Tamilakam

ancient Tamil countryTamil countryTamilakkamTamilTamilagamTamiḻakamPunal Naduancientancient nationAncient Tamil kingdom
Tamilakam or Ancient Tamil country refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people.wikipedia
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Chola dynasty

CholaCholasChola Empire
The best known among them were the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyans and Pallavas. Approximately during the period between 600 BCE to 300 CE, Tamiḻakam was ruled by the three Tamil dynasties: the Chola dynasty, the Pandyan dynasty, Satyaputra dynasty and the Chera dynasty.
As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE.

Kerala

Kerala stateKerala, Indiastate of Kerala
Tamilakam covered today's Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, Lakshadweep and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
These territories once shared a common language and culture, within an area known as Tamilakam.

Pandya dynasty

PandyaPandyasPandyan
The best known among them were the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyans and Pallavas. Approximately during the period between 600 BCE to 300 CE, Tamiḻakam was ruled by the three Tamil dynasties: the Chola dynasty, the Pandyan dynasty, Satyaputra dynasty and the Chera dynasty.
The rulers of the three dynasties were referred to as "the three crowned rulers (the mu-ventar) of the Tamil country".

Sangam period

SangamSangam ageSangam era
During the Sangam period, Tamil culture began to spread outside Tamilakam.
The Sangam Age was the period of history of ancient Tamil Nadu and Kerala and parts of Sri Lanka (then known as Tamilakam) spanning from c. 6th century BCE to c. 3rd century CE.

Pallava dynasty

PallavaPallavasPallava Kingdom
The best known among them were the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyans and Pallavas.
Pallavas became a major power during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571–630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I (630–668 CE) and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of the Tamil region for about 600 years until the end of the 9th century.

Sri Lankan Tamils

Sri Lankan TamilTamilCeylon Tamil
Ancient Tamil settlements were also found in Sri Lanka (Sri Lankan Tamils) and the Maldives (Giravarus).
One theory states that there was not an organised Sri Lankan Tamil people presence in Sri Lanka until the creation of a Tamil Kingdom in the 7th century CE, followed by much earlier invasions from Tamilakam.

Tamils

TamilTamil peopleTamilian
Tamilakam or Ancient Tamil country refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people.
The music, the temple architecture and the stylised sculptures favoured by the Tamil people as in their ancient nation are still being learnt and practised.

Tamil Nadu

TamilnaduTamil Nadu, IndiaTamil
Tamilakam covered today's Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, Lakshadweep and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
Sangam literature is primarily secular, dealing with everyday themes in a Tamilakam context.

Velir

VelirsSatyaputraAy
Approximately during the period between 600 BCE to 300 CE, Tamiḻakam was ruled by the three Tamil dynasties: the Chola dynasty, the Pandyan dynasty, Satyaputra dynasty and the Chera dynasty.
The Velir were a royal house of minor dynastic kings and aristocratic chieftains in Tamilakam in the early historic period of South India.

Jaffna Peninsula

JaffnaJaffna regionpeninsula
However, it excluded the present-day Tamil-inhabited territory in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka.
The Jaffna peninsula was also known in pre-mediaval era as Naga Nadu, which means "Land of the Nagas" as mentioned in the twin epics of ancient Tamilakam, the Silappatikaram and Manimekalai.

Chera dynasty

CheraCherasChera Kingdom
The best known among them were the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyans and Pallavas. Approximately during the period between 600 BCE to 300 CE, Tamiḻakam was ruled by the three Tamil dynasties: the Chola dynasty, the Pandyan dynasty, Satyaputra dynasty and the Chera dynasty.
Together with the Cholas of Uraiyur and the Pandyas of Madurai, the early Cheras were known as one of the three major powers (muventar) of ancient Tamilakam (a macro region in south India ) in the early centuries of the Common Era.

Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

Periplus Maris ErythraeiPeriplusPeriplus of the Erythrean Sea
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, as well as Ptolemy's writings, mention the term "Limyrike" which corresponds to the Malabar Coast of south-western India.
Damirica or Limyrike is Tamilagam (Tamil தமிழகம்) – the "Tamil country".

Venkata (hill)

VenkatadriVenkata hillVenkata
According to the Tolkāppiyam preface, "the virtuous land in which Tamil is spoken as the mother tongue lies between the northern Venkata hill and the southern Kumari."
The ancient Tamil texts describe the Venkata hill as the northernmost part of Tamilakam (the Tamil country).

Sources of ancient Tamil history

The poems in Sangam literature contain vivid descriptions of the different aspects of life and society in Tamilakam during this age; scholars agree that, for the most part, these are reliable accounts.

History of Tamil Nadu

Tamil historyits historyAncient period
The region of Tamil Nadu or Tamilakam, in the southeast of modern India, shows evidence of having had continuous human habitation from 15,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE.

Naga people (Lanka)

NagaNaga peopleNagas
Royals of the Chola-Naga lineage would go on to rule other territory of the island, Nagapattinam and Tondai Nadu of Tamilakam.

Chronology of Tamil history

Chronological standpoints in Tamil history

Annaicoddai seal

Anaikoddai seal
The Annaicoddai seal, dated to the 3rd century BCE, contains a bilingual inscription in Tamil-Brahmi.Though Tamils have been living in Sri Lanka since the Ancient era at least with universally accepted dates of at least the 10th century BCE showing signs of Tamil civilization in Sri Lanka Excavations in the area of Tissamaharama in southern Sri Lanka have unearthed locally issued coins produced between the second century BCE and the second century CE, some of which carry local Tamil personal names written in early Tamil letters, which suggest that local Tamil merchants were present and actively involved in trade along the southern coast of Sri Lanka by the late classical period.
Similar inscriptions have been found throughout ancient Tamilakam, in modern day South India.

Puducherry

PondicherryPondichéryUnion Territory of Puducherry
Tamilakam covered today's Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, Lakshadweep and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

Lakshadweep

Lakshadweep IslandsLaccadivesUnion Territory of Lakshadweep
Tamilakam covered today's Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, Lakshadweep and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

Andhra Pradesh

AndhraAPAndhra Pradesh State
Tamilakam covered today's Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, Lakshadweep and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

Karnataka

Karnataka StateKarnataka, IndiaKarnatka
Tamilakam covered today's Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, Lakshadweep and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

Tamil language

TamilTamil-languageta
Traditional accounts and Tholkāppiyam referred these territories as a single cultural area, where Tamil was the natural language and culture of all people.

Sri Lanka

CeylonCeyloneseDemocratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Ancient Tamil settlements were also found in Sri Lanka (Sri Lankan Tamils) and the Maldives (Giravarus). However, it excluded the present-day Tamil-inhabited territory in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka.

Maldives

Maldivianthe MaldivesRepublic of Maldives
Ancient Tamil settlements were also found in Sri Lanka (Sri Lankan Tamils) and the Maldives (Giravarus).