Syria Palaestina

PalestinePalaestinaRoman PalestineSyria PalæstinaSyriaSyria PalestinaextendingPalestinaprovince of PalestineProvincia Syria Palaestina
Syria Palaestina was a Roman province between 135 AD and about 390.wikipedia
269 Related Articles

Judea (Roman province)

JudeaJudaeaIudaea Province
It was established by the merger of Roman Syria and Roman Judaea, following the defeat of the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135 AD. The Roman province of Judea incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Israel.
After the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–135), the Roman Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina and the name of the city of Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina, which certain scholars conclude was an attempt to disconnect the Jewish people from their homeland.

Judea

JudaeaJudeanJudah
The Roman province of Judea incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Israel. Palaestina Prima consisted of Judea, Samaria, the Paralia, and Peraea, with the governor residing in Caesarea.
As a consequence of the Bar Kokhba revolt, in 135 CE the region was renamed and merged with Roman Syria to form Syria Palaestina by the victorious Roman Emperor Hadrian.

Roman province

provinceprovincesRoman provinces
The Roman province of Judea incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Israel. Syria Palaestina was a Roman province between 135 AD and about 390.

Bar Kokhba revolt

Bar Kochba revoltBar Kokhba's revoltSecond Jewish Revolt
It was established by the merger of Roman Syria and Roman Judaea, following the defeat of the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135 AD. Shortly before or after the Bar Kokhba's revolt (132–135), the Roman Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the Judea province and merged it with Roman Syria to form Syria Palaestina, and founded Aelia Capitolina on the ruins of Jerusalem, which certain scholars conclude was done in an attempt to remove the relationship of the Jewish people to the region. Between 132–135, Simon bar Kokhba led a revolt against the Roman Empire, controlling parts of Judea, for three years.
In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea or Ancient Israel, Emperor Hadrian wiped the name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina.

Palestine (region)

PalestinePalestinianPalestine region
Furthermore, the juxtaposition of Syria and Palestina together into combined name Syria Palaestina predates Hadrian's naming decision by at least 6 centuries, the term already long in use in Classical Greek historical literature to refer to Palestine as part of a broader Syrian region encompassing the Levant from Cappadocia and Cilicia in the north down through Phoenicia and Palestina, bordering Egypt to the south.
The name was used by ancient Greek writers, and it was later used for the Roman province Syria Palaestina, the Byzantine Palaestina Prima, and the Islamic provincial district of Jund Filastin.

Jerusalem

Jerusalem, IsraelAl-QudsQuds
Shortly before or after the Bar Kokhba's revolt (132–135), the Roman Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the Judea province and merged it with Roman Syria to form Syria Palaestina, and founded Aelia Capitolina on the ruins of Jerusalem, which certain scholars conclude was done in an attempt to remove the relationship of the Jewish people to the region.
Following the Bar Kokhba revolt, Emperor Hadrian combined Iudaea Province with neighboring provinces under the new name of Syria Palaestina, replacing the name of Judea.

Simon bar Kokhba

Bar KochbaBar KokhbaBar-Kochba
Between 132–135, Simon bar Kokhba led a revolt against the Roman Empire, controlling parts of Judea, for three years.
In the aftermath of the war, Hadrian consolidated the older political units of Judaea, Galilee and Samaria into the new province of Syria Palaestina, which is commonly interpreted as an attempt to complete the disassociation with Judaea.

Aelia Capitolina

AeliaColonia Aelia Capitolinaentrance to the eastern forum
Shortly before or after the Bar Kokhba's revolt (132–135), the Roman Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the Judea province and merged it with Roman Syria to form Syria Palaestina, and founded Aelia Capitolina on the ruins of Jerusalem, which certain scholars conclude was done in an attempt to remove the relationship of the Jewish people to the region. After the Jewish–Roman wars (66–135), which Epiphanius believed the Cenacle survived, the significance of Jerusalem to Christians entered a period of decline, Jerusalem having been temporarily converted to the pagan Aelia Capitolina, but interest resumed again with the pilgrimage of Helena (the mother of Constantine the Great) to the Holy Land c. 326–28.
Hadrian renamed Iudaea Province to Syria Palaestina, dispensing with the name of Judea.

Palmyrene Empire

PalmyraPalmyreneeastern provinces
Zenobia rebelled against Roman authority with the help of Cassius Longinus and took over Bosra and lands as far to the west as Egypt, establishing the short-lived Palmyrene Empire.
It encompassed the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Arabia Petraea, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor.

Hadrian

Emperor HadrianHadrianicPublius Aelius Hadrianus
Shortly before or after the Bar Kokhba's revolt (132–135), the Roman Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the Judea province and merged it with Roman Syria to form Syria Palaestina, and founded Aelia Capitolina on the ruins of Jerusalem, which certain scholars conclude was done in an attempt to remove the relationship of the Jewish people to the region. As a result, Hadrian sent Sextus Julius Severus to the region, who brutally crushed the revolt.
Hadrian erased the province's name from the Roman map, renaming it Syria Palaestina.

Caesarea Maritima

CaesareaCaesarea PalaestinaCaesarea in Palestine
The capital of Roman Syria was established in Antioch from the very beginning of Roman rule, while the capital of the Judaea province was shifted to Caesarea Maritima, which, according to historian H. H. Ben-Sasson, had been the "administrative capital" of the region beginning in 6 AD. Palaestina Prima consisted of Judea, Samaria, the Paralia, and Peraea, with the governor residing in Caesarea.
It later became the provincial capital of Roman Judea, Roman Syria Palaestina and Byzantine Palaestina Prima provinces.

Jewish–Roman wars

Jewish-Roman warsJewish rebellionsJewish Resistance
Judea province was the scene of unrest at its founding in 6 AD during the Census of Quirinius and several wars were fought in its history, known as the Jewish–Roman wars. After the Jewish–Roman wars (66–135), which Epiphanius believed the Cenacle survived, the significance of Jerusalem to Christians entered a period of decline, Jerusalem having been temporarily converted to the pagan Aelia Capitolina, but interest resumed again with the pilgrimage of Helena (the mother of Constantine the Great) to the Holy Land c. 326–28.
In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea or Ancient Israel, he wiped the name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina, supplanting earlier terms, such as Judaea.

Roman Syria

SyriaSyrianByzantine Syria
It was established by the merger of Roman Syria and Roman Judaea, following the defeat of the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135 AD.

Decapolis

Decapolis LeagueDekapolisRoman rule
Palaestina Secunda consisted of the Galilee, the lower Jezreel Valley, the regions east of Galilee, and the western part of the former Decapolis, with the seat of government at Scythopolis.
In the time of the Emperor Trajan, the cities were placed into the provinces of Syria and Arabia Petraea; several cities were later placed in Syria Palaestina and Palaestina Secunda.

Palaestina Prima

PalestinePalestina PrimaPalaestina I
In circa 390, Syria Palaestina was reorganised into several administrative units: Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda, and Palaestina Tertia (in the 6th century), Syria Prima and Phoenice and Phoenice Lebanensis. Palaestina Prima consisted of Judea, Samaria, the Paralia, and Peraea, with the governor residing in Caesarea.
Under Byzantium, a new subdivision did further split the province of Cilicia into Cilicia Prima, Cilicia Secunda; In 6th century, Syria Palaestina was split into Syria Prima, Syria Salutaris, Phoenice Lebanensis, Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda and eventually also Palaestina Salutaris.

Eleutheropolis

Beit GuvrinBeit GubrinBeth Gibelin
New pagan cities were founded in Judea at Eleutheropolis (Bayt Jibrin), Diopolis (Lydd), and Nicopolis (Emmaus).
Eleutheropolis (Greek, Ελευθερόπολις, "Free City") was a Roman and Byzantine city in Syria Palaestina, some 53 km southwest of Jerusalem.

Helena (empress)

HelenaSaint HelenaSaint Helen
After the Jewish–Roman wars (66–135), which Epiphanius believed the Cenacle survived, the significance of Jerusalem to Christians entered a period of decline, Jerusalem having been temporarily converted to the pagan Aelia Capitolina, but interest resumed again with the pilgrimage of Helena (the mother of Constantine the Great) to the Holy Land c. 326–28.
In her final years, she made a religious tour of Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem, during which ancient tradition claims that she discovered the True Cross.

Odaenathus

OdenathusSeptimius OdaenathusSeptimius Odenathus
Septimius Odaenathus, a Prince of the Aramean state of Palmyra, was appointed by Valerian as the governor of the province of Syria Palaestina.
This area included the Roman provinces of Syria, Phoenice, Palaestina, Arabia, Anatolia's eastern regions and, following the campaign of 262, Osroene and Mesopotamia.

First Jewish–Roman War

First Jewish-Roman WarGreat Jewish RevoltJewish Revolt
The Temple was destroyed in 70 AD as part of the Great Jewish Revolt resulting in the institution of the Fiscus Judaicus.
The result was an almost complete genocide of the Jews, a ban on Judaism, and the renaming of the province from Judea to Syria Palaestina.

Perea

PeraeaPereanPerea (region)
Palaestina Prima consisted of Judea, Samaria, the Paralia, and Peraea, with the governor residing in Caesarea.
From that time Perea was part of the shifting Roman provinces to its west: Judaea, and later Syria Palaestina, Palaestina and Palaestina Prima.

Jewish diaspora

diasporaExilediaspora Jews
Following the Jewish–Roman wars, many Jews left the country altogether for the Diaspora communities, and large numbers of prisoners of war were sold as slaves throughout the Empire.
Before the middle of the first century CE, in addition to Judea, Syria and Babylonia, large Jewish communities existed in the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Egypt, Crete and Cyrenaica, and in Rome itself; after the Siege of Jerusalem in 63 BCE, when the Hasmonean kingdom became a protectorate of Rome, emigration intensified.

Diocletian

Emperor DiocletianDiocletian ReformsDiocletianus
Diocletian built the Camp of Diocletian in the city of Palmyra to harbor even more legions and walled it in to try and save it from the Sassanid threat.
He visited Syria Palaestina the following spring, His stay in the East saw diplomatic success in the conflict with Persia: in 287, Bahram II granted him precious gifts, declared open friendship with the Empire, and invited Diocletian to visit him.

Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem

Patriarch of JerusalemBishop of JerusalemJerusalem
The line of Jewish bishops in Jerusalem, which is claimed to have started with Jesus's brother James the Righteous as its first bishop, ceased to exist, within the Empire.
The province was renamed Syria Palaestina.

Zenobia

Queen ZenobiaQueen Zenobia of Palmyraal-Zabba'/Bat-Zabbai/Zenobia
When Odaenathus was assassinated by his nephew Maconius, his wife Septimia Zenobia took power, ruling Palmyra on behalf of her son, Vabalathus.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
In Northern Levant, the mixed pagan population of Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans formed the majority, alongside later arriving migrant Ismaelite Arab societies of Itureans and later also Qahtanite Ghassanids, who migrated to the area of Golantis in 4th century from what is today Yemen.
Hadrian renamed the province of Judea "Provincia Syria Palaestina," after one of Judea's most hated enemies.