TOP500

Top 500fastest supercomputersTOP-500Top500.org13th in the world500 most powerful computers in the worldfastestfastest supercomputer in the worldfastest supercomputers in the worldglobal top 500
The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world.wikipedia
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Supercomputer

high-performance computinghigh performance computingsupercomputing
The project was started in 1993 and publishes an updated list of the supercomputers twice a year.
Since November 2017, all of the world's fastest 500 supercomputers run Linux-based operating systems.

LINPACK benchmarks

LINPACK benchmarkLINPACKassociated benchmark
Since June 2018, the American Summit is the world's most powerful supercomputer, reaching 143.5 petaFLOPS on the LINPACK benchmarks.
The latest version of these benchmarks is used to build the TOP500 list, ranking the world's most powerful supercomputers.

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center

NERSCNational Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center
The TOP500 list is compiled by Jack Dongarra of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Erich Strohmaier and Horst Simon of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and from 1993 until his death in 2014, Hans Meuer of the University of Mannheim, Germany.
NERSC's newest and largest supercomputer is Cori, which was ranked 5th on the TOP500 list of world's fastest supercomputers in November 2016.

Sunway TaihuLight

LightTaihuLightworld's fastest supercomputer
In recent years heterogeneous computing, mostly using Nvidia's graphics processing units (GPU) or Intel's x86-based Xeon Phi as coprocessors, has dominated the TOP500 because of better performance per watt ratios and higher absolute performance; it is almost required to make the top 10 or the top spot; the only major recent exception being the aforementioned K computer and Sunway TaihuLight.
The Sunway TaihuLight (, Shénwēi·tàihú zhī guāng) is a Chinese supercomputer which, is ranked third in the TOP500 list, with a LINPACK benchmark rating of 93 petaflops.

Tianhe-2

Tianhe
Tianhe-2 is also an interesting exception, as while it did use accelerators (just not GPUs), i.e. Xeon Phi, US sanctions blocked the upgrade, but still the upgraded Tianhe-2A is faster with non-US-based Matrix-2000, accelerators which where exploited ahead of schedule.
It was the world's fastest supercomputer according to the TOP500 lists for June 2013, November 2013, June 2014, November 2014, June 2015, and November 2015.

K computer

K SupercomputerFastest Computer in the worldTorus fusion
In recent years heterogeneous computing, mostly using Nvidia's graphics processing units (GPU) or Intel's x86-based Xeon Phi as coprocessors, has dominated the TOP500 because of better performance per watt ratios and higher absolute performance; it is almost required to make the top 10 or the top spot; the only major recent exception being the aforementioned K computer and Sunway TaihuLight. Thirteen supercomputers are based on the Power ISA used by IBM POWER microprocessors (plus one new POWER9-based in June 2019) and six (only four as of June 2019) on Fujitsu-designed SPARC64 chips (one of which – the K computer – was 1st in 2011 without any GPUs (and is still 3rd on the HPCG list ).
In June 2011, TOP500 ranked K the world's fastest supercomputer, with a computation speed of over 8 petaflops, and in November 2011, K became the first computer to top 10 petaflops.

Linux

GNU/LinuxLinux on the desktopLin
All the fastest supercomputers in the decade since the Earth Simulator supercomputer have used operating systems based on Linux.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, and the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers (since November 2017, having gradually eliminated all competitors).

Reduced instruction set computer

RISCreduced instruction set computingreduced instruction set
, all supercomputers on TOP500 are 64-bit, mostly (all Intel-based, except for three) based on x86-64 CPUs (Intel EMT64 and AMD AMD64 instruction set architecture), with few exceptions (all based on reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures).
RISC processors are also used in supercomputers such as Summit, which, is the world's fastest supercomputer as ranked by the TOP500 project.

X86

x86 architectureIntel x8680x86
Before the ascendancy of 32-bit x86 and later 64-bit x86-64 in the early 2000s, a variety of RISC processor families made up most TOP500 supercomputers, including RISC architectures such as SPARC, MIPS, PA-RISC, and Alpha.
Today, x86 is ubiquitous in both stationary and portable personal computers, and is also used in midrange computers, workstations, servers and most new supercomputer clusters of the TOP500 list.

Linux kernel

LinuxLinux kernel mainlinekernel
, all the listed supercomputers use an operating system based on the Linux kernel.
, all of the world's 500 most powerful supercomputers run Linux.

Jack Dongarra

Jack J. Dongarra
The TOP500 list is compiled by Jack Dongarra of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Erich Strohmaier and Horst Simon of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and from 1993 until his death in 2014, Hans Meuer of the University of Mannheim, Germany.
He has contributed to the design and implementation of the following open-source software packages and systems: EISPACK, LINPACK, the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS), Linear Algebra Package (LAPACK), ScaLAPACK, Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM), Message Passing Interface (MPI), NetSolve, TOP500, Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software (ATLAS), High Performance Conjugate Gradient (HPCG) and Performance Application Programming Interface (PAPI).

FLOPS

GFLOPSpetaflopsteraflops
Since June 2018, the American Summit is the world's most powerful supercomputer, reaching 143.5 petaFLOPS on the LINPACK benchmarks.
The computer's performance tops out at one petaFLOPS, almost two times faster than the Blue Gene/L, but MDGRAPE-3 is not a general purpose computer, which is why it does not appear in the Top500.org list.

Titan (supercomputer)

TitanTitan supercomputerDenovo
Titan and Sequoia became the last Blue Gene/Q models to drop out of the top10; they had been ranked 9th and 10th in the 52nd list (and 1st and 2nd in the November 2012, 40th list) and are now 12th and 13th.
This was enough to take first place in the November 2012 list by the TOP500 organization, but Tianhe-2 overtook it on the June 2013 list.

MIPS architecture

MIPSMIPS32MIPS64
Before the ascendancy of 32-bit x86 and later 64-bit x86-64 in the early 2000s, a variety of RISC processor families made up most TOP500 supercomputers, including RISC architectures such as SPARC, MIPS, PA-RISC, and Alpha.
MIPS processors also used to be popular in supercomputers during the 1990s, but all such systems have dropped off the TOP500 list.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
China currently dominates the list with 229 supercomputers, leading the second place (United States) by a record margin of 121.
Chinese technology companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing, and Chinese supercomputers are consistently ranked among the world's most powerful.

Cray

Cray ResearchCray Inc.Cray Inc
The computer, named "Aurora" is to be delivered to Argonne by Intel and Cray.
Several Cray supercomputer systems are listed in the TOP500, which ranks the most powerful supercomputers in the world.

Sequoia (supercomputer)

IBM SequoiaSequoiaIBM's Sequoia
Titan and Sequoia became the last Blue Gene/Q models to drop out of the top10; they had been ranked 9th and 10th in the 52nd list (and 1st and 2nd in the November 2012, 40th list) and are now 12th and 13th.
On June 14, 2012, the TOP500 Project Committee announced that Sequoia replaced the K computer as the world's fastest supercomputer, with a LINPACK performance of 17.17 petaflops, 63% faster than the K computer's 10.51 petaflops, having 123% more cores than the K computer's 705,024 cores.

Supercomputing in China

Supercomputer centers in ChinaNational Supercomputing Center in WuxiNational Supercomputing Center
China's Sunway TaihuLight ranks third in the TOP500 list.

David Kahaner

In 1992 he published a report titled "Kahaner Report on Supercomputer in Japan" which had an immense amount of data and was used as a source for compiling the TOP500 supercomputing list.

Xeon Phi

Intel Xeon PhiIntel MICKnights Corner
In recent years heterogeneous computing, mostly using Nvidia's graphics processing units (GPU) or Intel's x86-based Xeon Phi as coprocessors, has dominated the TOP500 because of better performance per watt ratios and higher absolute performance; it is almost required to make the top 10 or the top spot; the only major recent exception being the aforementioned K computer and Sunway TaihuLight. Tianhe-2 is also an interesting exception, as while it did use accelerators (just not GPUs), i.e. Xeon Phi, US sanctions blocked the upgrade, but still the upgraded Tianhe-2A is faster with non-US-based Matrix-2000, accelerators which where exploited ahead of schedule.
On 17 June 2013, the Tianhe-2 supercomputer was announced by TOP500 as the world's fastest.

X86-64

x64AMD64Intel 64
, all supercomputers on TOP500 are 64-bit, mostly (all Intel-based, except for three) based on x86-64 CPUs (Intel EMT64 and AMD AMD64 instruction set architecture), with few exceptions (all based on reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures). Before the ascendancy of 32-bit x86 and later 64-bit x86-64 in the early 2000s, a variety of RISC processor families made up most TOP500 supercomputers, including RISC architectures such as SPARC, MIPS, PA-RISC, and Alpha.
In supercomputers tracked by TOP500, the appearance of 64-bit extensions for the x86 architecture enabled 64-bit x86 processors by AMD and Intel (light olive with circles, and red with circles on the diagram provided in this section, respectively) to replace most RISC processor architectures previously used in such systems (including PA-RISC, SPARC, Alpha and others), as well as 32-bit x86 (green with dots and purple with dots on the diagram), even though Intel itself initially tried unsuccessfully to replace x86 with a new incompatible 64-bit architecture in the Itanium processor.

ISC High Performance

International Supercomputing ConferenceISCMannheim Supercomputer Conference
The first of these updates always coincides with the International Supercomputing Conference in June, and the second is presented at the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference in November.
Since 1993 the conference has been the venue for one of the twice yearly TOP500 announcements where the fastest 500 supercomputers in the world are named.

Hans Meuer

Dr. Hans Werner Meuer
The TOP500 list is compiled by Jack Dongarra of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Erich Strohmaier and Horst Simon of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and from 1993 until his death in 2014, Hans Meuer of the University of Mannheim, Germany.
In 1993, Hans Meuer started the TOP500 initiative together with Erich Strohmaier, Horst Simon and Jack Dongarra.

Performance per watt

Green500Green 500power efficiency
In recent years heterogeneous computing, mostly using Nvidia's graphics processing units (GPU) or Intel's x86-based Xeon Phi as coprocessors, has dominated the TOP500 because of better performance per watt ratios and higher absolute performance; it is almost required to make the top 10 or the top spot; the only major recent exception being the aforementioned K computer and Sunway TaihuLight.
, the Green500 list rates the two most efficient supercomputers highest – those are both based on the same manycore accelerator PEZY-SCnp Japanese technology in addition to Intel Xeon processors – both at RIKEN, the top one at 6673.8 MFLOPS/watt; and the third ranked is the Chinese-technology Sunway TaihuLight (a much bigger machine, that is the ranked 2nd on TOP500, the others are not on that list) at 6051.3 MFLOPS/watt.

Piz Daint (supercomputer)

Piz Daintsupercomputer
It was ranked 8th on the TOP500 ranking of supercomputers until the end of 2015, higher than any other supercomputer in Europe.