TLR2

toll-like receptor 2TLR 2TLR-2CD282
Toll-like receptor 2 also known as TLR2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR2 gene.wikipedia
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Toll-like receptor

Toll-like receptorsTLRToll
TLR2 is one of the toll-like receptors and plays a role in the immune system. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity.
The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13, though the last three are not found in humans.

Dendritic cell

dendritic cellsmyeloid dendritic cellsdendritic
Dendritic cells are likewise capable of phagocytizing but do not do it for the purpose of direct pathogen elimination.

Cytochrome P450, family 1, member A1

CYP1A1CYP1Acytochrome p-450 cyp1a1
In the intestine, TLR2 regulates the expression of CYP1A1, which is a key enzyme in detoxication of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo(a)pyrene.
In the intestine, but not the liver, CYP1A1 expression moreover depends on TOLL-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which recognizes bacterial surface structures such as lipoteichoic acid.

Benzo(a)pyrene

benzo[''a'']pyrenebenzo[a]pyrenebenzopyrenes
In the intestine, TLR2 regulates the expression of CYP1A1, which is a key enzyme in detoxication of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo(a)pyrene.
Intestinal, but not hepatic, expression of CYP1A1 depends on TOLL-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which is a eukaryotic receptor for bacterial surface structures such as lipoteichoic acid.

Neisseria meningitidis

meningococcusN. meningitidismeningococcal
Porins are also recognized by TLR2, they bind complement factors (C3b, C4b, factor H, and C4bp (complement factor 4b-binding protein)).

TLR 1

TLR1CD281TLR-1
In some cases, it occurs in a heterodimer (combination molecule), e.g., paired with TLR-1 or TLR-6. TLR 2 has been shown to interact with TLR 1 and TOLLIP.
TLR1 recognises peptidoglycan and (triacyl) lipopeptides in concert with TLR2 (as a heterodimer).

Leptospirosis

Weil's diseaseFort Bragg feverWeil's syndrome
Leptospira’s LPS only activates toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in monocytes in humans.

Lipopolysaccharide

endotoxinLPSlipopolysaccharides
A prime example of such a foreign ligand is bacterial endotoxin, whose effects have been known for generations.
It has been speculated that conical Lipid A (e.g., from E. coli) are more agonistic, less conical lipid A like those of Porphyromonas gingivalis may activate a different signal (TLR2 instead of TLR4), and completely cylindrical lipid A like that of Rhodobacter sphaeroides is antagonistic to TLRs.

Lysophosphatidylserine

Lysophosphatidylserine is a lysophospholipid which triggers TLR 2.

Lipoteichoic acid

lipotechoic acidlipoteichoic acids
Binding to TLR-2 has shown to induce NF-κB expression(a central transcription factor), elevating expression of both pro- and anti-apoptotic genes.

Porphyromonas gingivalis

P. gingivalisBacteroides gingivalisgingivalis
Fimbriae were also found to be associated with modulating β2 integrin adhesive activity for uptake by monocytes using the CD14/TLR2/PI3K signaling complex, which may contribute to intracellular evasion tactics by ''P.

Zymosan

It binds to TLR 2 and Dectin-1 (CLEC7A).

TOLLIP

TLR 2 has been shown to interact with TLR 1 and TOLLIP.
TOLLIP has been shown to interact with TOM1, TLR 2, TLR 4 and IL1RAP.

Pathogen-associated molecular pattern

PAMPspathogen-associated molecular patternsPAMP
TLR2 resides on the plasma membrane where it responds to lipid-containing PAMPs such as lipoteichoic acid and di- and tri-acylated cysteine-containing lipopeptides.
Purified cell wall components of mycobacteria activate mainly TLR2 and also TLR4.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Toll-like receptor 2 also known as TLR2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR2 gene.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
Toll-like receptor 2 also known as TLR2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR2 gene.

Cluster of differentiation

CDC'''luster of '''D'''ifferentiationclusters of differentiation
TLR2 has also been designated as CD282 (cluster of differentiation 282).

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
TLR2 is one of the toll-like receptors and plays a role in the immune system.

Membrane protein

membrane proteinsmembrane-bound proteinmembrane-bound proteins
TLR2 is a membrane protein, a receptor, which is expressed on the surface of certain cells and recognizes foreign substances and passes on appropriate signals to the cells of the immune system.

Pathogen

pathogenspathogenicpathogenicity
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity.

Innate immune system

innate immunityinnateinnate immune response
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity.

Drosophila

fruit fliesfruit flyDrosophilia
TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities.

Cytokine

cytokineschemical signalscytokine-
They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity.

White blood cell

leukocyteleukocyteswhite blood cells
This gene is expressed most abundantly in peripheral blood leukocytes, and mediates host response to Gram-positive bacteria and yeast via stimulation of NF-κB.