T helper cell

Th1Th2T helper cellshelper T cellhelper T cellsCD4+ T cellsTh2 cellTh1 cellT helperCD4+ T cell
The T helper cells (T h cells), also known as CD4 + cells, are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.wikipedia
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T cell

T cellsT-cellT-cells
The T helper cells (T h cells), also known as CD4 + cells, are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system. CD154 acts as a costimulatory molecule and is particularly important on a subset of T cells called T follicular helper cells (T FH cells).
A different population of T cells, the CD4+ T cells, function as "helper cells".

CD4

CD4+CD4 + CD4 count
Mature T h cells express the surface protein CD4 and are referred to as CD4 + T cells.
In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.

CD40 (protein)

CD40antigens, cd40TNFRSF5
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4 + cell will aid those cells through a combination of cell to cell interactions (e.g. CD40 (protein) and CD40L) and through cytokines.
The binding of CD154 (CD40L) on T H cells to CD40 activates antigen presenting cells and induces a variety of downstream effects.

HIV

human immunodeficiency virusHIV-positiveHIV positive
The importance of helper T cells can be seen from HIV, a virus that primarily infects CD4 + T cells.
HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells.

Adaptive immune system

adaptive immunityadaptive immune responseadaptive
The T helper cells (T h cells), also known as CD4 + cells, are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
Exogenous antigens are usually displayed on MHC class II molecules, which activate CD4+T helper cells.

HIV/AIDS

AIDSHIVacquired immune deficiency syndrome
In the advanced stages of HIV infection, loss of functional CD4 + T cells leads to the symptomatic stage of infection known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Although most HIV-1 infected individuals have a detectable viral load and in the absence of treatment will eventually progress to AIDS, a small proportion (about 5%) retain high levels of CD4+ T cells (T helper cells) without antiretroviral therapy for more than five years.

Naive T cell

naive T cellsnaivenaive T lymphocytes
Maturation of RTE in SLO results in the generation of mature naive T cells (Naïve T cells are those T cells that have never been exposed to the antigen that they are programmed to respond to), but naive T cells now lack or lowered the expression of the RTE-related surface markers, such as CD31, PTK7, Complement Receptor 1 and 2 (CR1, CR2) and the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8).
Among these are the naive forms of helper T cells (CD4+) and cytotoxic T cells (CD8+).

Phagocyte

phagocytesphagocytic cellsphagocytic
They are essential in B cell antibody class switching, in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T cells, and in maximizing bactericidal activity of phagocytes such as macrophages.
The source of interferon-gamma can be CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, natural killer T cells, monocytes, macrophages, or dendritic cells.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
The T helper cells (T h cells), also known as CD4 + cells, are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
There are two major subtypes of T cells: the killer T cell and the helper T cell.

Antigen-presenting cell

antigen-presenting cellsantigen presenting cellantigen presenting cells
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4 + cell will aid those cells through a combination of cell to cell interactions (e.g. CD40 (protein) and CD40L) and through cytokines.
Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T cells, while other cell types can present antigens originating inside the cell to cytotoxic T cells.

CD154

CD40LCD40 ligandTNFSF5
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4 + cell will aid those cells through a combination of cell to cell interactions (e.g. CD40 (protein) and CD40L) and through cytokines.
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called T FH cells.

Follicular B helper T cells

T FH cellsT follicular helper cellsFollicular B Helper T cells (T FH )
CD154 acts as a costimulatory molecule and is particularly important on a subset of T cells called T follicular helper cells (T FH cells).
Recent studies have however shown that T FH have distinct gene expression profiles, supporting the theory that T FH are a subset of CD4 + T cells distinct from Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 or Tregs.

Interleukin 4

IL-4interleukin-4IL4
The T h cells receiving both signals of activation and proliferation will then become T h 0 cells (T helper 0) cell that secrete IL-2, IL-4 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ).
The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells.

Interleukin 5

IL-5interleukin-5IL5
Interleukin 5 (IL5) is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells.

CD80

B7-1B7.1antigens, cd80
The second signal involves an interaction between CD28 on the CD4 + T cell and the proteins CD80 (B7.1) or CD86 (B7.2) on the professional APCs.
When the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II)- peptide complex on a dendritic cell interacts with the receptor on a T helper cell, CD80 is up-regulated, licensing the dendritic cell and allowing for interaction between the dendritic cell and CD 8 + T-cells via CD28.

Interleukin 2

IL-2interleukin-2IL2
It achieves this by releasing a potent T cell growth factor called interleukin 2 (IL-2) which acts upon itself in an autocrine fashion.
The major sources of IL-2 are activated CD4 + T cells and activated CD8 + T cells.

Antigen

antigensantigenicantigenic proteins
Maturation of RTE in SLO results in the generation of mature naive T cells (Naïve T cells are those T cells that have never been exposed to the antigen that they are programmed to respond to), but naive T cells now lack or lowered the expression of the RTE-related surface markers, such as CD31, PTK7, Complement Receptor 1 and 2 (CR1, CR2) and the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8).
APCs then present the fragments to T helper cells (CD4 + ) by the use of class II histocompatibility molecules on their surface.

Dendritic cell

dendritic cellsmyeloid dendritic cellsdendritic
Specialised antigen presenting cells are primarily dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells, although dendritic cells are the only cell group that expresses MHC Class II constitutively (at all times).
Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting them with antigens derived from the pathogen, alongside non-antigen specific costimulatory signals.

Co-stimulation

co-stimulatorycostimulatorycostimulation
These proteins are also known as co-stimulatory molecules.
The latter case induces recognition by antigen-specific Th2 cells or Tfh cells, leading to activation of the B cell through binding of TCR to the MHC-antigen complex.

T helper 17 cell

Th17T helper 17Th17 cells
T h 17 helper cells are a subset of T helper cells developmentally distinct from T h 1 and T h 2 lineages producing interleukin 17 (IL-17).
T helper 17 cells (T h 17) are a subset of pro-inflammatory T helper cells defined by their production of interleukin 17 (IL-17).

Interleukin 13

IL-13interleukin-13IL13
IL-13 is a cytokine secreted by T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, CD4 cells, Natural killer T cell, Mast cell, Basophil cells, Eosinophil cells and Nuocyte cells.

Interleukin 17

IL-17interleukin-17IL17F
T h 17 helper cells are a subset of T helper cells developmentally distinct from T h 1 and T h 2 lineages producing interleukin 17 (IL-17).
This cytokine is produced by a group of T helper cell known as T helper 17 cell in response to their stimulation with IL-23.

Cell-mediated immunity

cellular immunitycell-mediatedcellular immune response
CD4 cells or helper T cells provide protection against different pathogens.

Cytokine

cytokineschemical signalscytokine-
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4 + cell will aid those cells through a combination of cell to cell interactions (e.g. CD40 (protein) and CD40L) and through cytokines. They help the activity of other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines.

Interleukin 10

IL-10interleukin-10IL10
IFN-γ drives T h 1 cell production while IL-10 and IL-4 inhibit T h 1 cell production.
In humans, IL-10 is encoded by the IL10 gene, which is located on chromosome 1 and comprises 5 exons, and is primarily produced by monocytes and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes, namely type 2 T helper cells (T H 2), mast cells, CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells, and in a certain subset of activated T cells and B cells.