Tamil language

TamilTamil-languagetaClassical Tamilதமிழ்Tamil filmTamil TamizhTelugu Tamil
Tamil is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Chindians, and Douglas.wikipedia
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Tamils

TamilTamil peopleTamilian
Tamil is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Chindians, and Douglas.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilians, Tamilar, Thamizhar (, or ), or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak the Tamil language as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to Southern India and north-eastern Sri Lanka.

Sri Lankan Moors

Sri Lankan MoorMoorsMuslim
Tamil is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Chindians, and Douglas.
They are mainly native speakers of the Tamil language with influence of Sinhalese and Arabic words.

Puducherry

PondicherryPondichéryUnion Territory of Puducherry
In India, it is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry.
Puducherry (Tamil:, ), also known by the rendering Pondicherry, is one of the 9 union territories of India.

Tamil Nadu

TamilnaduTamil Nadu, IndiaTamil
In India, it is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry.
Its official language is Tamil, which is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world.

Singapore

Republic of SingaporeSingapore CitySingaporean
Tamil is an official language in three countries: India, Sri Lanka and Singapore.
There are four official languages of Singapore: English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil; most Singaporeans are bilingual, with English serving as the nation's lingua franca, while Malay is the national language.

Karnataka

Karnataka StateKarnataka, IndiaKarnatka
Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state alongside Urdu, Konkani, Marathi, Tulu, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kodava and Beary.

South India

Southern IndiaSouth IndianPeninsular India
Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages: Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam.

Tamil literature

TamilTamil poetryliterature
A recorded Tamil literature has been documented for over 2000 years.
Tamil literature refers to the literature in the Tamil language.

Sangam literature

Sangamancient Tamil literatureclassical Tamil literature
The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from ca.
The Sangam literature, sometimes referred to as the Caṅkam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், caṅka ilakkiyam) connotes the ancient Tamil literature and is the earliest known literature of South India.

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
Tamil is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Chindians, and Douglas. Tamil is an official language in three countries: India, Sri Lanka and Singapore.
The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE, the southern peninsula was ruled by the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and South-East Asia.

Kerala

Kerala stateKerala, Indiastate of Kerala
Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
may stem from the Classical Tamil 'declivity of a hill or a mountain slope' or 'land of the Cheras'.

Malaysia

Federation of MalaysiaMalaysianMalaya
Furthermore, Tamil is used as one of the languages of education in Malaysia, along with English, Malay and Mandarin.
The word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively.

Tamil Lexicon dictionary

Tamil Lexicon
The Tamil Lexicon, published by the University of Madras, was one of the earliest dictionaries published in the Indian languages.
Tamil Lexicon (Tamil: தமிழ்ப் பேரகராதி Tamiḻ Pērakarāti) is a twelve-volume dictionary of the Tamil language.

Classical language

classical languagesclassicalclassics
Tamil is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world.
In some cases, such as those of Arabic and Tamil, the "classical" stage corresponds to the earliest attested literary variant.

Hero stone

Natukal hero stone (''Veeragallu'')Hero stones (''virgal'')
The earliest epigraphic records found on rock edicts and 'hero stones' date from around the 3rd century BC.
A hero stone (Virakallu in Kannada, Naṭukal in Tamil) is a memorial commemorating the honorable death of a hero in battle.

Dravidian languages

DravidianDravidian languageSouthern
Tamil is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Chindians, and Douglas.
The Dravidian languages with the most speakers are (in descending order of number of speakers) Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam, all of which have long literary traditions.

Tamil-Brahmi

Tamil BrahmiTamizhiearly Tamil writing
Tamil language inscriptions written in Brahmi script have been discovered in Sri Lanka and on trade goods in Thailand and Egypt.
Tamil-Brahmi is a variant of the Brahmi script used to write inscriptions in the early form of the Tamil language.

Tamil Thai

Tamil ThāiTemple for Mother Tamil
According to Hindu legend, Tamil or in personification form Tamil Thāi (Mother Tamil) was created by Lord Shiva.
ThamizhthThaai, (Tamiḻ Tāy, Thamizh Thaai) denotes the deified personification of the Tamil language as a mother.

A. K. Ramanujan

A.K. RamanujanA K RamanujanAK Ramanujan
A. K. Ramanujan described it as "the only language of contemporary India which is recognizably continuous with a classical past."
His academic research ranged across five languages: English, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, and Sanskrit.

Andhra Pradesh

AndhraAPAndhra Pradesh State
Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
The empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form.

Tamil languages

TamilTamil language family
It is also classified as being part of a Tamil language family that, alongside Tamil proper, includes the languages of about 35 ethno-linguistic groups such as the Irula and Yerukula languages (see SIL Ethnologue).
The Tamil languages are the group of Dravidian languages most closely related to Tamil.

Agastya

AgasthyaAgathiyarAgasti
Murugan, revered as the Tamil God, along with sage Agastya, brought it to the people.
He is one of the seven or eight most revered rishis in the Vedic texts, and is revered as one of the Tamil Siddhar in the Shaivism tradition, who invented an early grammar of the Tamil language, Agattiyam, playing a pioneering role in the development of Tampraparniyan medicine and spirituality at Saiva centres in proto-era Sri Lanka and South India.

Shiva

Lord ShivaSivaLord Siva
According to Hindu legend, Tamil or in personification form Tamil Thāi (Mother Tamil) was created by Lord Shiva.
Some authors associate the name with the Tamil word ' meaning "red", noting that Shiva is linked to the Sun (', "the Red one", in Tamil) and that Rudra is also called Babhru (brown, or red) in the Rigveda.

Kamil Zvelebil

Kamil V. ZvelebilZvelebil
(see Southworth's derivation of Sanskrit term for "others" or Mleccha) Kamil Zvelebil suggests an etymology of, with meaning "self" or "one's self", and "" having the connotation of "unfolding sound".
Kamil Václav Zvelebil (September 17, 1927 – January 17, 2009) was a Czech scholar in Indian literature and linguistics, notably Tamil, Sanskrit, Dravidian linguistics and literature and philology.

Official language

official languagesofficialadministrative language
Tamil is an official language in three countries: India, Sri Lanka and Singapore.
In addition, the Government of India has awarded the distinction of classical language to Tamil, Sanskrit, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam and Odia.