A report on Taboo

Cannibalism, Brazil. Engraving by Theodor de Bry for Hans Staden's account of his 1557 captivity.

Ban on something based in a cultural sensibility that perceives it as excessively repulsive, sacred, or allowed only by certain persons.

- Taboo
Cannibalism, Brazil. Engraving by Theodor de Bry for Hans Staden's account of his 1557 captivity.

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Statue of syncretic Persephone-Isis with a sistrum. Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete

Persephone

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Daughter of Zeus and Demeter.

Daughter of Zeus and Demeter.

Statue of syncretic Persephone-Isis with a sistrum. Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete
Persephone or "the deceased woman" holding a pomegranate. Etruscan terracotta cinerary statue. National archaeological museum in Palermo, Italy
Seated goddess, probably Persephone on her throne in the underworld, Severe style c. 480–460 BC, found at Tarentum, Magna Graecia (Pergamon Museum, Berlin)
Sarcophagus with the abduction of Persephone. Walters Art Museum. Baltimore, Maryland
The Rape of Proserpina by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1621–22) at the Galleria Borghese in Rome.
The Return of Persephone, by Frederic Leighton (1891)
From L-R, Artemis, Demeter, Veil of Despoina, Anytus, Tritoness from the throne of Despoina at Lycosura. National Archaeological Museum of Athens
Head of Persephone. Earthenware. From Sicily, Centuripae, c. 420 BC. The Burrell Collection, Glasgow, UK
Fragment of a marble relief depicting a Kore, 3rd century BC, from Panticapaeum, Taurica (Crimea), Bosporan Kingdom
Persephone opening a cista containing the infant Adonis, on a pinax from Locri
A mosaic of the Kasta Tomb in Amphipolis depicting the abduction of Persephone by Pluto, 4th century BC
A fresco showing Hades and Persephone riding in a chariot, from the tomb of Queen Eurydice I of Macedon at Vergina, Greece, 4th century BC
Gold ring from Isopata tomb, near Knossos, Crete, 1400–1500 BC. Depicted are female figures dancing among blossoming vegetation; Heraklion Archaeological Museum
Rape of Persephone. Hades with his horses and Persephone (down). An Apulian red-figure volute krater, c. 340 BC. Antikensammlung Berlin
Triptolemus and Kore, tondo of an Attic red-figure bowl by the Aberdeen Painter, c.470/60 BC. (Louvre, Paris)
The Eleusinian trio: Persephone, Triptolemus and Demeter on a marble bas-relief from Eleusis, 440–430 BC. National Archaeological Museum of Athens
Kore, daughter of Demeter, celebrated with her mother by the Thesmophoriazusae (women of the festival). Acropolis Museum, Athens
Pinax of Persephone and Hades from Locri. Reggio Calabria, National Museum of Magna Graecia.
Cinerary altar with tabula representing the abduction of Proserpina. White marble, Antonine Era, 2nd century Rome, Baths of Diocletian
Hades abducting Persephone, wall painting in the small royal tomb at Vergina. Macedonia, Greece
Italy. Renaissance relief, Rape of Persephone. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection

Of the four deities of Empedocles' elements, it is the name of Persephone alone that is taboo – Nestis is a euphemistic cult title – for she was also the terrible Queen of the Dead, whose name was not safe to speak aloud, who was euphemistically named simply as Kore or "the Maiden", a vestige of her archaic role as the deity ruling the underworld.

Hades/Serapis with Cerberus

Hades

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God of the dead and the king of the underworld, with which his name became synonymous.

God of the dead and the king of the underworld, with which his name became synonymous.

Hades/Serapis with Cerberus
Hades (right) and Persephone (left). Detail from an Attic red-figure amphora, ca. 470 BC. From Italy
Pinax with Persephone and Hades Enthroned, 500-450 BC, Greek, Locri Epizephirii, Mannella district, Sanctuary of Persephone, terracotta – Cleveland Museum of Art
Hades and Persephone, 1864
Red figure volute krater with scene of the Underworld, follower of the Baltimore Painter, Hermitage
Cinerary altar with tabula representing the rape of Proserpina. White marble, Antonine Era, 2nd century CE.
Persephone and Hades: tondo of an Attic red-figured kylix, ca. 440–430 BC
A fresco showing Hades and Persephone riding in a chariot, from the tomb of Queen Eurydice I of Macedon at Vergina, Greece, 4th century BC
Oil painting of Hades abducting Persephone. 18th Century. Oil on wood with gilt background. Property of Missing Link Antiques.
Hades abducting Persephone, fresco in the small Macedonian royal tomb at Vergina, Macedonia, Greece, c. 340 BC
Hades abducts Persephone, pot made and found in Taranto, 350-325 BC
The Abduction of Persephone by Pluto, Amphipolis, Greece.
Hades and Cerberus, in Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1888
Fresco of Hades and Persephone, Tomb of Orcus II, Montarozzi, Tarquinia, 4th century BC
Aeneas's journey to Hades through the entrance at Cumae mapped by Andrea de Jorio, 1825

Demeter, however, suspects that Persephone may have eaten food while down in the underworld, and so she questions Persephone, saying:

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Wounded Eurydice, 1868/70, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago

Eurydice

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Character in Greek mythology and the Auloniad wife of Orpheus, who tried to bring her back from the dead with his enchanting music.

Character in Greek mythology and the Auloniad wife of Orpheus, who tried to bring her back from the dead with his enchanting music.

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Wounded Eurydice, 1868/70, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago
Charles-François Lebœuf, Dying Eurydice (1822), marble
Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein, Orpheus and Eurydice, 1806, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
Statue of Eurydice at Schönbrunn Palace; note the snake biting her foot

Either way, the condition was attached that he must walk in front of her and not look back until both had reached the upper world.

The Creation of Adam depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo, 1508–1512

Adam and Eve

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Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.

Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.

The Creation of Adam depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo, 1508–1512
The Fall of Adam and Eve as depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Adam and Eve in an illuminated manuscript (c. 950)
Adam, Eve, and the (female) serpent (often identified as Lilith) at the entrance to Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris
Painting from Manafi al-Hayawan (The Useful Animals), depicting Adam and Eve. From Maragheh in Iran, 1294–99
God Judging Adam by William Blake, 1795, Tate Collection
Early Christian depiction of Adam and Eve in the Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter
Detail of a stained glass window (12th century) in Saint-Julien cathedral - Le Mans, France
Depiction of the Fall in Kunsthalle Hamburg, by Master Bertram, 1375-1383
alt=Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden|Adam and Eve, engraving by Albrecht Dürer, 1504 (National Gallery of Art)
Adam and Eve by Albrecht Dürer, 1507
Adam and Eve in paradise (The Fall), Eve gives Adam the forbidden fruit, by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1533
Adam and Eve from a copy of the Falnama (Book of Omens) ascribed to Ja'far al-Sadiq, c. 1550, Safavid dynasty, Iran
Adam and Eve by Titian, c. 1550
Adam and Eve by Maarten van Heemskerck, 1550
Adam and Eve Driven From Paradise by James Tissot, c. 1896-1902
Adam and Eve depicted in a mural in Abreha wa Atsbeha Church, Ethiopia
1896 illustration of Eve handing Adam the forbidden fruit
Adam and Eve by Frank Eugene, taken 1898, published in Camera Work no. 30, 1910
The Woman, the Man, and the Serpent by Byam Shaw, 1911
Adam and Eve by Franz Stuck, 1920
alt=|"The Old Adam and Eve" by E. J. Sullivan, 1898, for Sartor Resartus by Thomas Carlyle

Adam is told that he can eat freely of all the trees in the garden, except for a tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

Roman Orpheus mosaic, a very common subject. He wears a Phrygian cap and is surrounded by the animals charmed by lyre-playing

Orpheus

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Thracian bard, legendary musician and prophet in ancient Greek religion.

Thracian bard, legendary musician and prophet in ancient Greek religion.

Roman Orpheus mosaic, a very common subject. He wears a Phrygian cap and is surrounded by the animals charmed by lyre-playing
Orpheus's genealogy
Orpheus (left, with lyre) among the Thracians, from an Attic red-figure bell-krater (c. 440 BC)
Orpheus mosaic at Dominican Museum, Rottweil, Germany, 2nd c. AD
Gabriel Thomas, Orpheus (1854), Paris, Cour Carrée, Louvre Palace
Important sites in the life and travels of Orpheus
Orpheus with the lyre and surrounded by beasts (Byzantine & Christian Museum, Athens)
Thracian Girl Carrying the Head of Orpheus on His Lyre (1865) by Gustave Moreau
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Death of Orpheus (1494) by Dürer
Cave of Orpheus's oracle in Antissa, Lesbos
Nymphs Finding the Head of Orpheus (1900) by John William Waterhouse
Nymphs Listening to the Songs of Orpheus (1853) by Charles Jalabert
Orpheus charming the beasts. Engraving by Regius for Ovid's Metamorphoses Book X, 143
Death of Orpheus by Mexican artist Antonio García Vega

His music softened the hearts of Hades and Persephone, who agreed to allow Eurydice to return with him to earth on one condition: he should walk in front of her and not look back until they both had reached the upper world.

Eve by Pantaleon Szyndler, 1889

Eve

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Figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible.

Figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible.

Eve by Pantaleon Szyndler, 1889
Eve by Pantaleon Szyndler, 1889
Creation of Eve
Marble relief by Lorenzo Maitani on the Orvieto Cathedral, Italy
The Creation of Eve, from the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo
William Blake's pencil illustration of The Creation of Eve in response to the line "And She Shall Be Called Woman". The object was created c. 1803–1805 and currently is held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Adam and Eve expelled from Eden, by Hans Heyerdahl, 1877
Eva by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1528)
Adam, Eve, and the (female) serpent at the entrance to Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France, is the portrayal of the image of the serpent as a mirror of Eve was common in earlier iconography as a result of the identification of women as the source of human original sin.
Eve in paradise. Armenian icon, 1305. Bodleian Library
F. Best after Marcantonio Raimondi, Adam and Eve, 19th century, engraving, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC
Painting from Manafi al-Hayawan (The Useful Animals), depicting Adam and Eve. From Maragheh in Iran, 1294–99
Original Sin, by Michiel Coxie
The snake in this piece, by the Workshop of Giovanni della Robbia, has a woman's face that resembles Eve's.<ref>{{cite web|publisher= The Walters Art Museum|url= http://art.thewalters.org/detail/35961|title= Adam and Eve}}</ref>

Adam is charged with guarding and keeping the garden before her creation; she is not present when God commands Adam not to eat the forbidden fruit – although it is clear that she was aware of the command.

The number next to each box indicates the degree of relationship relative to the given person.

Incest

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Human sexual activity between family members or close relatives.

Human sexual activity between family members or close relatives.

The number next to each box indicates the degree of relationship relative to the given person.
Table of prohibited marriages from The Trial of Bastardie by William Clerke. London, 1594
Egyptian king Tutankhamun married his half-sister Ankhesenamun
Maya king Shield Jaguar II with his aunt-wife, Lady Xoc AD 709
Charles II of Spain was born physically disabled, possibly due to centuries of inbreeding in the House of Habsburg
Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor married his first cousin Maria of Spain.
Common fruit fly females prefer to mate with their own brothers over unrelated males.

The incest taboo is one of the most widespread of all cultural taboos, both in present and in past societies.

Taboo on the dead

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The taboo on the dead includes the taboo against touching of the dead, those surrounding them and anything associated with the dead.

Incest taboo

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Any cultural rule or norm that prohibits sexual relations between certain members of the same family, mainly between individuals related by blood.

Any cultural rule or norm that prohibits sexual relations between certain members of the same family, mainly between individuals related by blood.

All human cultures have norms that exclude certain close relatives from those considered suitable or permissible sexual or marriage partners, making such relationships taboo.

The Garden of Eden with the Fall of Man by Jan Brueghel the Elder and Pieter Paul Rubens, c. 1615, depicting both domestic and exotic wild animals such as tigers, parrots and ostriches co-existing in the garden

Garden of Eden

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Biblical paradise described in Genesis 2-3 and Ezekiel 28 and 31.

Biblical paradise described in Genesis 2-3 and Ezekiel 28 and 31.

The Garden of Eden with the Fall of Man by Jan Brueghel the Elder and Pieter Paul Rubens, c. 1615, depicting both domestic and exotic wild animals such as tigers, parrots and ostriches co-existing in the garden
Expulsion from Paradise, painting by James Tissot (c. 1896–1902)
The Expulsion illustrated in the English Caedmon manuscript, c. 1000 CE
Map showing the rivers in the Middle East known in English as the Tigris and Euphrates
Map by Pierre Mortier, 1700, based on theories of Pierre Daniel Huet, Bishop of Avranches. A caption in French and Dutch reads: Map of the location of the terrestrial paradise, and of the country inhabited by the patriarchs, laid out for the good understanding of sacred history, by M. Pierre Daniel Huet
The Garden of Eden as depicted in the first or left panel of Hieronymus Bosch's The Garden of Earthly Delights triptych. The panel includes many imagined and exotic African animals
Mozarabic world map from 1109 with Eden in the East (at top)
a scene
The Garden of Eden by Lucas Cranach der Ältere, a 16th-century German depiction of Eden
Fifth century "Garden of Eden" mosaic in mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna, Italy. UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Garden of Eden by Thomas Cole (c. 1828)
After wandering through the Garden of Eden, Eve takes the forbidden fruit while Lilith speaks to Adam (by Carl Poellath, c. 1886)
The Garden of Eden by Adi Holzer (2012)

The man was free to eat from any tree in the garden except the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, which were taboo.