Taiping Rebellion

Taiping rebelsTaipingTaiping RevolutionTaiping ArmyTai Ping RebellionTaipingscivil warTaiping Heavenly KingdomTaiping reform movementTaiping Revolt
The Taiping Rebellion, which is also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or civil war that was waged in China from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Hakka-led Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.wikipedia
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Hong Xiuquan

God WorshippersHong XiuchuanHung Hsiu-chʻüan
Led by Hong Xiuquan, the self-proclaimed brother of Jesus Christ, the goals of the Taipings were religious, nationalist, and political in nature; they sought the conversion of the Chinese people to the Taiping's syncretic version of Christianity, the overthrow of the ruling Manchus, and a wholesale transformation and reformation of the state. They often called it the Hong-Yang Rebellion, with reference to its two most prominent leaders, Hong Xiuquan and Yang Xiuqing, or dismissively labelled it the Red Sheep Rebellion, because "Hong-Yang" sounds like "Red Sheep" in Chinese.
Hong Xiuquan (Hakka: Fùng Siu-chhiòn) (1 January 1814 – 1 June 1864), born Hong Huoxiu and with the courtesy name Renkun, was a Hakka Chinese revolutionary who was the leader of the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing Dynasty.

Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

TaipingHeavenly KingdomTaiping Tianguo
The Taiping Rebellion, which is also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or civil war that was waged in China from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Hakka-led Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
The unsuccessful war it waged against the Qing is known as the Taiping Rebellion.

Xiang Army

Hunan ArmyXiang marines
Severely weakened by an attempted coup and unable to capture the Qing capital of Beijing, the Taipings were ultimately defeated by decentralized, irregular armies such as the Xiang Army commanded by Zeng Guofan.
The Xiang Army or Hunan Army was a standing army organized by Zeng Guofan from existing regional and village militia forces called tuanlian to contain the Taiping Rebellion in Qing China (1850 to 1864).

Third Battle of Nanking

Battle of Nanjing (1864)besiegingNanjing fell
Two years later, on June 1, 1864, Hong Xiuquan died and Nanjing fell barely a month later.
The Third Battle of Nanking was the last major engagement of the Taiping Rebellion, occurring in 1864 after the death of the king of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Hong Xiuquan.

Zeng Guofan

Tsang Kwok-fanTseng Kuo-fan
Severely weakened by an attempted coup and unable to capture the Qing capital of Beijing, the Taipings were ultimately defeated by decentralized, irregular armies such as the Xiang Army commanded by Zeng Guofan.
He is best known for raising and organizing the Xiang Army to aid the Qing military in suppressing the Taiping Rebellion and restoring the stability of the Qing Empire.

Li Hongzhang

Li Hung-changLi Hung ChangLee Hung-cheung
After the defeat of the Taipings, Zeng Guofan and many of his protégés, such as Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongtang, were celebrated as saviors of the Qing empire and became some of the most powerful men in late-19th-century China.
His image in China remains controversial, with criticism on one hand for political and military mistakes and praise on the other for his success against the Taiping Rebellion, his diplomatic skills defending Chinese interests in the era of unequal treaties, and his role pioneering China's industrial and military modernisation.

Zuo Zongtang

General TsoTso Tsung-t'angTso Chung-tong
After the defeat of the Taipings, Zeng Guofan and many of his protégés, such as Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongtang, were celebrated as saviors of the Qing empire and became some of the most powerful men in late-19th-century China.
In 1851, he started his career in the Qing military by participating in the campaign against the Taiping Rebellion.

Northern Expedition (Taiping Rebellion)

Northern Expedition Northern Expeditionroute taken
Severely weakened by an attempted coup and unable to capture the Qing capital of Beijing, the Taipings were ultimately defeated by decentralized, irregular armies such as the Xiang Army commanded by Zeng Guofan.
The Northern Expedition was a failed campaign by the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom against the Qing dynasty during the Taiping Rebellion.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
The Taiping Rebellion, which is also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or civil war that was waged in China from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Hakka-led Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
The Qing dynasty also began experiencing internal unrest in which tens of millions of people died, especially in the White Lotus Rebellion, the failed Taiping Rebellion that ravaged southern China in the 1850s and 1860s and the Dungan Revolt (1862–77) in the northwest.

Yang Xiuqing

Yeung Sau-chingYeung Shau-ching
They often called it the Hong-Yang Rebellion, with reference to its two most prominent leaders, Hong Xiuquan and Yang Xiuqing, or dismissively labelled it the Red Sheep Rebellion, because "Hong-Yang" sounds like "Red Sheep" in Chinese. Eventually, two other God Worshippers claimed to possess the ability to speak as members of the Holy Trinity, God the Father in the case of Yang Xiuqing and Jesus Christ in the case of Xiao Chaogui.
Yang Xiuqing (died September 2/3, 1856), was an organizer and commander-in-chief of the Taiping Rebellion.

Nanjing

NankingNanjing, ChinaJinling
To that end, they established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom as an oppositional state based in Tianjing (present-day Nanjing) and gained control of a significant part of southern China, eventually expanding to command a population base of nearly 30 million people.
Besides the city wall, other Ming-era structures in the city included the famous Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum and Porcelain Tower, although the latter was destroyed by the Taipings in the 19th century either in order to prevent a hostile faction from using it to observe and shell the city or from superstitious fear of its geomantic properties.

First Opium War

FirstOpium WarFirst Anglo-Chinese War
Qing-dynasty China in the early to mid-19th century suffered a series of natural disasters, economic problems and defeats at the hands of the Western powers, in particular the humiliating defeat in 1842 by the British Empire in the First Opium War.
The failure of the treaty to satisfy British goals of improved trade and diplomatic relations led to the Second Opium War (1856–60), and the perceived weakness of the Qing dynasty resulted in social unrest within China, namely the Taiping Rebellion, during which the Qing dynasty fought against the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.

List of wars by death toll

25 million people died50,000 people were killeddeadliest conflict
It ranks as one of the bloodiest wars in human history, the bloodiest civil war, and the largest conflict of the 19th century.

Xiao Chaogui

Siu Chiu-kwaiXiao Qiaogui
Eventually, two other God Worshippers claimed to possess the ability to speak as members of the Holy Trinity, God the Father in the case of Yang Xiuqing and Jesus Christ in the case of Xiao Chaogui.
– 1852) was an important leader during the early years of the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing dynasty of China.

Total war

total warfarea time of needfull-scale war
Ultimately devolving into total war, the conflict between the Taiping and the Qing was the largest in China since the Qing conquest in 1644 and it involved every province of China proper except Gansu.
The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) was one of the deadliest wars in history.

Feng Yunshan

Fung Wan-san
Soon after, his follower Feng Yunshan founded the God Worshipping Society, a movement which adopted Hong's fusion of Christianity, Daoism, Confucianism and indigenous millenarianism, which Hong presented as a restoration of the ancient Chinese faith in Shangdi. In early January 1851, following a small-scale battle in late December 1850, a 10,000-strong rebel army organized by Feng Yunshan and Wei Changhui routed Qing forces stationed in Jintian (present-day Guiping, Guangxi).
Feng Yunshan (1815 – June 10, 1852) was the South King of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, a distant cousin and early accomplice of Hong Xiuquan, and an important leader during the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing government.

Guangxi

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous RegionGuangxi ProvinceKwangsi
The Qing referred to the Taiping as Yue Bandits (粤匪 or 粤贼) in official sources, reflecting the movement's origins in the southeastern provinces of Guangxi and Guangdong ("Yue" being an abbreviated form of "Guangdong").
A Yao revolt in 1831 was followed the Jintian Uprising, the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion, in January 1851 and the Da Cheng Rebellion in April 1854.

Battle of Changsha (1852)

Battle of Changshabegan besieging the citybesieging Changsha
The Taiping army pressed north into Hunan following the Xiang River, besieging Changsha, occupying Yuezhou, and then capturing Wuchang in December 1852 after reaching the Yangtze River.
The Battle of Changsha was fought in the early years of the Taiping Rebellion throughout 1852.

Wei Changhui

North KingWai Cheung-fai
In early January 1851, following a small-scale battle in late December 1850, a 10,000-strong rebel army organized by Feng Yunshan and Wei Changhui routed Qing forces stationed in Jintian (present-day Guiping, Guangxi).
Wei Changhui was the North King of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the Taiping Rebellion.

Battle of Wuchang

capturing Wuchang
The Taiping army pressed north into Hunan following the Xiang River, besieging Changsha, occupying Yuezhou, and then capturing Wuchang in December 1852 after reaching the Yangtze River.
The Battle of Wuchang occurred in 1852 during the Taiping Rebellion in Wuchang, part of the modern-day city of Wuhan.

Guangdong

Guangdong ProvinceCantonKwangtung
The Qing referred to the Taiping as Yue Bandits (粤匪 or 粤贼) in official sources, reflecting the movement's origins in the southeastern provinces of Guangxi and Guangdong ("Yue" being an abbreviated form of "Guangdong").
During the 1850s, the Taiping Rebellion, whose leader Hong Xiuquan was born in Guangdong and received a pamphlet from a Protestant Christian missionary in Guangdong, became a widespread civil war in southern China.

Hong Daquan

One triad leader, Hong Daquan or Tian De, may have exerted a political influence comparable to that of Hong Xiuquan in the early years of the rebellion, but his historicity is a matter of dispute.
Hong Daquan or Tian De was a possibly mythical leader of the early Taiping Rebellion connected to the triads.

Qin Rigang

Chun Yat-kong
This tension culminated in the 1856 Tianjing Incident, wherein Yang and his followers were slaughtered by Wei Changhui, Qin Rigang, and their troops on Hong Xiuquan's orders.
Qin Rigang (秦日綱, 1821–1856), né Qin Richang, was a Hakka military leader of the Taiping Rebellion, known during his military tenure as the King of Yen .

Hong Rengan

Hong Ren'gan
In 1859 Hong Rengan, Hong Xiuquan's cousin, joined the Taiping forces in Nanjing and was given considerable power by Hong.
Hong Rengan (18 February 1822 – 23 November 1864) was an important leader of the Taiping Rebellion.

Stephen Platt

Stephen R. Platt
Recently, however, scholars such as Tobie Meyer-Fong and Stephen Platt have argued that the term "Taiping Rebellion" is biased because it implies that the Qing were a legitimate government fighting against illegitimate Taiping rebels.
Platt's books Autumn in the Heavenly Kingdom and Imperial Twilight examine East-West relations in China during the 19th century, focusing on the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) and the period leading up the First Opium War (1800-1842).