T cell

T cellsT-cellT-cellsT lymphocytesT lymphocyteT-lymphocytesTT-lymphocyteT cell activationT-cell activation
A T cell is a type of lymphocyte which develops in the thymus gland and plays a central role in the immune response.wikipedia
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Thymus

thymus glandthymicmedulla
A T cell is a type of lymphocyte which develops in the thymus gland and plays a central role in the immune response.
Within the thymus, T cells mature.

Lymphocyte

lymphocyteslymphocyticlymphoid cells
A T cell is a type of lymphocyte which develops in the thymus gland and plays a central role in the immune response.
Lymphocytes include natural killer cells (which function in cell-mediated, cytotoxic innate immunity), T cells (for cell-mediated, cytotoxic adaptive immunity), and B cells (for humoral, antibody-driven adaptive immunity).

Major histocompatibility complex

MHCmajor histocompatibility complex (MHC)HLA loci
These self-antigens are expressed by thymic cortical epithelial cells on MHC molecules on the surface of cortical epithelial cells.
The main function of MHC molecules is to bind to antigens derived from pathogens and display them on the cell surface for recognition by the appropriate T-cells.

Cytokine

cytokineschemical signalscytokine-
CD8+ T cells are also able to utilize small signalling proteins, known as cytokines, to recruit other cells when mounting an immune response.
Cytokines are produced by a broad range of cells, including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells; a given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell.

Regulatory T cell

regulatory T cellsTregTregs
Regulatory T cells are yet another distinct population of these cells that provide the critical mechanism of tolerance, whereby immune cells are able to distinguish invading cells from "self" - thus preventing immune cells from inappropriately mounting a response against oneself (which would by definition be an "autoimmune" response).
The regulatory T cells (Tregs ), formerly known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T cells that modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and prevent autoimmune disease.

Naive T cell

naive T cellsnaivenaive T lymphocytes
The remaining cells exit the thymus as mature naïve T cells (also known as recent thymic emigrants ).
A naive T cell (T h 0 cell) is a T cell that has differentiated in bone marrow, and successfully undergone the positive and negative processes of central selection in the thymus.

Thymocyte

thymocytespositive selectionthymic cell
Double-positive thymocytes (CD4 + /CD8 + ) move deep into the thymic cortex, where they are presented with self-antigens.
The primary function of thymocytes is the generation of T lymphocytes (T cells).

Central tolerance

tolerancenegative selection [1]
This process is an important component of central tolerance and serves to prevent the formation of self-reactive T cells that are capable of inducing autoimmune diseases in the host.
Central tolerance, also known as negative selection, is the process of eliminating any developing T or B lymphocytes that are reactive to self.

Antigen

antigensantigenicantigenic proteins
Double-positive thymocytes (CD4 + /CD8 + ) move deep into the thymic cortex, where they are presented with self-antigens.
Both T cells and B cells are cellular components of adaptive immunity. The Ag abbreviation stands for an antibody generator.

Cytotoxic T cell

cytotoxic T cellsCD8+cytotoxic T lymphocytes
One of these functions is immune-mediated cell death, and it is carried out by T cells in several ways: CD8+ T cells, also known as "killer cells", are cytotoxic - this means that they are able to directly kill virus-infected cells as well as cancer cells. T helper cells (T H cells) assist other lymphocytes, including maturation of B cells into plasma cells and memory B cells, and activation of cytotoxic T cells and macrophages.
A cytotoxic T cell (also known as T C, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.

Hematopoietic stem cell

hematopoietic stem cellsPluripotential hemopoietic stem cellhaematopoietic stem cell
All T cells originate from c-kit + Sca1 + haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) which reside in the bone marrow.
Lymphoid cells include T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells.

T helper cell

Th1Th2T helper cells
A different population of T cells, the CD4+ T cells, function as "helper cells". T helper cells (T H cells) assist other lymphocytes, including maturation of B cells into plasma cells and memory B cells, and activation of cytotoxic T cells and macrophages.
The T helper cells (T h cells), also known as CD4 + cells, are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.

Autoimmune regulator

AIREAIRE'' gene (autoimmune regulator)
mTECs must be AIRE + to properly express self-antigens from all tissues of the body on their MHC class I peptides.
Each T cell recognizes a specific antigen when it is presented in complex with a MHC molecule by an antigen presenting cell.

Immune response

immune responsesimmunological responseimmune
A T cell is a type of lymphocyte which develops in the thymus gland and plays a central role in the immune response.
In this process the main cells involved are T cells and B cells (sub-types of lymphocytes), and macrophages (a type of leucocyte or white blood cell).

Macrophage

macrophagesM2 macrophagesTissue macrophages
T helper cells (T H cells) assist other lymphocytes, including maturation of B cells into plasma cells and memory B cells, and activation of cytotoxic T cells and macrophages.
For example, they are important as antigen presenters to T cells.

B cell

B cellsB-cellB lymphocytes
T helper cells (T H cells) assist other lymphocytes, including maturation of B cells into plasma cells and memory B cells, and activation of cytotoxic T cells and macrophages.
B cells, unlike the other two classes of lymphocytes, T cells and natural killer cells, express B cell receptors (BCRs) on their cell membrane.

Follicular B helper T cells

T FH cellsT follicular helper cellsFollicular B Helper T cells (T FH )
Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just follicular helper T cells or T FH ), are antigen-experienced CD4 + T cells found in the periphery within B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleens and Peyer's patches, and are identified by their constitutive expression of the B cell follicle homing receptor CXCR5.

Memory T cell

memory T cellsmemorymemory T
The single unifying theme for all memory T cell subtypes is that they are long-lived and can quickly expand to large numbers of effector T cells upon re-exposure to their cognate antigen.
Memory T cells are a subset of infection- and cancer-fighting T cells (also known as a T lymphocyte) that have previously encountered and responded to their cognate antigen; thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often applied.

Lymph node

lymph glandslymph nodesfollicles
They are major sites of B and T cells and other white blood cells.

Natural killer T cell

NKTNKT cellsNKT cell
Natural killer T cells (NKT cells – not to be confused with natural killer cells of the innate immune system) bridge the adaptive immune system with the innate immune system.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and natural killer cells.

IPEX syndrome

IPEXImmunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked syndromeImmune dysfunction–polyendocrinopathy–enteropathy–X-linked syndrome
Mutations of the FOXP3 gene can prevent regulatory T cell development, causing the fatal autoimmune disease IPEX.
It leads to the dysfunction of regulatory T-cells and the subsequent autoimmunity.

Type 1 regulatory T cell

Tr1TR1 cellstype 1 regulatory (Tr1) cells
Tr1 cells are associated with IL-10, and Th3 cells are associated with TGF-beta.
Type 1 regulatory cells or Tr1 (T R 1) cells are a class of regulatory T cells participating in peripheral immunity as a subsets of CD4+ T cells.

Gamma delta T cell

γδ T cellsγδ T cellVγ9/Vδ2 T cells
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells which possess a γδ TCR rather than the αβ TCR on the cell surface.
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface.

Natural killer cell

NK cellsnatural killer cellsNK cell
Natural killer T cells (NKT cells – not to be confused with natural killer cells of the innate immune system) bridge the adaptive immune system with the innate immune system.
NK cells (belonging to the group of innate lymphoid cells) are defined as large granular lymphocytes (LGL) and constitute the third kind of cells differentiated from the common lymphoid progenitor-generating B and T lymphocytes.

Immune tolerance

immunological tolerancetoleranceself-antigen
Regulatory T cells are yet another distinct population of these cells that provide the critical mechanism of tolerance, whereby immune cells are able to distinguish invading cells from "self" - thus preventing immune cells from inappropriately mounting a response against oneself (which would by definition be an "autoimmune" response).
It occurs during lymphocyte development in the thymus and bone marrow for T and B lymphocytes, respectively.