Tajik language

TajikTajikiTajik PersianTajiki PersianTadzhiktgkIranian languageNortheast PersianTadjik languagetaj
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī, ), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī, ), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by Tajiks.wikipedia
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Persian language

PersianNew PersianFarsi
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī, ), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī, ), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by Tajiks.
It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian (officially named Dari since 1958) and Tajiki Persian (officially named Tajik since the Soviet era).

Tajikistan

TadjikistanTajikRepublic of Tajikistan
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī, ), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī, ), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by Tajiks.
Most of Tajikistan's population belongs to the Tajik ethnic group, who speak Tajik (a dialect of Persian).

Sadriddin Ayni

Sadriddin AiniSadridin AiniAini
The popularity of this conception of Tajik as a variety of Persian was such that, during the period in which Tajik intellectuals were trying to establish Tajik as a language separate from Persian language, Sadriddin Ayni, who was a prominent intellectual and educator, made a statement that Tajik was not a "bastardized dialect" of Persian.
Sadriddin Ayni (Tajik: Садриддин Айнӣ, Persian: صدرالدين عينى, also Sadriddin Aini; 15 April 1878 - 15 July 1954) was a Tajik intellectual who wrote poetry, fiction, journalism, history and lexicography.

Western Persian

Iranian PersianFarsi, WesternIran's standard Persian
By way of Early New Persian, Tajiki Persian, like Iranian Persian and Dari Persian, is a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire (224–651 CE), itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenids (550–330 BC).
The other two are Dari Persian and Tajiki Persian.

Bukharan Jews

Bukharian JewsBukharian JewBukharan Jew
The dialect used by the Bukharan Jews of Central Asia is known as the Bukhori dialect and belongs to the northern dialect grouping.
Bukharan Jews, also Bukharian Jews or Bukhari Jews (Бухарские евреи Bukharskie evrei; Bukharim; Tajik and Bukhori Cyrillic: яҳудиёни бухороӣ Yahudiyoni bukhoroī (Bukharan Jews) or яҳудиёни Бухоро Yahudiyoni Bukhoro (Jews of Bukhara), Bukhori Hebrew Script: and ), are a Jewish ethno-religious group of Central Asia which historically spoke Bukhori, a Tajik dialect of the Persian language.

Persian alphabet

PersianPerso-Arabic alphabetPerso-Arabic
In Afghanistan, the dialects spoken by ethnic Tajiks are written using the Persian alphabet and referred to as the Dari, along with the dialects of other groups in Afghanistan such as the Hazaragi and Aimaq dialects. In an interview to Iranian news media in 2008, Tajikistan's deputy culture minister said Tajikistan would study the issue of switching its Tajik alphabet from Cyrillic to Perso-Arabic script used in Iran and Afghanistan when the government feels that "the Tajik people become familiar with the Persian alphabet".
The Persian language spoken in Tajikistan (Tajiki Persian) is written in the Tajik alphabet, a modified version of Cyrillic alphabet since the Soviet era.

Dushanbe

StalinabadDushanbe, TajikistanDushambe
After the creation of the Tajik S.S.R., a large number of ethnic Tajiks from the Uzbek S.S.R. migrated there, particularly to the region of the capital, Dushanbe, exercising a substantial influence in the republic's political, cultural and economic life.
Dushanbe (Душанбе, ; meaning Monday in Tajik ) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan.

Samarkand

SamarqandSamarkand, UzbekistanSamarcand
The standard language is based on the northwestern dialects of Tajik (region of old major city of Samarqand), which have been somewhat influenced by the neighboring Uzbek language as a result of geographical proximity. The most important cities of Central Asia—Samarkand and Bukhara—are in present-day Uzbekistan, where ethnic Tajiks comprise a majority.
In fact, about 70% of Samarkand residents are Tajik (Persian)-speaking Tajiks.

Uzbekistan

UzbekUZBRepublic of Uzbekistan
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī, ), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī, ), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by Tajiks. The most important cities of Central Asia—Samarkand and Bukhara—are in present-day Uzbekistan, where ethnic Tajiks comprise a majority.
The Tajik language (a variety of Persian) is widespread in the cities of Bukhara and Samarkand because of their relatively large population of ethnic Tajiks.

Central Asia

Central AsianCentralCentral Asian Republics
Tajik also retains numerous archaic elements in its vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar that have been lost elsewhere in the Persophone world, in part due to its relative isolation in the mountains of Central Asia. The most important cities of Central Asia—Samarkand and Bukhara—are in present-day Uzbekistan, where ethnic Tajiks comprise a majority.
Varieties of Persian are also spoken as a major language in the region, locally known as Dari (in Afghanistan), Tajik (in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan), and Bukhori (by the Bukharan Jews of Central Asia).

Uzbek language

UzbekUzbekiuzb
The standard language is based on the northwestern dialects of Tajik (region of old major city of Samarqand), which have been somewhat influenced by the neighboring Uzbek language as a result of geographical proximity.
Uzbek has been significantly influenced by Persian and it also influenced Tajik (a variety of Persian).

Tajiks

TajikTajik peopleTadjiks
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī, ), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī, ), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by Tajiks. The popularity of this conception of Tajik as a variety of Persian was such that, during the period in which Tajik intellectuals were trying to establish Tajik as a language separate from Persian language, Sadriddin Ayni, who was a prominent intellectual and educator, made a statement that Tajik was not a "bastardized dialect" of Persian. Still, substantial numbers of Tajik-speakers remained outside the borders of the republic, mostly in the neighboring Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, which created a source of tension between Tajiks and Uzbeks.
In Tajikistan, where Cyrillic script is used, it is called the Tajiki language.

Dari

Dari PersianDari languageDari-Persian
By way of Early New Persian, Tajiki Persian, like Iranian Persian and Dari Persian, is a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire (224–651 CE), itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenids (550–330 BC). In Afghanistan, the dialects spoken by ethnic Tajiks are written using the Persian alphabet and referred to as the Dari, along with the dialects of other groups in Afghanistan such as the Hazaragi and Aimaq dialects. It is closely related to neighboring Dari Persian with which it forms a continuum of mutually intelligible varieties.
By way of Early New Persian, Dari Persian, like Iranian Persian and Tajik, is a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sassanian Empire (224–651 CE), itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenids (550–330 BC).

Hazaragi dialect

HazaragiHazaragi languageHazaraghi
In Afghanistan, the dialects spoken by ethnic Tajiks are written using the Persian alphabet and referred to as the Dari, along with the dialects of other groups in Afghanistan such as the Hazaragi and Aimaq dialects.
According to G. K. Dulling, "they ceased to be Mongolic speakers by the end of eighteenth century at the latest, and were then speaking Tajik of a sort".

Mutual intelligibility

mutually intelligiblemutually unintelligibleintelligible
It is closely related to neighboring Dari Persian with which it forms a continuum of mutually intelligible varieties.

Tajik alphabet

TajikTajikiTajik Cyrillic alphabet
In an interview to Iranian news media in 2008, Tajikistan's deputy culture minister said Tajikistan would study the issue of switching its Tajik alphabet from Cyrillic to Perso-Arabic script used in Iran and Afghanistan when the government feels that "the Tajik people become familiar with the Persian alphabet".
The Tajik language has been written in three alphabets over the course of its history: an adaptation of the Perso-Arabic script (specifically the Persian alphabet), an adaptation of the Latin script, and an adaptation of the Cyrillic script.

Pamir languages

PamirPamiriPamiri languages
Some Tajiks in Badakhshan in southeastern Tajikistan, where the Pamir languages are the native languages of most residents, are bilingual.
By the end of the 19th century the Vanji language had disappeared, displaced by Tajik Persian.

Bukhara

BokharaBukhoroBukharan
The most important cities of Central Asia—Samarkand and Bukhara—are in present-day Uzbekistan, where ethnic Tajiks comprise a majority.
The mother tongue of the majority of people of Bukhara is Tajik.

Bukhori dialect

BukhoriBukhori languagebhh
The dialect used by the Bukharan Jews of Central Asia is known as the Bukhori dialect and belongs to the northern dialect grouping.
Bukhori (Tajiki: бухорӣ – buxorī, Hebrew script: בוכארי buxori), also known as Bukharian, is a dialect of the Tajik language spoken by Bukharian Jews.

Cyrillic script

CyrillicCyrillic alphabetUzbek Cyrillic
In Tajikistan and other countries of the former Soviet Union, Tajik Persian is currently written in Cyrillic script, although it was written in the Latin script beginning in 1928, and the Arabic alphabet prior to 1928.

Iranian peoples

IranianIraniansIranian people
Following the establishment of the Achaemenid Empire, the Persian language (referred to as "Farsi" in Persian) spread from Pars or Fars Province to various regions of the Empire, with the modern dialects of Iran, Afghanistan (also known as Dari) and Central-Asia (known as Tajiki) descending from Old Persian.

Russification

RussifiedRussifyRussianized
Tajik is gaining ground among the once-Russified upper classes, and continues its role as the vernacular of the majority of the country's population.
In 1939–1940 the Soviets decided that a number of these languages (including Tatar, Kazakh, Uzbek, Turkmen, Tajik, Kyrgyz, Azeri, and Bashkir) would henceforth use variations of the Cyrillic script.

Turkmenistan

TurkmenTurkmeniaRepublic of Turkmenistan
Once spoken in areas of Turkmenistan, such as Merv, Tajik is today virtually non-existent in that country.
(Russian (349,000), Uzbek (317,000), Kazakh (88,000), Tatar (40,400), Ukrainian (37,118), Azerbaijani (33,000), Armenian (32,000), Northern Kurdish (20,000), Lezgian (10,400), Persian (8,000), Belarusian (5,290), Erzya (3,490), Korean (3,490), Bashkir (2,610), Karakalpak (2,540), Ossetic (1,890), Dargwa (1,600), Lak (1,590), Tajik (1,280), Georgian (1,050), Lithuanian (224), Tabasaran (180), Dungan).

Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Tajik SSRTajikistanSoviet Tajikistan
In the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, the use of the Latin script was later replaced in 1939 by the Cyrillic script.

Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Uzbek SSRUzbekistanUzbekistan SSR
Still, substantial numbers of Tajik-speakers remained outside the borders of the republic, mostly in the neighboring Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, which created a source of tension between Tajiks and Uzbeks.