Tamil Sangams

Tamil SangamSangamsangamscangkamCankamFourth SangamMadurai College of scholarsSangam academiesSangam eraSangams ("the Academies")
The Tamil Sangams or Cankams were assemblies of Tamil scholars and poets that, according to traditional Tamil accounts, occurred in the remote past.wikipedia
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Madurai

MaduraMadurai, IndiaMadhurai
Scholars believe that these assemblies were originally known as kooṭam or "gathering," which was also a name for Madurai. In AD 470, a Dravida Sangha was established in Madurai by a Jain named Vajranandi.
Madurai is closely associated with the Tamil language, and the third Tamil Sangam, a major congregation of Tamil scholars said to have been held in the city.

Sangam period

SangamSangam ageSangam era
The Sangam period extended from roughly 400 BC to 200 AD (early Chola period before the interregnum), when the earliest extant works of Tamil literature were written (also known as Sangam literature).
It was named after the famous Sangam academies of poets and scholars centered in the city of Madurai.

Tamil literature

TamilTamil poetryliterature
The Sangam period extended from roughly 400 BC to 200 AD (early Chola period before the interregnum), when the earliest extant works of Tamil literature were written (also known as Sangam literature).
Tamil legends hold that these were composed in three successive poetic assemblies (Sangam) that were held in ancient times on a now vanished continent far to the south of India.

First Sangam

FirstHead Sangam
The First Sangam period or the First Academy, also known as the Head Sangam period, was a legendary period in the history of Ancient Tamilakam said to be the foremost of Tamil Sangams, known in the Tamil language as கூடல் (koodal) or 'gathering'.

Second Sangam

Middle SangamSecond
The Second Sangam period or Middle Sangam Period (Tamil: இடை சங்கம்) (Malayalam: ഇടക്കാല സംഘം), or the Second Academy, was a legendary period in the history of Ancient Tamil land said to be the foremost of Tamil Sangams, known in the Tamil language as கூடல் (kooṭal).

Third Sangam

Madurai CollegeLast SangamThird
The Third Sangam (Tamil: மூன்றாம் சங்கம், Moondram Sangam) (Malayalam: മൂന്നാം സംഘം, Moonnam Sangam) or the Third Academy, also known as the Madurai College of Antiquity, was a historical assembly and the last of the three Tamil Sangams.

Iraiyanar Akapporul

Iraiyanar AgapporulIraiyaṉār AkapporuḷIraiyanar
The first full account of the legend is found in a commentary to the Iraiyanar Akapporul by Nakkīrar (c.
Finally, the work also contains the oldest account of the Sangam legend, which has played a significant role in modern Tamil consciousness.

Kumari Kandam

continentKumari kaandamKumarikkandam
In contemporary versions of the legend, the cities where the first two Sangams were held are said to have been located on Kumari Kandam, a fabled lost continent, that lay to the South of mainland India, and which was described as the cradle of Tamil culture.
According to them, Kumari Kandam was the place where the first two Tamil literary academies (sangams) were organized during the Pandyan reign.

Sangam literature

Sangamancient Tamil literatureclassical Tamil literature
The Sangam period extended from roughly 400 BC to 200 AD (early Chola period before the interregnum), when the earliest extant works of Tamil literature were written (also known as Sangam literature).

Tamil culture

TamilcultureTamil cultural heritage
In contemporary versions of the legend, the cities where the first two Sangams were held are said to have been located on Kumari Kandam, a fabled lost continent, that lay to the South of mainland India, and which was described as the cradle of Tamil culture.
According to George L. Hart, the legend of the Tamil Sangams or "literary assemblies: was based on the Jain sangham at Madurai.

Pandya dynasty

PandyaPandyasPandyan
The earliest archaeological evidence connecting Madurai and the Sangams is the 10th century Cinnamanur inscription of the Pandyas.
According to tradition, the legendary Sangams ("the Academies") were held in Madurai under the patronage of the Pandyas, and some of the Pandya rulers claim to be poets themselves.

Dravida Sangha

In AD 470, a Dravida Sangha was established in Madurai by a Jain named Vajranandi.
It is considered to be the forerunner of the legendary Tamil Sangams of the Tamil lore.

Madurai Tamil Sangam

Fourth Tamil Sangam
It was modeled after the legendary Sangams of Madurai city as mentioned in ancient Tamil literature.

Kamil Zvelebil

Kamil V. ZvelebilZvelebil
Whilst the accounts of first two Sangams are generally rejected as ahistorical, some modern scholars, such as Kamil Zvelebil, find a kernel of truth in them, suggesting that they may be based on one or more actual historical assemblies.

Tamil Nadu

TamilnaduTamil Nadu, IndiaTamil
Nevertheless, legends of the Sangams played a significant role in inspiring political, social, and literary movements in Tamil Nadu in the early 20th century.

Pallava dynasty

PallavaPallavasPallava Kingdom
Early literature from the pre-Pallava dynasty period does not contain any mention of the Sangam academies, although some early poems imply a connection between the city of Madurai, which later legends associate with the third Sangam, and Tamil literature and the cultivation of the language.

Appar

TirunavukkarasarThirunavukkarasarThirunavukarasar
The earliest express references to the academies are found in the songs of Appar and Sampandar, Shaivite poets who lived in the 7th century.

Sambandar

TirugnanasambandarTirugnana SambandarThirugnana Sambanthar
The earliest express references to the academies are found in the songs of Appar and Sampandar, Shaivite poets who lived in the 7th century.

Hinduism

HinduHindusHindu culture
The first Sangam (mutaṟcaṅkam)mudharchangam is described as having been held at "the Madurai which was submerged by the sea", lasted a total of 4400 years, and had 549 members, which supposedly included some gods of the Hindu pantheon such as Siva, Kubera, Murugan and Agastya.

Shiva

Lord ShivaSivaLord Siva
The first Sangam (mutaṟcaṅkam)mudharchangam is described as having been held at "the Madurai which was submerged by the sea", lasted a total of 4400 years, and had 549 members, which supposedly included some gods of the Hindu pantheon such as Siva, Kubera, Murugan and Agastya. In Nambi's account, the 49 members of the third Sangam led by Kapilar, Paraṇar and Nakkīrar were great devotees of Shiva, numbered amongst the 63 nayanars.

Kubera

KuveraKuberanKuwera
The first Sangam (mutaṟcaṅkam)mudharchangam is described as having been held at "the Madurai which was submerged by the sea", lasted a total of 4400 years, and had 549 members, which supposedly included some gods of the Hindu pantheon such as Siva, Kubera, Murugan and Agastya.

Kartikeya

MuruganMurugaSkanda
The first Sangam (mutaṟcaṅkam)mudharchangam is described as having been held at "the Madurai which was submerged by the sea", lasted a total of 4400 years, and had 549 members, which supposedly included some gods of the Hindu pantheon such as Siva, Kubera, Murugan and Agastya.

Agastya

AgasthyaAgathiyarAgasti
The first Sangam (mutaṟcaṅkam)mudharchangam is described as having been held at "the Madurai which was submerged by the sea", lasted a total of 4400 years, and had 549 members, which supposedly included some gods of the Hindu pantheon such as Siva, Kubera, Murugan and Agastya.

Thiruvilaiyadal Puranam

Thiruvilayadal Puranam
The next substantive references to the legend of the academies, however, appear in two significantly later works, namely, the Thiruvilaiyadal Puranam of Perumpaṟṟapuliyūr Nambi, and the better-known work of the same title by Paranjothi Munivar.

Nayanars

NayanarNayanmarsNayanmar
In Nambi's account, the 49 members of the third Sangam led by Kapilar, Paraṇar and Nakkīrar were great devotees of Shiva, numbered amongst the 63 nayanars.