Tablet computer

Apple's iPad (left) and Amazon's Fire, two popular tablet computers
1888 telautograph patent schema
Wireless tablet device portrayed in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)
Apple Newton MessagePad, Apple's first produced tablet, released in 1993
A Fujitsu Siemens Lifebook tablet running Windows XP, released in 2003
The Nokia N800, the first tablet manufactured by Nokia
Steve Jobs introducing the iPad in San Francisco on January 27, 2010
Crossover tablet device types from 2014: Microsoft Surface Pro 3 laplet and Sony Xperia Z Ultra phablet, next to a generic blue lighter for size comparison
Comparison of several mini tablet computers: Amazon Kindle Fire (left), iPad Mini (center), and Google Nexus 7 (right)
Samsung's Galaxy Note series were the first commercially successful phablets.
Microsoft Surface Pro 3, a prominent 2-in-1 detachable tablet
Asus Transformer Pad, a 2-in-1 detachable tablet, powered by the Android operating system
Nvidia Shield Tablet, notable gaming tablet
Games on a Ziosk table ordering tablet at an Olive Garden restaurant
Samsung Galaxy Tab demonstrating multi-touch
Chinese characters like this one meaning "person" can be written by handwriting recognition (人-order.gif, Mandarin: rén, Korean: in, Japanese: jin, nin; hito, Cantonese: jan4). The character has two strokes, the first shown here in brown, and the second in red. The black area represents the starting position of the writing instrument.

Mobile device, typically with a mobile operating system and touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single, thin and flat package.

- Tablet computer
Apple's iPad (left) and Amazon's Fire, two popular tablet computers

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Google Android 12

Mobile operating system

Google Android 12
Ubuntu Touch
Apple iOS 15
Apple iPadOS 15
See table below for source data.
See table below for source data
Huawei HarmonyOS 2

A mobile operating system is an operating system for mobile phones, tablets, smartwatches, 2-in-1 PCs, smart speakers, or other mobile devices.

Keyboard keys

Computer keyboard

Peripheral input device modeled after the typewriter keyboard which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.

Peripheral input device modeled after the typewriter keyboard which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.

Keyboard keys
A wired computer keyboard for desktop use manufactured by Lenovo
Keyboards on laptops usually have a shorter travel distance and a reduced set of keys.
An AlphaGrip handheld keyboard
Multifunction keyboard with LCD function keys
Multifunction keyboard with touch
A Greek keyboard lets the user type in both Greek and the Latin alphabet (MacBook Pro).
The Control, Windows, and Alt keys are important modifier keys.
A Space-cadet keyboard has many modifier keys.
4800-52 mainframe / dumb terminal keyboard, circa mid 1980s. Note the obscure configuration of modifier and arrow keys, line feed key, break key, blank keys, and repeat key.
Multimedia buttons on some keyboards give quick access to the Internet or control the volume of the speakers.
Backlit keyboard
Keys with integrated LED indicator lights
Keyboard with some keytops removed to show the Cherry MX "Black" switches it is based on. MX switches are a common choice for mechanical keyboards.
The tactile, non-clicky "brown" version of the Cherry MX switch shown in disassembled form (four parts, left and centre), with the top off (top right) and reassembled (bottom right).
Scanning procedure
Apple wireless keyboard
On-screen keyboard controlled with the mouse can be used by users with limited mobility
Proper ergonomic design of computer keyboard desks is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. Research suggests that the upright position formerly advocated can lead to degenerative disc disease, and that a 45 degree reclined position is healthier.

However, keyboards remain central to human-computer interaction to the present, even as mobile personal computing devices such as smartphones and tablets adapt the keyboard as an optional virtual, touchscreen-based means of data entry.

Typing on an iPad's virtual keyboard

Virtual keyboard

Software component that allows the input of characters without the need for physical keys.

Software component that allows the input of characters without the need for physical keys.

Typing on an iPad's virtual keyboard
Virtual keyboard on a Pocket PC PDA
Android Keyboard Settings
Apple iOS UIInputViewController
TreasuryDirect login screen, showing virtual keyboard

Virtual keyboards are commonly used as an on-screen input method in devices with no physical keyboard, where there is no room for one, such as a pocket computer, personal digital assistant (PDA), tablet computer or touchscreen-equipped mobile phone.

Blueprint of the French galleon La Belle

Blueprint

Reproduction of a technical drawing or engineering drawing using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets.

Reproduction of a technical drawing or engineering drawing using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets.

Blueprint of the French galleon La Belle
Architectural drawing, 1902
Architectural drawing, Canada, 1936
Whiteprint plan copy.

These displays include mobile devices, such as smartphones or tablets.

A user operating a touchscreen

Touchscreen

Assembly of both an input and output ('display') device.

Assembly of both an input and output ('display') device.

A user operating a touchscreen
Ecobee smart thermostat with touchscreen
The prototype x-y mutual capacitance touchscreen (left) developed at CERN in 1977 by Frank Beck, a British electronics engineer, for the control room of CERN's accelerator SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron). This was a further development of the self-capacitance screen (right), also developed by Stumpe at CERN in 1972.
Capacitive touchscreen of a mobile phone
The Casio TC500 Capacitive touch sensor watch from 1983, with angled light exposing the touch sensor pads and traces etched onto the top watch glass surface.
Back side of a Multitouch Globe, based on projected capacitive touch (PCT) technology
8 x 8 projected capacitance touchscreen manufactured using 25 micron insulation coated copper wire embedded in a clear polyester film.
This diagram shows how eight inputs to a lattice touchscreen or keypad creates 28 unique intersections, as opposed to 16 intersections created using a standard x/y multiplexed touchscreen.
Schema of projected-capacitive touchscreen
Infrared sensors mounted around the display watch for a user's touchscreen input on this PLATO V terminal in 1981. The monochromatic plasma display's characteristic orange glow is illustrated.
Fingerprints and smudges on an iPad (tablet computer) touchscreen

The display is often an LCD, AMOLED or OLED display while the system is usually a laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

Traditional browser arrangement: UI features above page content

Web browser

Application software for accessing the World Wide Web or a local website.

Application software for accessing the World Wide Web or a local website.

Traditional browser arrangement: UI features above page content
Nicola Pellow and Tim Berners-Lee in 1992
Marc Andreessen, lead developer of Mosaic and Navigator, in 2007

Web browsers are used on a range of devices, including desktops, laptops, tablets, and smartphones.

ARM architecture family

Family of reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.

Family of reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.

ARM1 2nd processor for the BBC Micro
Microprocessor-based system on a chip
Die of an ARM610 microprocessor
Die of a STM32F103VGT6 ARM Cortex-M3 microcontroller with 1 MB flash memory by STMicroelectronics
Tronsmart MK908, a Rockchip-based quad-core Android "mini PC", with a microSD card next to it for a size comparison
An ARMv7 was used to power older versions of the popular Raspberry Pi single-board computers like this Raspberry Pi 2 from 2015.
An ARMv7 is also used to power the CuBox family of single-board computers.
ARMv8-A Platform with Cortex A57/A53 MPCore big.LITTLE CPU chip

Due to their low costs, minimal power consumption, and lower heat generation than their competitors, ARM processors are desirable for light, portable, battery-powered devices, including smartphones, laptops and tablet computers, and other embedded systems.

Top of a cellular radio tower

Cellular network

Communication network where the link to and from end nodes is wireless.

Communication network where the link to and from end nodes is wireless.

Top of a cellular radio tower
Indoor cell site in Germany
Example of frequency reuse factor or pattern 1/4
Cellular telephone frequency reuse pattern. See
WCDMA network architecture
Cellular network standards and generation timeline.

This enables numerous portable transceivers (e.g., mobile phones, tablets and laptops equipped with mobile broadband modems, pagers, etc.) to communicate with each other and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network, via base stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cell during transmission.

An iPhone smartphone and iPad tablet—two examples of mobile devices.

Mobile device

Computer small enough to hold and operate in the hand.

Computer small enough to hold and operate in the hand.

An iPhone smartphone and iPad tablet—two examples of mobile devices.
Smartphones, handheld mobile devices
Smartwatches, handheld mobile devices

Early smartphones were joined in the late 2000s by larger, but otherwise essentially the same, tablets.

OS/360 was used on most IBM mainframe computers beginning in 1966, including computers used by the Apollo program.

Operating system

System software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

System software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

OS/360 was used on most IBM mainframe computers beginning in 1966, including computers used by the Apollo program.
PC DOS was an early personal computer OS that featured a command-line interface.
Mac OS by Apple Computer became the first widespread OS to feature a graphical user interface. Many of its features such as windows and icons would later become commonplace in GUIs.
The first server for the World Wide Web ran on NeXTSTEP, based on BSD.
Ubuntu, desktop Linux distribution
Linux, a unix-like operating system was first time released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Picture of Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux.
A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer.
Privilege rings for the x86 microprocessor architecture available in protected mode. Operating systems determine which processes run in each mode.
Many operating systems can "trick" programs into using memory scattered around the hard disk and RAM as if it is one continuous chunk of memory, called virtual memory.
File systems allow users and programs to organize and sort files on a computer, often through the use of directories (or "folders").
A screenshot of the Bash command line. Each command is typed out after the 'prompt', and then its output appears below, working its way down the screen. The current command prompt is at the bottom.
A screenshot of the KDE Plasma 5 graphical user interface. Programs take the form of images on the screen, and the files, folders (directories), and applications take the form of icons and symbols. A mouse is used to navigate the computer.

In the mobile sector (including smartphones and tablets), Android's share is up to 72% in the year 2020.