T–V distinction

informaltufamiliar "Dufamiliar form of "youformalintimate (''tu'') and formal (''vu'')per tuT-V distinctionarchaic second-person pronoun
In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.wikipedia
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Surname

family nameoccupational surnamelast name
English speakers today often employ semantic analogues to convey the mentioned attitudes towards the addressee, such as whether to address someone by given or surname, or whether to use sir/ma'am.
This practice also differs between cultures; see T–V distinction.

Thou

theethedidst
There previously was one with the pronouns thou and you, with the familiar thou disappearing from Early Modern English.
In Middle English, thou was sometimes abbreviated by putting a small "u" over the letter thorn: þͧ. Starting in the 1300s, thou was used to express intimacy, familiarity or even disrespect, while another pronoun, you, the oblique/objective form of ye, was used for formal circumstances (see T–V distinction).

Spanish language

SpanishSpanish-languageCastilian
The study considered mainly French, Italian, Spanish and German.
Verbs express T-V distinction by using different persons for formal and informal addresses.

Pronoun

pronounspronominalpronominal system
In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.
Second person informal and formal pronouns (the T-V distinction), like tu and vous in French. There is no such distinction in standard modern English, though Elizabethan English marked the distinction with thou (singular informal) and you (plural or singular formal), and this is preserved in some dialects.

Royal we

majestic pluralWepluralis majestatis
Less commonly, the use of the plural may be extended to other persons, such as the "royal we" (majestic plural) in English.
This grammatical feature is common in languages that have the T-V distinction.

Grammatical person

personthird personfirst person
Less commonly, the use of the plural may be extended to other persons, such as the "royal we" (majestic plural) in English.
Some languages, especially European ones, distinguish degrees of formality and informality (T-V distinction).

Amharic

amhAmharaAmh.
This usage is an example of the so-called T–V distinction that is made in many languages.

Turkish language

TurkishModern TurkishTr
In modern Turkish, the T–V distinction is strong.
The language has a strong T–V distinction and usage of honorifics.

Ido language

IdoIdist Ido
In Ido, in theory tu is limited to friends and family, whereas vu is used anywhere else.
Ido also distinguishes between intimate (tu) and formal (vu) second-person singular pronouns as well as plural second-person pronouns (vi) not marked for intimacy.

Icelandic language

IcelandicModern IcelandicIcel.
Modern Icelandic is the Scandinavian dialect closest to Old Norse, which made a distinction between the plural þér and the dual þið.
T-V distinction (þérun) in modern Icelandic seems on the verge of extinction, but it can still be found, especially in structured official address and traditional phrases.

Spanish dialects and varieties

tuteodialectsSpanish dialect
Among Spanish dialects, the situation is complicated by the fact that the Spanish Empire was created during the middle of this linguistic shift, and geographically remote regions did not participate fully in it.
In Hispanic America the only second-person plural pronoun, for both formal and informal treatment, is, while in most of Spain the informal second-person plural pronoun is with used only in the formal treatment.

Sociolinguistics

sociolinguisticsociolinguistsociolinguists
In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.
T–V distinction

Basque language

BasqueEuskeraBasque-language
Basque has two levels of formality in every dialect, which are hi and zu; Nevertheless, in some areas of Gipuzkoa and Biscay, the respectful form berori is still used by some speakers, just as the familiar xu in some areas of the Eastern Low Navarrese dialect, when addressing children and close friends.
There are more persons in the singular (5) than in the plural (3) for synthetic (or filamentous) verbs because of the two familiar persons—informal masculine and feminine second person singular.

Catalan language

CatalancaCatalan-language
Catalan uses the singular pronouns tu (informal) and vostè (formal), while vosaltres (informal) and vostès (formal) are used for two or more addressees.
Pronouns additionally can have a neuter gender, and some are also inflected for case and politeness, and can be combined in very complex ways.

English language in Northern England

Northern EnglishNorthernNorthern England
, ) as a plural is found mainly in (Northern) England, Scotland, parts of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, northern Nova Scotia and parts of Ontario in Canada and parts of the northeastern United States (especially areas where there was historically Irish or Italian immigration), including in Boston, Philadelphia, New York, and scattered throughout working class Italian-American communities in the American Rust Belt.
In some case, these allow the distinction between formality and familiarity to be maintained, while in others thou is a generic second-person singular, and you (or ye) is restricted to the plural.

Hungarian language

HungarianMagyarHungarian-language
Hungarian provides numerous, often subtle means of T–V distinction:
Te (tegezés, tegeződés or pertu, per tu from Latin): Used generally, i.e. with persons with whom none of the above forms of politeness is required, and, in religious contexts, to address God. The highest rank, the king, was traditionally addressed "per tu" by all, peasants and noblemen alike, though with Hungary not having had any crowned king since 1918, this practice survives only in folk tales and children's stories. Use of "tegezés" in the media and advertisements has become more frequent since the early 1990s. It is informal and is normally used in families, among friends, colleagues, among young people, and adults speaking to children; it can be compared to addressing somebody by their first name in English. Perhaps prompted by the widespread use of English (a language without T–V distinction in most contemporary dialects) on the Internet, "tegezés" is also becoming the standard way to address people over the Internet, regardless of politeness.

Swedish language

SwedishSwedish-languageSwedish-speaking
In Swedish, there has in the last two centuries been a marked difference between usage in Finland Swedish and in Sweden.
T-V distinction.) Ni wound up being used as a slightly less familiar form of du, the singular second person pronoun, used to address people of lower social status.

Generic you

generic ''yougenericgeneric "you
The pronoun je (unstressed variant of jij) can also be used impersonally, corresponding to the English generic you. If the Sie standard here is followed, then the usage varies when addressing a group containing both du and Sie persons: Some speakers use the informal plural ihr, others prefer the formal Sie, and many, concerned that both pronouns might cause offence, prefer to use circumlocutions that avoid either pronoun, for example by expressing an imperative in infinitive form (bitte das machen), by applying the passive voice (es wird gemacht), or using the indefinite pronoun man (man macht das).
In German, the informal second-person singular personal pronoun du (you) is sometimes used in the same sense as the indefinite pronoun man (one). The equivalent informal second-person singular personal pronoun in Dutch je is similarly used, as is the equivalent pronoun in Russian.

Imperative mood

imperativeimperativesprohibitive
If the Sie standard here is followed, then the usage varies when addressing a group containing both du and Sie persons: Some speakers use the informal plural ihr, others prefer the formal Sie, and many, concerned that both pronouns might cause offence, prefer to use circumlocutions that avoid either pronoun, for example by expressing an imperative in infinitive form (bitte das machen), by applying the passive voice (es wird gemacht), or using the indefinite pronoun man (man macht das).
In languages that make a T–V distinction (tu vs. vous, du vs. Sie, você vs. tu, tu vs. usted, etc.) the use of particular forms of the second person imperative may also be dependent on the degree of familiarity between the speaker and the addressee, as with other verb forms.

Azerbaijani language

AzerbaijaniAzeriAzerbaijan
This is because there is a strong tu-vos distinction in Turkic languages like Azerbaijani and Turkish (as well as in many other languages).

Slovene language

SloveneSlovenianSlovene-language
In Slovenian, although informal address using the second person singular ti form (known as tikanje) is officially limited to friends and family, talk among children, and addressing animals, it is increasingly used instead of its polite or formal counterpart using the second person plural vi form (known as vikanje).
Slovene has a T–V distinction: second-person plural forms are used for individuals as a sign of respect.

Modern Scots

ScotsModern (Lowland) Scots languageScots pronunciation
In Modern Scots the second person singular nominative thoo (, Southern Scots, Shetlandic ) survived in colloquial speech until the mid 19th century in most of lowland Scotland.
See T–V distinction.

Middle Dutch

MiddleDietsdum
In early Middle Dutch, influenced by Old French usage, the original plural pronoun gi (or ji in the north) came to be used as a respectful singular pronoun, creating a T–V distinction.
The main differences were in the second person with the development of a T-V distinction.

Shetland Scots

Shetland dialectShetlandShetlandic
In Modern Scots the second person singular nominative thoo (, Southern Scots, Shetlandic ) survived in colloquial speech until the mid 19th century in most of lowland Scotland.
(See T–V distinction)

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
In Modern Greek, εσείς (eseís, second person plural) with second person plural verb conjugation is used as the formal counterpart of εσύ (esý, second person singular) when talking to strangers and elders, although in everyday life it is common to speak to strangers of your age or younger using the singular pronoun.