A report on Tang Jiyao

Gen. Tang Jiyao

Chinese general and warlord of Yunnan during the Warlord Era of early Republican China.

- Tang Jiyao
Gen. Tang Jiyao

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National Protection War

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Civil war that took place in China between 1915 and 1916.

Civil war that took place in China between 1915 and 1916.

The reopening of the National Assembly of the Republic of China in Beijing on August 1, 1916, following the National Protection War.

In Yunnan province, military leaders, including Tang Jiyao, Cai E and Li Liejun, declared their independence and launched military expeditions against Yuan Shikai.

Li Liejun

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Chinese revolutionary leader and general in the early Republic of China.

Chinese revolutionary leader and general in the early Republic of China.

In 1907, he was accepted into the artillery school of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy where his classmates included Yan Xishan, Tang Jiyao and Cheng Qian.

Sun Yat-sen, the founding father of Republic of China, the oldest surviving republic in Asia.

History of the Republic of China

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End to 2,000 years of imperial rule.

End to 2,000 years of imperial rule.

Sun Yat-sen, the founding father of Republic of China, the oldest surviving republic in Asia.
Three different flags were originally used during the Revolution. The bottom message says Long live the Republic! with the five races represented by the Five-Color Flag of the Republic.
Bonds that Sun Yat-sen used to raise money for revolutionary cause. The Republic of China was also once known as the Chunghwa Republic.
A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President.
A poster that commemorates permanent President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai and provisional President of the Republic Sun Yat-sen.
Yuan Shikai as the Emperor of the Empire of China (1915–16).
Flag of the Republic of China, Five-colored flag (1912–1928), means Five Races Under One Union.
Flag of the Republic of China (from 1927), Blue Sky, White Sun with 12 rays, and Wholly Red field.
Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement.
Major Chinese warlord coalitions as of 1925
National Revolutionary Army soldiers march into the British concessions in Hubei during the Northern Expedition.
With help from Germany, Chinese industry and its military were improved just prior to the war against Japan.
Administrative map of China in 1935 with the administrative division of Manchukuo
Chiang Kai-shek and Madame Chiang Kai-shek with Gen. Joseph Stilwell in Burma (1942).
The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing (Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou (Canton), then to Chongqing (Chungking), Chengdu (Chengtu) and Xichang (Sichang) before arriving in Taipei.
1960s ROC slogan: "The times test the youth. The youth create the times."
The Presidential Building in Taipei

On 25 December former Yunnan governor Cai E, former Jiangxi governor Li Liejun and Yunnan Gen. Tang Jiyao formed the National Protection Army and declared Yunnan independent.

Cai E

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Chinese revolutionary leader and general.

Chinese revolutionary leader and general.

Cai E
The Memorial Cottage of Cai E, located in Yuelu Mountain, Changsha, Hunan, China.
The Tomb of Cai E, located in Yuelu Mountain, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Tang Jiyao replaced Cai E as Military Governor of Yunnan in 1913.

Nanjing Road (Nanking Road) in Shanghai after the Shanghai Uprising, hung with the Five Races Under One Union flags then used by the revolutionaries in Shanghai and Northern China.

1911 Revolution

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The 1911 Revolution, or Xinhai Revolution, ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and led to the establishment of the Republic of China.

The 1911 Revolution, or Xinhai Revolution, ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and led to the establishment of the Republic of China.

Nanjing Road (Nanking Road) in Shanghai after the Shanghai Uprising, hung with the Five Races Under One Union flags then used by the revolutionaries in Shanghai and Northern China.
Dr. Sun Yat-sen in London
Sun Yat-sen with members of the Tongmenghui
Prince Qing with some royal cabinet members
Flag of the First Guangzhou Uprising
A statue to honor revolutionary Qiu Jin
The memorial for the 72 martyrs
The Iron Blood 18-star flag, used during the Wuchang Uprising
Paths of the uprising
Map of uprisings during the 1911 Revolution
Chen Qimei, military governor of Shanghai
One of the old buildings occupied by the Guangfuhui in Lianjiang County, Fujian
1911 battle at Ta-ping gate, Nanking. Painting by T. Miyano.
Seal of the President of Provisional Government of Republic of China
Tang Shaoyi, left. Edward Selby Little, middle. Wu Tingfang, right.
Sun Yat-sen in 1912 at one of the historic crossroads with the Five Races Under One Union flag and the Iron Blood 18-star flag
Imperial edict for abdication

On 30 October, Li Genyuan (李根源) of the Tongmenghui in Yunnan joined with Cai E, Luo Peijin (羅佩金), Tang Jiyao, and other officers of the New Army to launch the Double Ninth Uprising (重九起義).

Constitutional Protection Movement

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Series of movements led by Sun Yat-sen to resist the Beiyang government between 1917 and 1922, in which Sun established another government in Guangzhou as a result.

Series of movements led by Sun Yat-sen to resist the Beiyang government between 1917 and 1922, in which Sun established another government in Guangzhou as a result.

They selected the leaders of the National Protection War Tang Jiyao of the Yunnan clique and Lu Rongting of the Old Guangxi clique as marshals, Wu Tingfang as the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Tang Shaoyi as the Minister of Finance (abstained), Cheng Biguang as the Naval Minister, and Hu Hanmin as the Minister of Communications.

The Beiyang Army in training

Warlord Era

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Period in the history of the Republic of China when control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions from 1916 to 1928.

Period in the history of the Republic of China when control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions from 1916 to 1928.

The Beiyang Army in training
Zhang Zuolin (left) and Wu Peifu (right), two of the most powerful strongmen of the Warlord Era
Control of railroads was of great importance to the warlords.
Zhang Zongchang, one of the most infamous Chinese warlords
Bandits in northwestern China, around 1915
Warlord soldiers train with dao swords sometime in the 1920s. Some warlord armies, especially those in southern China, were badly armed, paid and supplied, and often lacked even basic necessities, such as guns, ammunition, and food.
Zhang Zuolin with two of his sons, both wearing expensive miniature uniforms
Renault FT of the Fengtian clique during Northern Expedition
This military symbol was based on the Five Races Under One Union flag.
The party emblem of the Kuomintang
Map of the campaigns of the Northern expedition of the Kuomintang
In course of the Central Plains War, several warlords attempted to overthrow Chiang Kai-shek's newly formed Nationalist government; despite the defeat of the anti-Kuomintang forces, warlords continued to remain in power in much of China until the 1940s

The Yunnan–Guangxi War broke out as Tang Jiyao tried to claim party leadership.

Sutra Stone Pillar, Dali Kingdom period.

Kunming

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Capital and largest city of Yunnan province, China.

Capital and largest city of Yunnan province, China.

Sutra Stone Pillar, Dali Kingdom period.
Maps of "Yun-nan-fou" and "Ta-li-fou" from Du Halde's 1736 Description of China, based on reports from Jesuit missionaries
Old Kunming quarter, containing the narrow and curved Sister Buildings (姊妹楼) behind the Victory Monument on Guanghua Jie, located across the street to the north of the old Bird and Flower Market
Flag and emblem of Kunming City from 1922 until 1949 under the Republic of China government.
The Flying Tigers and P-40 Warhawk in Kunming Air Base, 1944
An old wooden house and a modern skyscraper in the background
Kunming night
Map including Kunming (labeled as K'UN-MING (YÜNNANFU) 昆明) (AMS, 1954)
Lake Dian
Kunming at dawn, from the peak of Changchongshan (长虫山).
Panoramic view of northern central Kunming taken from Yu'an Shan Cemetery (玉安山公墓), looking northeast to east-southeast.
Dongfeng (East Wind) Square. The building in the background, Workers' Cultural Hall, has been demolished for subway construction.
Central Kunming
Huating Temple (华亭寺) in the Western Hills near Kunming
Yuantong Temple, the largest Buddhist complex in Kunming
Yunnan Art Theater
Mixian (米线) rice noodles being cooked in copper pots (铜锅) on gas elements at a noodle restaurant in Kunming.
Panlong River
Kunming industrial zone on the west coast of the Lake Dian
Satellite image of Kunming, situated on the northern shore of Lake Dian
Kunming Changshui International Airport
Kunming's main railway station
Kunming Metro began operation in 2014
Kunming traffic
Dongfeng Road, one of Kunming's main arteries.

The local warlord General Tang Jiyao established the Wujiaba Aerodrome in 1922; an additional 23 airports would be established in Yunnan from 1922-1929.

Tokyo Shinbu Gakko

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Military preparatory school located in Tokyo, Japan.

Military preparatory school located in Tokyo, Japan.

Tang Jiyao

Guangxi

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Autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in South China and bordering Vietnam (Hà Giang, Cao Bằng, Lạng Sơn and Quảng Ninh Provinces) and the Gulf of Tonkin.

Autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in South China and bordering Vietnam (Hà Giang, Cao Bằng, Lạng Sơn and Quảng Ninh Provinces) and the Gulf of Tonkin.

Zhuang people in Longzhou
View of Nanning, the capital and economic center of Guangxi.
A commercial street in Guilin
The Guizhou–Guangxi Railway near the Layi Station in Nandan County, Hechi.
Pagodas in Guilin.
Cormorant fisherman on the Li River in Yangshuo County
Li River, Guangxi
Longsheng Rice Terrace
Yulong River
Ban Gioc Duc Thien– Banyue Detian Falls

After the death of Sun Yat-sen, Li also repulsed Tang Jiyao's revolt and joined the Northern Expedition establishing control over other warlords by the Republic of China (1912–49).