Systematic review

systematic reviewsreviewsystematic literature reviewsystematic literature reviewssystemic reviewassesses published literaturehybrid systematic reviewmedical reviewmeta-articlesreviews
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize findings qualitatively or quantitatively.wikipedia
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Evidence-based medicine

evidence-basedmedical evidenceevidence
For example, systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials are key to the practice of evidence-based medicine, and a review of existing studies is often quicker and cheaper than embarking on a new study.
Although all medicine based on science has some degree of empirical support, EBM goes further, classifying evidence by its epistemologic strength and requiring that only the strongest types (coming from meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and randomized controlled trials) can yield strong recommendations; weaker types (such as from case-control studies) can yield only weak recommendations.

Adverse effect

adverse effectsside effectsside effect
Systematic reviews may examine clinical tests, public health interventions, environmental interventions, social interventions, adverse effects, and economic evaluations.
Because of the lack of these data and uncertainty about methods for synthesising them, individuals conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of therapeutic interventions often unknowingly overemphasise health benefit.

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

PRISMAThe PRISMA statement
Each included study may be assigned an objective assessment of methodological quality preferably by using methods conforming to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement (the current guideline) or the high quality standards of Cochrane.
PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) is an evidence-based minimum set of items aimed at helping authors to report a wide array of systematic reviews and meta-analyses that assess the benefits and harms of a health care intervention.

Campbell Collaboration

Groups like the Campbell Collaboration are promoting the use of systematic reviews in policy-making beyond just healthcare.
The Campbell Collaboration is a nonprofit organization that promotes evidence-based decisions and policy through the production of systematic reviews and other types of evidence synthesis.

Literature review

reviewsreview articlesliterature reviews
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize findings qualitatively or quantitatively.
A fourth type, the systematic review, is often classified separately, but is essentially a literature review focused on a research question, trying to identify, appraise, select and synthesize all high-quality research evidence and arguments relevant to that question.

Randomized controlled trial

randomized controlled trialsrandomized clinical trialrandomized control trial
For example, systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials are key to the practice of evidence-based medicine, and a review of existing studies is often quicker and cheaper than embarking on a new study.

Cochrane Library

Cochrane ReviewCochraneCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
The Cochrane Library is a collection of databases in medicine and other health care specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations.
At its core is the collection of Cochrane Reviews, a database of systematic reviews and meta-analyses which summarize and interpret the results of medical research.

Cochrane (organisation)

Cochrane reviewCochrane CollaborationCochrane
The Cochrane Library is a collection of databases in medicine and other health care specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations.
The group conducts systematic reviews of health-care interventions and diagnostic tests and publishes them in the Cochrane Library.

EPPI-Centre

The EPPI-Centre has been influential in developing methods for combining both qualitative and quantitative research in systematic reviews.
Its work is concerned with systematic reviews which use transparent and explicit methodologies for reviewing research evidence in order to be clear about what we know from research and how we know it.

Further research is needed

further researchresearch is ongoing
A 2004 metareview by the Cochrane collaboration of their own systematic medical reviews found that 93% of the reviews studied made indiscriminate FRIN-like statements, reducing their ability to guide future research.

Meta-analysis

meta-analysesmeta analysismeta-analytic
Systematic reviews often, but not always, use statistical techniques (meta-analysis) to combine results of eligible studies, or at least use scoring of the levels of evidence depending on the methodology used.
Meta-analyses are often, but not always, important components of a systematic review procedure.

Reporting bias

selective reportingOutcome reporting biasunderestimate
Reporting bias occurs when the dissemination of research findings is influenced by the nature and direction of the results, for instance in systematic reviews.

Grey literature

gray literaturegreygrey-literature
A 2003 study suggested that extending searches beyond major databases, perhaps into grey literature, would increase the effectiveness of reviews.
In the last few decades, systematic literature reviews in health and medicine have established the importance of discovering and analyzing grey literature as part of the evidence-base and in order to avoid publication bias.

Critical appraisal

Critical appraisal methods form a central part of the systematic review process.

Review article

review journalreview articlesreview
Review articles come in the form of literature reviews and, more specifically, systematic reviews; both are a form of secondary literature.

Research question

They are designed to provide a complete, exhaustive summary of current evidence relevant to a research question.

Medical research

biomedical researchmedical researcherresearch
While systematic reviews are often applied in the biomedical or healthcare context, they can be used in other areas where an assessment of a precisely defined subject would be helpful.

Economic evaluation

Systematic reviews may examine clinical tests, public health interventions, environmental interventions, social interventions, adverse effects, and economic evaluations.

Health care

healthcarehealth servicesmedical care
The Cochrane Library is a collection of databases in medicine and other health care specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations. An understanding of systematic reviews and how to implement them in practice is highly recommended for professionals involved in the delivery of health care, public health, and public policy.

Database

database management systemdatabasesDBMS
The Cochrane Library is a collection of databases in medicine and other health care specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations. The Methodology section of a systematic review will list all of the databases and citation indexes that were searched such as Web of Science, Embase, and PubMed and any individual journals that were searched.

Citation index

citation indicescitation indexingcited
The Methodology section of a systematic review will list all of the databases and citation indexes that were searched such as Web of Science, Embase, and PubMed and any individual journals that were searched.

Web of Science

ISI Web of KnowledgeWeb of KnowledgeISI
The Methodology section of a systematic review will list all of the databases and citation indexes that were searched such as Web of Science, Embase, and PubMed and any individual journals that were searched.

Embase

Excerpta MedicaEMBASE/Excerpta MedicaExcerpta Medica/EMBASE
The Methodology section of a systematic review will list all of the databases and citation indexes that were searched such as Web of Science, Embase, and PubMed and any individual journals that were searched.

PubMed

PMIDEntrez PubMedMEDLINE
The Methodology section of a systematic review will list all of the databases and citation indexes that were searched such as Web of Science, Embase, and PubMed and any individual journals that were searched.