of the second kingdom
Akkadian soldier of Naram-Sin, with helmet and long sword, on the Nasiriyah stele. He carries a metal vessel of Anatolian type. From Mesopotamia, Iraq, c. 2300 BCE. Iraq Museum.
Palace "P5"
Statue fragment of Ibbit-Lim.
The vizier palace
Ebla's landmarks
The western palace "Q" situated above the royal necropolis
Plan of the western palace tombs
Royal palace "G" courtyard

Ebla (Sumerian: eb₂-la, إبلا, modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh) was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria.

Arab League

Regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Northern Africa, Western Africa, Eastern Africa, and Western Asia.

Arab League of states establishment memorial stamp. Showing flags of the 8 establishing countries: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen), Syrian Republic, Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Lebanese Republic and Palestine
Joining dates of member states; the Comoros (circled) joined in 1993.
 1940s 1950s 1960s  1970s
Headquarters of the Arab League, Cairo.
Administrative divisions in the Arab League.
2013 Arab League Summit Logo
OAPEC Members

The Arab League was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 initially with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.


Ancient Aleppo
Hadad Temple Inside Aleppo Citadel
Al-Qaiqan Mosque was originally a Hittite pagan temple during ancient times; in addition, a stone block with Anatolian hieroglyphs can be found on the southern wall
Beroea as it is shown in Tabula Peutingeriana
The ruins of the Maronite basilica in Barad
The Mosque of Abraham in the Citadel of Aleppo, originally built by the Byzantines as a church
The old walls of Aleppo and the Gate of Qinnasrin restored in 1256 by An-Nasir Yusuf
Souq az-Zirb, where coins were struck during the Mamluk period
Al-Otrush Mosque of the Mamluk period
Khusruwiyah Mosque of the early Ottoman period
1842 daguerreotype by Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey (the earliest photograph of the city)
Khan al-Shouneh dating back to 1546
The 17th-century oriental mansion of Beit Ghazaleh
Qalayet al-Mawarina alley at the Christian quarter in Jdeydeh, dating back to the early 17th century
General Gouraud crossing through al-Khandaq street on 13 September 1920
Grand Serail d'Alep, originally planned to become the seat of the government of the short-lived State of Aleppo
Boulevard de France, renamed after Shukri al-Quwatli upon the independence of Syria
Bab al-Faraj Clock Tower
Tilel street
The scene at Saadallah Al-Jabiri Square after being targeted by the Assad regime and Al-Nusra Front in October 2012
The National Presbyterian Church of Aleppo after being destroyed on 6 November 2012
The nearby Kurd Mountains at the northwest of Aleppo
Queiq River
Aleppo Citadel
Villa Rose, built in 1928 during the period of the French mandate
Throne hall of the citadel
Aleppo Citadel, roof of the baths, with the mosque and minaret in the background.
Two Bedouins and a Jewish woman in Aleppo, 1873
Syrian children in Aleppo
Ar-Rahman Mosque, Aleppo
Armenian Apostolic church of the Holy Mother of God
The Central synagogue in 2011
Musicians from Aleppo, 18th century
Aleppo Citadel Museum
Kebab khashkhash from Aleppo
Aleppine lahmajoun
The Shahba Mall
A shop in al-Madina Souq displaying Aleppo soap products, 2004
Ancient Aleppo, Al-Madina Souq
Gate of Antioch rebuilt during the 11th century
The courtyard of the Great Mosque of Aleppo
Al-Shibani building
Hammam al-Nahhasin
Kharab Shams Basilica, 4th century
Church of Saint Simeon Stylites, 5th century
Aleppo Railway Station
Aleppo International Airport
Traditional textile and rug markets
Markets at Tilel street
The restored square of the citadel
The faculty of Arts and Humanities at the University of Aleppo
Aleppo International Stadium
Aleppo City Hall
Souq al-Dira', maintaining its traditional role as a tailoring centre
Khan al-Wazir after rehabilitation in 2009
The historic street of al-Khandaq, restored just before the civil war

Aleppo (ﺣَﻠَﺐ / ALA-LC: Ḥalab, ) is a city in Syria, which serves as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate with an official population of 4.6 million in 2010.

Mediterranean Sea

Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea
Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity c. the 6th century BC
The Roman Empire at its farthest extent in AD 117
The Battle of Lepanto, 1571, ended in victory for the European Holy League against the Ottoman Turks.
The bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet in support of an ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Borders of the Mediterranean Sea
Approximate extent of the Mediterranean drainage basin (dark green). Nile basin only partially shown
Map of the Mediterranean Sea from open Natural Earth data, 2020
Alexandria, the largest city on the Mediterranean
Barcelona, the second largest metropolitan area on the Mediterranean Sea (after Alexandria) and the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean
The Acropolis of Athens with the Mediterranean Sea in the background
The ancient port of Jaffa (now in Tel Aviv-Yafo), from which the biblical Jonah set sail before being swallowed by a whale
Catania, Sicily, Italy, with Mount Etna in the background
İzmir, the third metropolis of Turkey (after Istanbul and Ankara)
Africa (left, on horizon) and Europe (right), as seen from Gibraltar
Positano, Italy, Tyrrhenian Sea
View of the Saint George Bay, and snow-capped Mount Sannine from a tower in the Beirut Central District
The Port of Marseille seen from L'Estaque
Sarandë, Albania, stands on an open-sea gulf of the Ionian sea in the central Mediterranean.
The two biggest islands of the Mediterranean: Sicily and Sardinia (Italy)
Predominant surface currents for June
A submarine karst spring, called vrulja, near Omiš; observed through several ripplings of an otherwise calm sea surface.
Messinian salinity crisis before the Zanclean flood
The thermonuclear bomb that fell into the sea recovered off Palomares, Almería, 1966
Stromboli volcano in Italy
The reticulate whipray is one of the species that colonised the Eastern Mediterranean through the Suez Canal as part of the ongoing Lessepsian migration.
A cargo ship cruises towards the Strait of Messina
Port of Trieste
Kemer Beach in Antalya on the Turkish Riviera (Turquoise Coast). In 2019, Turkey ranked sixth in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 51.2 million foreign tourists visiting the country.
Coast of Alexandria, view From Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
Beach of Hammamet, Tunisia
The beach of la Courtade in the Îles d'Hyères, France
Sardinia's south coast, Italy
Pretty Bay, Malta
Panoramic view of Piran, Slovenia
Panoramic view of Cavtat, Croatia
View of Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina
A view of Sveti Stefan, Montenegro
Ksamil Islands, Albania
Navagio, Greece
Ölüdeniz, Turquoise Coast, Turkey
Paphos, Cyprus
Burj Islam Beach, Latakia, Syria
A view of Raouché off the coast of Beirut, Lebanon
A view of Haifa, Israel
Old city of Ibiza Town, Spain
Les Aiguades near Béjaïa, Algeria
El Jebha, a port town in Morocco
Europa Point, Gibraltar
Panoramic view of La Condamine, Monaco
Sunset at the Deir al-Balah beach, Gaza Strip

The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco; Malta and Cyprus are island countries in the sea.