Tamil literature

TamilTamil poetryliteratureTamil poeticliterature in TamilModern Tamil literaturepoetryTamil fictionclassicKesusasteraan Tamil
Tamil literature refers to the literature in the Tamil language.wikipedia
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Tamil language

TamilTamil-languageta
Tamil literature refers to the literature in the Tamil language.
A recorded Tamil literature has been documented for over 2000 years.

Sangam literature

Sangamancient Tamil literatureclassical Tamil literature
The early Sangam literature, (Akananuru (1, 15, 31, 55, 61, 65, 91, 97, 101, 115, 127, 187, 197, 201, 211, 233, 251, 265, 281, 311, 325, 331, 347, 349, 359, 393, 281, 295), Kurunthogai (11), Natrinai (14, 75) are dated before 300 BCE), contain anthologies of various poets dealing with many aspects of life, including love, war, social values and religion.
The Sangam literature, sometimes referred to as the Caṅkam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், caṅka ilakkiyam) connotes the ancient Tamil literature and is the earliest known literature of South India.

Tamil Jain

JainTamil JainsJains
This was followed by the early epics and moral literature, authored by Hindu, Jain and Buddhist authors, lasting up to the 5th century CE. The Jain texts Nalatiyar and Pazhamozhi Nanuru each consist of four hundred poems, each of which cites a proverb and then illustrates it with a story.
Camaṇar wrote much Tamil literature, including the important Sangam literature, such as the Nālaṭiyār, the Silappatikaram, the Manimekalai and the Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi.

Tamils

TamilTamil peopleTamilian
Contributors to the Tamil literature are mainly from Tamil people from South India, including the land now comprising Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Sri Lankan Tamils from Sri Lanka, and from Tamil diaspora.
These early kingdoms sponsored the growth of some of the oldest extant literature in Tamil.

History of Tamil Nadu

Tamil historyits historyAncient period
The history of Tamil literature follows the history of Tamil Nadu, closely following the social, political and cultural trends of various periods.
These early kingdoms sponsored the growth of some of the oldest extant literature in Tamil.

Tamil Sangams

Tamil SangamSangamsangams
Tamil legends hold that these were composed in three successive poetic assemblies (Sangam) that were held in ancient times on a now vanished continent far to the south of India.
The Sangam period extended from roughly 400 BC to 200 AD (early Chola period before the interregnum), when the earliest extant works of Tamil literature were written (also known as Sangam literature).

Eighteen Greater Texts

PatiṉeṇmēlkaṇakkuPathinenmaelkanakkuEighteen Greater Text Series
These are: the Eighteen Greater Text Series (Pathinenmaelkanakku) comprising the Eight Anthologies (Ettuthokai) and the Ten Idylls (Pattupattu) and the Five Great Epics.
The Eighteen Greater Texts, known as Patiṉeṇmēlkaṇakku in the literature, is the collection of the oldest surviving Tamil poetry.

Tolkāppiyam

TolkappiyamTholkappiyamTolkappiyar
Tolkaappiyam, a commentary on grammar, phonetics, rhetoric and poetics is dated from this period.
Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம், lit. "ancient book") is the most ancient Tamil grammar text and the oldest surviving work of Tamil literature.

Kuṟuntokai

KurunthogaiKuruntokaiKurunthokai
Kuruntokai, a collection of poems belonging to the Ettuthokai anthology demonstrates an early treatment of the Sangam landscape.
Kuṟuntokai (குறுந்தொகை, meaning the short-collection ) is a classical Tamil poetic work and traditionally the second of the Eight Anthologies (Ettuthokai) in the Sangam literature.

Akanaṉūṟu

AgananuruAkananuruAhananuru
Such treatments are found to be much refined in the later works of Akananuru and Paripaatal.
The Akananuru (, literally "four hundred [poems] in the akam genre"), sometimes called Netuntokai (lit. "anthology of long poems"), is a classical Tamil poetic work and one of the Eight Anthologies (Ettuthokai) in the Sangam literature.

Eight Anthologies

EttuthokaiEṭṭuttokaiEttuthogai
These are: the Eighteen Greater Text Series (Pathinenmaelkanakku) comprising the Eight Anthologies (Ettuthokai) and the Ten Idylls (Pattupattu) and the Five Great Epics. Kuruntokai, a collection of poems belonging to the Ettuthokai anthology demonstrates an early treatment of the Sangam landscape.
The Eight Anthologies and its companion anthology, the Ten Idylls (Pathupaattu), is the oldest available Tamil literature.

Ramavataram

Kamba RamayanamKambaramayanamKamba Ramayana
It is during this era that some of the grandest of Tamil literary classics like Kambaramayanam and Periya Puranam were authored and many poets were patronized by the imperial Chola and Pandya empires.
This historic work is considered by both Tamil scholars and the general public as one of the greatest literary works in Tamil literature.

Tamil Nadu

TamilnaduTamil Nadu, IndiaTamil
Contributors to the Tamil literature are mainly from Tamil people from South India, including the land now comprising Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Sri Lankan Tamils from Sri Lanka, and from Tamil diaspora.
Tamil written literature has existed for over 2,000 years.

Eighteen Lesser Texts

PatiṉeṇkīḻkaṇakkuEighteen Lesser Text seriesPathinenkilkanakku
The collection the Eighteen Lesser Text series (Pathinenkilkanakku) was of this period.
The poems of this collection differ from the earlier works of the Eighteen Greater Texts (Patiṉeṇmēlkaṇakku), which are the oldest surviving Tamil poetry, in that the poems are written in the venpa meter and are relatively short in length.

Tirukkuṛaḷ

TirukkuralThirukkuralKural text
The best known of these works on ethics is the Tirukkural by Thiruvalluvar.
The Kural is one of the most reviewed of all works in Tamil literature, and almost every notable scholar has written commentaries (explanation in prose or verse) on it.

Avvaiyar

AuvaiyarAvvaiyar IAvaiyar
A contemporary of Kamban was the famous poet Auvaiyar who found great happiness in writing for young children.
Avvaiyar (ஔவையார்; literally 'Respectable Woman') was the title of more than one female poet who were active during different periods of Tamil literature.

Nālaṭiyār

NaladiyarNaaladiyarNalatiyar
Other famous works of this period are Kaḷavaḻi Nāṟpatu, Nalatiyar, Inna Narpathu and Iniyavai Narpathu.
The Nālaṭiyār is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the Eighteen Lesser Texts (Patiṉeṇkīḻkaṇakku) anthology of Tamil literature.

Paḻamoḻi Nāṉūṟu

Palamoli NanuruPazhamozhi Nanuru
The Jain texts Nalatiyar and Pazhamozhi Nanuru each consist of four hundred poems, each of which cites a proverb and then illustrates it with a story.
Pazhamozhi Nanuru (Tamil: பழமொழி நானூறு) is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the Eighteen Lesser Texts (Pathinenkilkanakku) anthology of Tamil literature.

Iṉiyavai Nāṟpatu

Iniyavai Narpathu
Other famous works of this period are Kaḷavaḻi Nāṟpatu, Nalatiyar, Inna Narpathu and Iniyavai Narpathu.
Iniyavai Narpathu (Tamil: இனியவை நாற்பது) is a classic Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the Eighteen Lesser Texts (Pathinenkilkanakku) anthology of Tamil literature.

Thiruvasagam

TiruvacakamTiruvasakamThiruvasakam
His Tiruvasakam consisting of over 600 verses is noted for its passionate devotion.. These Saivite Hymns collectively called Thirumurai is described as SIXTH VEDA next to Bhagavath Geetha in Hindu Tradition.
It is considered one of the profound works of Tamil literature and it discusses every phase of spiritual path from doubt and anguish to perfect understanding in Shiva, from earthly experience to teacher-disciple relationship and ultimately freedom from rebirth.

Kaḷavaḻi Nāṟpatu

Kalavazhi Narpathu
Other famous works of this period are Kaḷavaḻi Nāṟpatu, Nalatiyar, Inna Narpathu and Iniyavai Narpathu.
Kalavazhi Narpathu (Tamil: களவழி நாற்பது) is a Tamil poetic work belonging to the Eighteen Lesser Texts (Pathinenkilkanakku) anthology of Tamil literature.

Iṉṉā Nāṟpatu

Inna Narpathu
Other famous works of this period are Kaḷavaḻi Nāṟpatu, Nalatiyar, Inna Narpathu and Iniyavai Narpathu.
Inna Narpathu (Tamil: இன்னா நாற்பது) is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the Eighteen Lesser Texts (Pathinenkilkanakku) anthology of Tamil literature.

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
Tamil legends hold that these were composed in three successive poetic assemblies (Sangam) that were held in ancient times on a now vanished continent far to the south of India.
In Tamil literature, the Sangam literature (c.

Couplet

distichcoupletsrhyming couplet
The book is a comprehensive manual of ethics, polity and love, containing 1,330 distichs or kural divided into chapters of ten distichs each: the first thirty-eight on ethics, the next seventy on polity and the remainder on love.
Tamil literature contains some of the best known examples of ancient couplet poetry.

Thembavani

Veeramamunivar is also remembered for his Christian theological epic Thembavani on the life and teaching of Jesus Christ.
Thembavani (Tēmpāvaṇi) (தேம்பாவணி in Tamil) (A Garland of Unfading Honey-Sweet Verses), one of the Tamil classics, a poetical work of Veeramamunivar (Costanzo Beschi), on the life of St.Joseph, the earthly father of Jesus Christ.