TSS (operating system)

IBM System/360 Model 67-2. This is the computer model on which TSS/360 would have run

Discontinued early time-sharing operating system designed exclusively for a special model of the System/360 line of mainframes, the Model 67.

- TSS (operating system)

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Diagram of a symmetric multiprocessing system

Symmetric multiprocessing

Symmetric multiprocessing or shared-memory multiprocessing (SMP) involves a multiprocessor computer hardware and software architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single, shared main memory, have full access to all input and output devices, and are controlled by a single operating system instance that treats all processors equally, reserving none for special purposes.

Symmetric multiprocessing or shared-memory multiprocessing (SMP) involves a multiprocessor computer hardware and software architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single, shared main memory, have full access to all input and output devices, and are controlled by a single operating system instance that treats all processors equally, reserving none for special purposes.

Diagram of a symmetric multiprocessing system
Diagram of a typical SMP system. Three processors are connected to the same memory module through a system bus or crossbar switch

The operating systems that ran on these machines were OS/360 M65MP and TSS/360.

Virtual memory combines active RAM and inactive memory on DASD to form a large range of contiguous addresses.

Virtual memory

Memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large memory".

Memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large memory".

Virtual memory combines active RAM and inactive memory on DASD to form a large range of contiguous addresses.
The University of Manchester Atlas Computer was the first computer to feature true virtual memory.

MTS, TSS/360 and CP/CMS for the IBM System/360 Model 67

MVS

The most commonly used operating system on the System/370 and System/390 IBM mainframe computers.

The most commonly used operating system on the System/370 and System/390 IBM mainframe computers.

MVS running on the Hercules emulator

The 360 Model 67 had also hosted the multiprocessor capable TSS/360, MTS and CP-67 operating systems.

OS/360 and successors

Discontinued batch processing operating system developed by IBM for their then-new System/360 mainframe computer, announced in 1964; it was influenced by the earlier IBSYS/IBJOB and Input/Output Control System packages for the IBM 7090/7094 and even more so by the PR155 Operating System for the IBM 1410/7010 processors.

Discontinued batch processing operating system developed by IBM for their then-new System/360 mainframe computer, announced in 1964; it was influenced by the earlier IBSYS/IBJOB and Input/Output Control System packages for the IBM 7090/7094 and even more so by the PR155 Operating System for the IBM 1410/7010 processors.

It also intended to supply a separate timesharing operating system, TSS/360, for the System/360 Model 67.

Teddy bear – VM's mascot since 1983.

VM (operating system)

Family of IBM virtual machine operating systems used on IBM mainframes System/370, System/390, zSeries, System z and compatible systems, including the Hercules emulator for personal computers.

Family of IBM virtual machine operating systems used on IBM mainframes System/370, System/390, zSeries, System z and compatible systems, including the Hercules emulator for personal computers.

Teddy bear – VM's mascot since 1983.
The default login screen on VM/370 Release 6.
CMS starting up after the user MAINT (system administrator) has logged in.
The CMS editor on VM/370, editing a COBOL program source file.
Invoking the System/360 COBOL compiler on VM/370 CMS, then loading and running the program.
An example of a non-CMS guest operating system running under VM/370: DOS/VS Release 34. The DOS/VS system is now prompting the operator to enter a supervisor name to continue loading.
OS/VS1 starting under VM/370.
Using DASD Dump/Restore (DDR) to back up a VM/370 system.

A mainstream operating system. IBM's mainstream operating systems (i.e. the MVS, DOS/VSE, or TSS/370 families) can be loaded and run without modification. The VM hypervisor treats guest operating systems as application programs with exceptional privileges – it prevents them from directly using privileged instructions (those which would let applications take over the whole system or significant parts of it), but simulates privileged instructions on their behalf. Most mainframe operating systems terminate a normal application which tries to usurp the operating system's privileges. The VM hypervisor can simulate several types of console terminals for the guest operating system, such as the hardcopy line-mode 3215, the graphical 3270 family, and the integrated console on newer System/390 and System Z machines.

IBM System/360 Model 30 central processor unit (CPU)

IBM System/360

Family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.

Family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.

IBM System/360 Model 30 central processor unit (CPU)
IBM System/360 Model 30 central processor unit (CPU)
IBM System/360 Model 20 CPU with front panels removed, with IBM 2560 MFCM (Multi-Function Card Machine)
IBM System/360 Model 30 CPU (red, middle of picture), tape drives to its left, and disk drives to its right, at the Computer History Museum
IBM System/360 Model 50 CPU, computer operator's console, and peripherals at Volkswagen
System/360 Model 65 operator's console, with register value lamps and toggle switches (middle of picture) and "emergency pull" switch (upper right)
IBM System/360 Model 91 operator's console at NASA, sometime in the late 1960s.
Magnetic-core memory, probably from a 360
IBM System/360 Model 40 microcode transformer read-only storage (TROS)
Cable used as Bus or Tag cable for IBM System/360
Bus and tag terminators
A single-width SLT card
Many SLT cards plugged into an SLT board
IBM 2311 disk drive
IBM 2314 disk drives and IBM 2540 card reader/punch at the University of Michigan
IBM 2401 tape drives
IBM 1403 line printer
Model 30
Model 40
Model 44
Model 50
Model 65
Model 67
Model 85
Model 91

The Model 67 introduced a virtual memory architecture, which MTS, CP-67, and TSS/360 used—but not IBM's mainline System/360 operating systems.

OS/360 was used on most IBM mainframe computers beginning in 1966, including computers used by the Apollo program.

Operating system

System software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

System software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

OS/360 was used on most IBM mainframe computers beginning in 1966, including computers used by the Apollo program.
PC DOS was an early personal computer OS that featured a command-line interface.
Mac OS by Apple Computer became the first widespread OS to feature a graphical user interface. Many of its features such as windows and icons would later become commonplace in GUIs.
The first server for the World Wide Web ran on NeXTSTEP, based on BSD.
Ubuntu, desktop Linux distribution
Linux, a unix-like operating system was first time released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Picture of Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux.
A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer.
Privilege rings for the x86 microprocessor architecture available in protected mode. Operating systems determine which processes run in each mode.
Many operating systems can "trick" programs into using memory scattered around the hard disk and RAM as if it is one continuous chunk of memory, called virtual memory.
File systems allow users and programs to organize and sort files on a computer, often through the use of directories (or "folders").
A screenshot of the Bash command line. Each command is typed out after the 'prompt', and then its output appears below, working its way down the screen. The current command prompt is at the bottom.
A screenshot of the KDE Plasma 5 graphical user interface. Programs take the form of images on the screen, and the files, folders (directories), and applications take the form of icons and symbols. A mouse is used to navigate the computer.

Other operating systems used on IBM S/360 series mainframes included systems developed by IBM: DOS/360 (Disk Operating System), TSS/360 (Time Sharing System), TOS/360 (Tape Operating System), BOS/360 (Basic Operating System), and ACP (Airline Control Program), as well as a few non-IBM systems: MTS (Michigan Terminal System), MUSIC (Multi-User System for Interactive Computing), and ORVYL (Stanford Timesharing System).

Computer memory map

PL/I

Procedural, imperative computer programming language developed and published by IBM.

Procedural, imperative computer programming language developed and published by IBM.

Computer memory map

A version of PL/I F was released on the TSS/360 timesharing operating system for the System/360 Model 67, adapted at the IBM Mohansic Lab.

IBM System/360 Model 67-2 (duplex) at the University of Michigan, c. 1969

IBM System/360 Model 67

Important IBM mainframe model in the late 1960s.

Important IBM mainframe model in the late 1960s.

IBM System/360 Model 67-2 (duplex) at the University of Michigan, c. 1969
IBM System/360 Model 67-2 (duplex) at the University of Michigan, c. 1969
Left side, 2167 configuration console for the IBM/System 360 Model 67-2 (duplex) at the University of Michigan, c. 1969

When IBM realized there was a market for time-sharing, it agreed to develop a new time-sharing operating system called IBM Time Sharing System (TSS/360) for delivery at roughly the same time as the first model S/360-67.

Unix time-sharing at the University of Wisconsin, 1978

Time-sharing

Sharing of a computing resource among many users at the same time by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking.

Sharing of a computing resource among many users at the same time by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking.

Unix time-sharing at the University of Wisconsin, 1978

IBM TSS/360 → TSS/370