Tag question

tag questionsquestion tagtag-question
A tag question (also known as tail question) is a grammatical structure in which a declarative or an imperative statement is turned into an interrogative fragment (the "tag").wikipedia
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Interrogative

interrogative sentenceinterrogative moodQuestions
A tag question (also known as tail question) is a grammatical structure in which a declarative or an imperative statement is turned into an interrogative fragment (the "tag").
Tag questions are questions "tagged" onto the end of sentences to invite confirmation, as in "She left earlier, didn't she?"

Politeness

politeimpolitepolitely
They can be an indicator of politeness, hedging, consensus seeking, emphasis and/or irony.
Preferring tag questions to direct statements, such as "You were at the store, weren't you?"

Ain't

Aint
nonstandard dialects: Clever, ain't I?
Standard dialects that regard ain't as non-standard often substitute aren't for am not in tag questions (e.g., "I'm doing okay, aren't I?"), while leaving the "amn't gap" open in declarative statements.

Multicultural London English

Multicultural LondonJafaicanblack accent
As an all-purpose tag the Multicultural London English set-phrase innit (for "isn't it") is only used with falling patterns:
* Innit, a reduction of 'isn't it', has a third discourse function in MLE, in addition to the widespread usage as a tag-question or a follow-up as in [1] and [2] below.

Intonation (linguistics)

intonationintonationalintonations
English tag questions can have a rising or a falling intonation pattern.
Tag questions with declarative intent at the end of a declarative statement follow a 3↘1 contour rather than a rising contour, since they are not actually intended as yes–no questions, as in We (2) should (2) visit (3, 1) him (1), shouldn't (3, 1) we (1)? But tag questions exhibiting uncertainty, which are interrogatory in nature, have the usual 2↗3 contour, as in We (2) should (2) visit (3, 1) him (1), shouldn't (3, 3) we (3)?

Do-support

do''-supportauxiliary ''dodo
If the verb is in the present perfect, for example, the tag question uses has or have; if the verb is in a present progressive form, the tag is formed with am, are, is; if the verb is in a tense which does not normally use an auxiliary, like the present simple, the auxiliary is taken from the emphatic do form; and if the sentence has a modal auxiliary, this is echoed in the tag:
Tag questions:

Dutch language

DutchDutch-languagenl
The tag hey? (of Afrikaans and Dutch origin) is used in South African English.
In a tag question the word order is the same as in a declarative clause:

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
A tag question (also known as tail question) is a grammatical structure in which a declarative or an imperative statement is turned into an interrogative fragment (the "tag").

Sentence (linguistics)

sentencesentencesdeclarative sentence
A tag question (also known as tail question) is a grammatical structure in which a declarative or an imperative statement is turned into an interrogative fragment (the "tag").

Imperative mood

imperativeimperativesprohibitive
A tag question (also known as tail question) is a grammatical structure in which a declarative or an imperative statement is turned into an interrogative fragment (the "tag").

Stress (linguistics)

stressstressedunstressed
They can be an indicator of politeness, hedging, consensus seeking, emphasis and/or irony.

Irony

ironicironicallydramatic irony
They can be an indicator of politeness, hedging, consensus seeking, emphasis and/or irony.

Rhetorical question

rhetoricallyrhetorically askingrhetorically asks
Although they have the grammatical form of a question, they may be rhetorical (not expecting an answer).

Leading question

leading questionsleadingquestions biased
In legal settings, tag questions can often be found in a leading question.

National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children

NSPCCSociety for the Prevention of Cruelty to ChildrenNational Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC)
According to a specialist children's lawyer at the NSPCC, children find it difficult to answer tag questions other than in accordance with the expectation of the questioner using or tagging a question.

Brittonicisms in English

substrate influenceBrittonicisminfluenced
For the theory that English has borrowed its system of tag questions from Brittonic, see Brittonicisms in English.

Auxiliary verb

auxiliaryauxiliary verbsauxiliaries
The English tag question is made up of an auxiliary verb and a pronoun.

Grammatical tense

tensetensesverb tense
The auxiliary must agree with the tense, aspect and modality of the verb in the preceding sentence.

Grammatical aspect

aspectaspectualaspects
The auxiliary must agree with the tense, aspect and modality of the verb in the preceding sentence.

Linguistic modality

modalitymodalmodalities
The auxiliary must agree with the tense, aspect and modality of the verb in the preceding sentence.

Scotland

Scottish🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿Scots
In North East Scotland, for example, positive to positive is used when no special effect is desired:

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
Note the following variations in the negation when the auxiliary is the I form of the copula:

List of dialects of English

varieties of Englishdialects of Englishdialects
Besides the standard form based on auxiliary verbs, there are other forms specific to particular regions or dialects of English.

India

🇮🇳IndianIND
The tag right? is common in a number of dialects across the UK and US, as well as in Indian English.

Indian English

EnglishtranslationIndian
The tag right? is common in a number of dialects across the UK and US, as well as in Indian English.