A report on XinjiangXiongnu and Tang dynasty

Domain and influence of Xiongnu under Modu Chanyu around 205 BC
The empire during the reign of Wu Zetian, circa 700
Dzungaria (Red) and the Tarim Basin or Altishahr (Blue)
Asia in 200 BC, showing the early Xiongnu state and its neighbors
Portrait painting of Emperor Gaozu (born Li Yuan, 566–635), the first Tang Emperor.
Northern Xinjiang (Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (Red) and Altishahr/the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Plaque in the shape of a grazing kulan (wild ass), 2nd–1st century BC, Northwest China, Xiongnu culture.
Empress Wu (Wu Zetian), the sole officially recognized empress regnant of China in more than two millennia. She first ruled through her husband and sons for almost three decades, then became emperor herself and ruled in her own right for another fifteen years.
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Altishahr) by the Tien Shan Mountains
A traveling nomad family led by a man in belted jacket and trousers, pulling a nomadic cart. Belt Buckle, Mongolia or southern Siberia, dated to 2nd-1st century BC (Xiongnu period).
Map of An Lushan Rebellion
Map of Han Dynasty in 2 CE. Light blue is the Tarim Basin protectorate.
The Han dynasty world order in AD 2.
The Leshan Giant Buddha, 71 m high; begun in 713, completed in 803
Old Uyghur/Yugur art from the Bezeklik murals
Xiongnu among other people in Asia around 1 AD.
Nanchan Temple (Wutai), built during the late 8th century
The Tarim Basin in the 3rd century AD
Bronze seal of a Xiongnu chief, conferred by the Eastern Han government. Inscribed 漢匈奴/歸義親/漢長 ("The Chief of the Han Xiongnu, who have returned to righteousness and embraced the Han"). Seal, impression, and transcription in standard characters.
Xumi Pagoda, built in 636
A Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel. Sancai ceramic statuette, Tang dynasty
Belt hook depicting an animal fight, Xiongnu, 200-100 BC, bronze. Östasiatiska museet, Stockholm.
A late Tang mural commemorating the victory of General Zhang Yichao over the Tibetans in 848 AD, from Mogao cave 156
Mongol states from the 14th to the 17th centuries: the Northern Yuan dynasty, Four Oirat, Moghulistan and Kara Del
Southern and Northern Xiongnu in 200 AD, before the collapse of the Han Dynasty.
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang wearing the robes and hat of a scholar
The Dzungar–Qing Wars, between the Qing Dynasty and the Dzungar Khanate
Xiongnu cauldron, Eastern Han
Tang tomb figure of an official dressed in Hanfu, with a tall hat, wide-sleeved belted outer garment, and rectangular "kerchief" in front. A white inner gown hangs over his square shoes. He holds a tablet to his chest, a report to his superiors.
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1756, between the Manchu and Oirat armies
Location of Xiongnu and other steppe nations in 300 AD.
Civil service exam candidates gather around the wall where results had been posted. Artwork by Qiu Ying.
The Qing Empire ca. 1820
An embroidered rug from the Xiongnu Noin-Ula burial site. This luxury item was imported from Bactria, and is thought to represent Yuezhi figures.
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang giving audience to Zhang Guo, by Ren Renfa (1254–1327)
Scene from the 1828 Qing campaign against rebels in Altishahr
Belt plaque in the shape of a kneeling horse, 3rd-1st century BCE, gilded silver, made in North China for Xiongnu patrons.
Emperor Taizong (r. 626–649) receives Gar Tongtsen Yülsung, ambassador of the Tibetan Empire, at his court; later copy of an original painted in 641 by Yan Liben (600–673)
Yakub Beg, ruler of Yettishar
Belt Buckle, 2nd-1st century BCE, Xiongnu. Another naturalistic belt buckle made to the Xiongnu taste, showing a mounted warrior frontally, holding a dagger and grabbing the hair of a demon who is also attacked by a dog. Also appears a nomadic cart pulled by reindeers, and another dog on top of the cart.
The Chinese Tang dynasty during its greatest extension, controlling large parts of Central Asia.
19th-century Khotan Uyghurs in Yettishar
Xiongnu Leather Robe, Han period, Henan Provincial Museum, Zhengzhou
Chinese officer of the Guard of Honour. Tomb of Princess Chang-le (长乐公主墓), Zhao Mausoleum, Shaanxi province. Tang Zhenguan year 17, i.e. 644 CE
Kuomintang in Xinjiang, 1942
Xiongnu bow
A 10th-century mural painting in the Mogao Caves at Dunhuang showing monastic architecture from Mount Wutai, Tang dynasty; Japanese architecture of this period was influenced by Tang Chinese architecture
Governor Sheng Shicai ruled from 1933 to 1944.
Belt plaque with design of wrestling men, Ordos region and western part of North China, 2nd century BC, bronze - Ethnological Museum, Berlin.
Tomb figure of mounted warrior similar to the one unearthed from the tomb of Crown Prince Li Chongrun
The Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic encompassed Xinjiang's Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay districts.
Belt buckle with three Ibexes, 2nd-1st century BC, Xiongnu. Chinese foundries made bronze belt plaques to the taste of the Xiongnu, who preferred designs of real animals in naturalistic settings. These plaques have typically been excavated in Xiongnu tombs of the 1st century BC.
Tomb guardian (wushi yong), early 8th century
Close to Karakoram Highway in Xinjiang.
Belt buckle with animal combat scene, 2nd-1st century BCE, made in North China for the Xiongnu. These plates were inspired by the art of the steppes, but the design was flattened and compressed within the frame.
A bas relief of a soldier and the emperor's horse, Autumn Dew, with elaborate saddle and stirrups, designed by Yan Liben, from the tomb of Emperor Taizong c. 650
Pamir Mountains and Muztagh Ata.
Belt Buckle with nomadic-inspired zoomorphic design, manufactured in China for the Xiongnu. Mercury-gilded bronze (a Chinese technique). North China, 3rd-2nd century BC.
Illustration of Byzantine embassy to Tang Taizong 643 CE
Taklamakan Desert
2nd century BC – 2nd century AD characters of Xiongnu-Xianbei script (Mongolia and Inner Mongolia).{{sfn|Ishjamts|1996|p=166, Fig 5}}
Tang dynasty Kai Yuan Tong Bao (開元通寳) coin, first minted in 621 in Chang'an, a model for the Japanese 8th-century Wadōkaichin
Tianchi Lake
2nd century BC – 2nd century AD, characters of Xiongnu-Xianbei script (Mongolia and Inner Mongolia).{{sfn|Ishjamts|1996|p=166, Fig 5}}
Sancai glazed horse tomb figure
Black Irtysh river in Burqin County is a famous spot for sightseeing.
"Pastoralist expansion into Mongolia ca. 3000 BCE, and by the Late Bronze Age, Mongolian populations were biogeographically structured into three distinct groups, all practicing dairy pastoralism regardless of ancestry. The Xiongnu emerged from the mixing of these populations and those from surrounding regions".
Tomb figure of a horse with a carefully sculpted saddle, decorated with leather straps and ornamental fastenings featuring eight-petalled flowers and apricot leaves.
Kanas Lake
A contract from the Tang dynasty that records the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five Chinese coins. Found in the Astana Cemetery in Turfan.
Largest cities and towns of Xinjiang
Uniparental haplogroup assignments by group and sex-bias "z" scores of Xiongnu.
Tomb Figure of a Sogdian merchant, 7th-century
Statue of Mao Zedong in Kashgar
A mural depicting a corner tower, most likely one of Chang'an, from the tomb of Prince Yide (d. 701) at the Qianling Mausoleum, dated 706
Nur Bekri, Chairman of the Xinjiang Government between 2007 and 2015
Map of Chang'an in Tang Dynasty
The distribution map of Xinjiang's GDP per person (2011)
The bronze Jingyun Bell cast 711, height 247 cm high, weight 6,500 kg, now in the Xi'an Bell Tower
Ürümqi is a major industrial center within Xinjiang.
A Tang dynasty era copy of the preface to the Lantingji Xu poems composed at the Orchid Pavilion Gathering, originally attributed to Wang Xizhi (303–361 AD) of the Jin dynasty
Wind farm in Xinjiang
A poem by Li Bai (701–762 AD), the only surviving example of Li Bai's calligraphy, housed in the Palace Museum in Beijing.
Sunday market in Khotan
Calligraphy of Emperor Taizong on a Tang stele
Ürümqi Diwopu International Airport
A Tang dynasty sculpture of a Bodhisattva
Karakorum highway
An 8th-century silk wall scroll from Dunhuang, showing the paradise of Amitabha
This flag (Kök Bayraq) has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.
A timber hall built in 857, located at the Buddhist Foguang Temple of Mount Wutai, Shanxi
"Heroic Gesture of Bodhisattvathe Bodhisattva", example of 6th-7th-century terracotta Greco-Buddhist art (local populations were Buddhist) from Tumxuk, Xinjiang
A Tang sancai-glazed carved relief showing horseback riders playing polo
Sogdian donors to the Buddha, 8th century fresco (with detail), Bezeklik, Eastern Tarim Basin
A late Tang or early Five Dynasties era silk painting on a banner depicting Guanyin and a female attendant in silk robes, from the Dunhuang caves, now in the British Museum
A mosque in Ürümqi
Palace ladies in a garden from a mural of Prince Li Xian's tomb in the Qianling Mausoleum, where Wu Zetian was also buried in 706
People engaging in snow sports by a statue of bodhisattva Guanyin in Wujiaqu
Tang era gilt-gold bowl with lotus and animal motifs
Christian Church in Hami
A Tang sancai-glazed lobed dish with incised decorations, 8th century
Catholic Church in Urumqi
Tomb figure of a lady attendant, 7th- to 8th-century; during the Tang era, female hosts prepared feasts, tea parties, and played drinking games with their guests.
Temple of the Great Buddha in Midong, Ürümqi
A rounded "offering plate" with design in "three colors" (sancai) glaze, 8th-century
Taoist Temple of Fortune and Longevity at the Heavenly Lake of Tianshan in Fukang, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture
A page of Lu Yu's The Classic of Tea
Emin Minaret
A square bronze mirror with a phoenix motif of gold and silver inlaid with lacquer, 8th-century
Id Kah mosque in Kashgar, largest mosque in China
The Diamond Sutra, printed in 868, is the world's first widely printed book to include a specific date of printing.
Erkin Tuniyaz, the incumbent Chairman of the Xinjiang Government
The Dunhuang map, a star map showing the North Polar region. c. 700. The whole set of star maps contains over 1,300 stars.
"Great Tang" (Dà Táng) in seal characters.
A Tang Dynasty sancai statuette of Sogdian musicians riding on a Bactrian camel, 723 AD, Xi'an.

The Xiongnu were also active in areas now part of Siberia, Inner Mongolia, Gansu and Xinjiang.

- Xiongnu

The Western Regions during the Tang era were known as Qixi (磧西).

- Xinjiang

Nomadic tribes such as the Yuezhi, Saka, and Wusun were probably part of the migration of Indo-European speakers who had settled in western Central Asia long before the Xiongnu and Han Chinese.

- Xinjiang

Following his death, the power of the Xiongnu in the Western Regions increased again, and the emperors of subsequent dynasties did not reach as far west until the Tang dynasty.

- Xiongnu

While the Turks were settled in the Ordos region (former territory of the Xiongnu), the Tang government took on the military policy of dominating the central steppe.

- Tang dynasty

In fact, it was during this rebellion that the Tang withdrew its western garrisons stationed in what is now Gansu and Qinghai, which the Tibetans then occupied along with the territory of what is now Xinjiang.

- Tang dynasty

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Overall

Woven silk textile from Tomb No. 1 at Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan province, China, dated to the Western Han Era, 2nd century BCE

Silk Road

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Network of Eurasian trade routes active from the second century BCE until the mid-15th century.

Network of Eurasian trade routes active from the second century BCE until the mid-15th century.

Woven silk textile from Tomb No. 1 at Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan province, China, dated to the Western Han Era, 2nd century BCE
Chinese jade and steatite plaques, in the Scythian-style animal art of the steppes. 4th–3rd century BCE. British Museum.
Achaemenid Persian Empire at its greatest extent, showing the Royal Road.
Soldier with a centaur in the Sampul tapestry, wool wall hanging, 3rd–2nd century BCE, Xinjiang Museum, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.
A ceramic horse head and neck (broken from the body), from the Chinese Eastern Han dynasty (1st–2nd century CE)
Bronze coin of Constantius II (337–361), found in Karghalik, Xinjiang, China
The Silk Road transmission of Buddhism: Mahayana Buddhism first entered the Chinese Empire (Han dynasty) during the Kushan Era. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
Central Asia during Roman times, with the first Silk Road
A Westerner on a camel, Northern Wei dynasty (386–534)
Map showing Byzantium along with the other major silk road powers during China's Southern dynasties period of fragmentation.
Coin of Constans II (r. 641–648), who is named in Chinese sources as the first of several Byzantine emperors to send embassies to the Chinese Tang dynasty
A Chinese sancai statue of a Sogdian man with a wineskin, Tang dynasty (618–907)
The empires and city-states of the Horn of Africa, such as the Axumites were important trading partners in the ancient Silk Road.
After the Tang defeated the Gokturks, they reopened the Silk Road to the west.
Marco Polo's caravan on the Silk Road, 1380
Map of Eurasia and Africa showing trade networks, c. 870
The Round city of Baghdad between 767 and 912 was the most important urban node along the Silk Road.
A lion motif on Sogdian polychrome silk, 8th century, most likely from Bukhara
Yuan Dynasty era Celadon vase from Mogadishu.
Map of Marco Polo's travels in 1271–1295
Port cities on the maritime silk route featured on the voyages of Zheng He.
Plan of the Silk Road with its maritime branch
Yangshan Port of Shanghai, China
Port of Trieste
Trans-Eurasia Logistics
The Silk Road in the 1st century
The Nestorian Stele, created in 781, describes the introduction of Nestorian Christianity to China
Fragment of a wall painting depicting Buddha from a stupa in Miran along the Silk Road (200AD - 400AD)
A blue-eyed Central Asian monk teaching an East-Asian monk, Bezeklik, Turfan, eastern Tarim Basin, China, 9th century; the monk on the right is possibly Tocharian, although more likely Sogdian.
Bilingual edict (Greek and Aramaic) by Indian Buddhist King Ashoka, 3rd century BCE; see Edicts of Ashoka, from Kandahar. This edict advocates the adoption of "godliness" using the Greek term Eusebeia for Dharma. Kabul Museum.
A statue depicting Buddha giving a sermon, from Sarnath, 3000 km southwest of Urumqi, Xinjiang, 8th century
Iconographical evolution of the Wind God. Left: Greek Wind God from Hadda, 2nd century. Middle: Wind God from Kizil, Tarim Basin, 7th century. Right: Japanese Wind God Fujin, 17th century.
Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh
Sultanhani caravanserai
Shaki Caravanserai, Shaki, Azerbaijan
Two-Storeyed Caravanserai, Baku, Azerbaijan
Bridge in Ani, capital of medieval Armenia
Taldyk pass
Medieval fortress of Amul, Turkmenabat, Turkmenistan
Zeinodin Caravanserai
Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel, sancai ceramic glaze, Chinese Tang dynasty (618–907)
The ruins of a Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) Chinese watchtower made of rammed earth at Dunhuang, Gansu province
A late Zhou or early Han Chinese bronze mirror inlaid with glass, perhaps incorporated Greco-Roman artistic patterns
A Chinese Western Han dynasty (202 BCE – 9 CE) bronze rhinoceros with gold and silver inlay
Han dynasty Granary west of Dunhuang on the Silk Road.
Green Roman glass cup unearthed from an Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 CE) tomb, Guangxi, southern China

The southern stretches of the Silk Road, from Khotan (Xinjiang) to Eastern China, were first used for jade and not silk, as long as 5000 BCE, and is still in use for this purpose.

These mummified remains may have been of people who spoke Indo-European languages, which remained in use in the Tarim Basin, in the modern day Xinjiang region, until replaced by Turkic influences from the Xiongnu culture to the north and by Chinese influences from the eastern Han dynasty, who spoke a Sino-Tibetan language.

Both the Old Book of Tang and New Book of Tang, covering the history of the Chinese Tang dynasty (618–907), record that a new state called Fu-lin (拂菻; i.e. Byzantine Empire) was virtually identical to the previous Daqin (大秦; i.e. Roman Empire).

The Tarim Basin is the oval-shaped desert in Central Asia.

Tarim Basin

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Endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about 888,000 km2 and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.

Endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about 888,000 km2 and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.

The Tarim Basin is the oval-shaped desert in Central Asia.
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Taklamakan) by the Tien Shan Mountains
Tarim basin ancient boats; they were used for burials
NASA landsat photo of the Tarim Basin
The Tarim Basin, 2008
Tarim Basin in the 3rd century
Tarim mummies, found in westernmost Xinjiang, within the Tarim Basin.
Fragmentary painting on silk of a woman playing the go boardgame, from the Astana Cemetery, Gaochang, c. 744 AD, during the late period of Tang Chinese rule (just before the An Lushan Rebellion)
Map of Taizong's campaigns against the Tarim Basin oasis states, allies of the Western Turks.
A document from Khotan written in Khotanese Saka, part of the Eastern Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages, listing the animals of the Chinese zodiac in the cycle of predictions for people born in that year; ink on paper, early 9th century
Uyghur princes from the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves near Turpan, Kingdom of Qocho, 8th-9th centuries
An Islamic cemetery outside the Afaq Khoja Mausoleum in Kashgar
Subashi Buddhist temple ruins
Northern Xinjiang (Dzungar Basin) (yellow), Eastern Xinjiang - Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (red), and the Tarim Basin (blue)
Uyghurs in Khotan
Fresco, with Hellenistic influences, from a stupa shrine, Miran
Painting of a Christian woman, Khocho (Gaochang), early period of Chinese Tang rule, 602–654 AD

Located in China's Xinjiang region, it is sometimes used synonymously to refer to the southern half of the province, or Nanjiang, as opposed to the northern half of the province known as Dzungaria or Beijiang.

However, the Yuezhi were assaulted and forced to flee from the Hexi Corridor of Gansu by the forces of the Xiongnu ruler Modu Chanyu, who conquered the area in 177-176 BC (decades before the Han Chinese conquest and colonization of western tip of Gansu or the establishment of the Protectorate of the Western Regions).

During the Tang Dynasty, a series of military expeditions were conducted against the oasis states of the Tarim Basin, then vassals of the Western Turkic Khaganate.

Gansu

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Landlocked province in Northwest China.

Landlocked province in Northwest China.

The ruins of a Han dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) Chinese watchtower made of rammed earth at Dunhuang, Gansu province, the eastern edge of the Silk Road
Xindian culture era jar with two lug handles uncovered in Gansu, dating to around 1,000 BC
The ruins of a gate at Yumen Pass, built during the Jin dynasty (266–420)
Jiayuguan Fort
Danxia landform in Zhangye
Gates of the provincial government complex in Lanzhou
Farmland in Linxia
Shopping mall in Lanzhou
Lanzhou city
A painting of the Buddhist Manjushri, from the Yulin Caves of Gansu, Tangut-led Western Xia dynasty (1038–1227 AD)
These rammed earth ruins of a granary in Hecang Fortress, located ~11 km (7 miles) northeast of the Western-Han-era Yumen Pass, were built during the Western Han (202 BC – 9 AD) and significantly rebuilt during the Western Jin (280–316 AD).
A terracotta warrior from Gansu, with traces of polychrome and gold, from the Tang dynasty (618–907)
Maijishan Grottoes
Fertile fields near Wuwei
Crescent Lake, Dunhuang
Qilian Mountains southeast of Jiuquan
Terrace farms near Tianshui
Grasslands in Min County
Wetland by the Yellow River, Maqu County
Main hall of a Chan temple of Lanzhou.
Temple of the Chenghuangshen (Idol) of Lanzhou.
Nanhua Amituo Fo Temple of Chinese Buddhism seen on a hill above the roofs of the Yu Baba Gongbei, a Sufi shrine.
Labrang Monastery of Tibetan Buddhism in Gannan.
Village temple in Linxia County.
Linxia Dongguan Mosque
Lanzhou Xiguan Mosque

The seventh-largest administrative district by area at 453700 km2, Gansu lies between the Tibetan and Loess plateaus and borders Mongolia (Govi-Altai Province), Inner Mongolia and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south and Shaanxi to the east.

It is a combination of the names of two prefecture (州) in the Sui and Tang dynasty: Gan (around Zhangye) and Su (around Jiuquan).

The Yuezhi originally lived in the very western part of Gansu until they were forced to emigrate by the Xiongnu around 177 BCE.

Tarim Basin in the 3rd century

Kucha

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Ancient Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the northern edge of what is now the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin and south of the Muzat River.

Ancient Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the northern edge of what is now the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin and south of the Muzat River.

Tarim Basin in the 3rd century
Tarim Basin in the 3rd century
Location of Kucha within Xinjiang with the county of Kucha in pink and the prefecture of Aksu in yellow
Kuchean monks and lay devotees circa 300 CE, in the paintings of the Cave of the Hippocampi (Cave 118), Kizil Caves.
The "Peacock Cave", in the Kizil Caves near Kucha, built circa 400 CE.
Kucha ambassador at the Chinese court of Emperor Yuan of Liang in his capital Jingzhou in 516–520 CE, with explanatory text. Portraits of Periodical Offering of Liang, 11th century Song copy.
Royal family of the oasis city-state of Kucha (King, Queen and young Princes), Cave 17, Kizil Caves. Circa 500 CE, Hermitage Museum.
Dali coins founded in Kucha
Bust of a bodhisattva from Kucha, 6th-7th century. Guimet Museum.
Wooden plate with inscription in a Tocharian language. Kucha, 5th-8th century. Tokyo National Museum.
A "Han Gui bilingual Wu Zhu coin" (漢龜二體五銖錢) produced by the Kingdom of Kucha with both a Chinese and what is presumed to be a Kuśiññe inscription.
King Suvarnapushpa of Kucha, from Cave 69, Kizil Caves.

The area lies in present-day Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang, China; Kuqa town is the county seat of that prefecture's Kuqa County.

During the Later Han (25–220 CE), Kucha, with the whole Tarim Basin, became a focus of rivalry between the Xiong-nu to the north and the Chinese to the east.

Kuchean music was very popular in Tang China, particularly the lute, which became known in Chinese as the pipa.

Map of the Hexi Corridor

Hexi Corridor

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Important historical region located in the modern western Gansu province of China.

Important historical region located in the modern western Gansu province of China.

Map of the Hexi Corridor
Mural commemorating victory of General Zhang Yichao over the Tibetan Empire in 848. Mogao cave 156, late Chinese Tang Dynasty
Tang-era map showing the Hexi Corridor connecting China proper to the Tarim Basin
The ruins of a Han Dynasty watchtower made of rammed earth at Dunhuang.

Later, the newly risen Xiongnu armies under Modu Chanyu vanquished and expelled the Yuezhi, and established a dominant confederacy empire during the Chu-Han contention and the early Han dynasty.

The Tang dynasty fought the Tibetan Empire for control of areas in Inner and Central Asia.

It was during this rebellion that the Tang withdrew its western garrisons stationed in what is now Gansu and Qinghai, which the Tibetans then occupied along with the area that is modern Xinjiang.

The Buddhist stupa of Gaochang ruins

Gaochang

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The Buddhist stupa of Gaochang ruins
Gaochang's location (close to Turpan) on the Silk Road
Manichaean priests, writing at their desks. Manuscript from Qocho. 8th/9th century
Wall painting from a Christian church, Qocho 683–770 CE
Uyghur princesses, cave 9, wall painting from Bezeklik caves
Man of Gaochang (高昌國, Turfan) in 番客入朝圖 (937-976 CE)
Armoured soldier from Gaochang, 8-9th century
The road leading in.
The ruins.
"Main prayer hall<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=18,4145,0,0,1,0|title = Buddhist Channel &#124; Travel}}</ref>".
"Main storage building".
Manichaean wall painting.

Gaochang (Old Uyghur: Qocho), also called Karakhoja, Qara-hoja, Kara-Khoja or Karahoja (قاراغوجا in Uyghur), was a ruined, ancient oasis city on the northern rim of the inhospitable Taklamakan Desert in present-day Xinjiang, China.

The region around Turfan was described during the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) as being occupied by the Jūshī, while control over the region swayed between the Han Chinese and the Xiongnu.

While the material civilization of Kucha to its west in this period remained chiefly Indo-Iranian in character, in Goachang it gradually merged into the Tang aesthetics.

The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority

Turkic peoples

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The Turkic peoples are a collection of diverse ethnic groups of Central, East, North, South and West Asia as well as parts of Europe, who speak Turkic languages.

The Turkic peoples are a collection of diverse ethnic groups of Central, East, North, South and West Asia as well as parts of Europe, who speak Turkic languages.

The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority
The distribution of the Turkic languages
Map from Kashgari's Diwan (11th century), showing the distribution of Turkic tribes.
A page from "Codex Kumanicus". The Codex was designed in order to help Catholic missionaries communicate with the Kumans.
Descriptive map of Turkic peoples.
Eastern Hemisphere in 500 BCE
Genetic, archeologic and linguistic evidence links the early Turkic peoples to the "Northeast Asian gene pool". Proto-Turks are suggested to have adopted a nomadic lifestyle and expanded from eastern Mongolia westwards.
Xiongnu, Mongolic, and proto-Turkic tribes (ca. 300 CE)
Territory of the Xiongnu, which included Mongolia, Western Manchuria, Xinjiang, East Kazakhstan, East Kyrgyzstan, Inner Mongolia, and Gansu.
Huns (c.450 CE)
First Turk Khaganate (600 CE)
The Eastern and Western Turkic Khaganates (600 CE)
Colored terracotta figurine of a Gokturk male found in a Kurgan, Kazakhstan, 5th-6th c.
A Turkic warrior from the Göktürk period. The horse's tail is knotted in Turkic style. His hair is long, braided and his big-collared caftan and boots are Turkic clothing features.
The migration of the Bulgars after the fall of Old Great Bulgaria in the 7th century
Golden Horde
Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur painting from the Bezeklik murals
Old Uyghur Princes from the Bezeklik murals.
The Turkic Later Tang Dynasty
Kangar Union after the fall of Western Turkic Khaganate, 659–750
Oghuz Yabgu State (c.750 CE)
Ghaznavid Empire at its greatest extent in 1030 CE
A map showing the Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092.
Head of Seljuq male royal figure, 12–13th century, from Iran.
Map of the Timurid Empire at its greatest extent under Timur.
Silver dirham of AH 329 (940/941 CE), with the names of Caliph al-Muttaqi and Amir al-umara Bajkam (de facto ruler of the country)
Independent Turkic states shown in red
Map of TÜRKSOY members.
Bashkirs, painting from 1812, Paris
A shaman doctor of Kyzyl.
Circle dance of Shamans 1911
An Old Uyghur Khagan
Göktürk petroglyphs from Mongolia (6th to 8th century)
A Penjikent man dressed in “Turkic“ long coats, 6th-8th c.
Kyz kuu.
Turk vassal blacksmiths under Mongolian rule
Turkic hunting scene, Gokturk period Altai
Battle scene of a Turkic horseman with typical long hair (Gokturk period, Altai)
Old Uyghur king from Turfan, from the murals at the Dunhuang Mogao Caves.
Old Uyghur prince from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur woman from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Princess.
Old Uyghur Princesses from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Prince from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur noble from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Manichaean Elect depicted on a temple banner from Qocho.
Old Uyghur donor from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Manichaean Electae from Qocho.
Old Uyghur Manichaean clergymen from Qocho.
Fresco of Palm Sunday from Qocho.
Manicheans from Qocho
Khan Omurtag of Bulgaria, from the Chronicle of John Skylitzes.
Ghaznavid portrait, Palace of Lashkari Bazar.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Schlumberger |first1=Daniel |title=Le Palais ghaznévide de Lashkari Bazar |journal=Syria |date=1952 |volume=29 |issue=3/4 |page=263 & 267|doi=10.3406/syria.1952.4789 |jstor=4390312 |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/4390312 |issn=0039-7946}}</ref>
Azerbaijani girls in traditional dress.
Gagauz women and man.
Bashkir boys in national dress.
A Chuvash girl in traditional dress.
Khakas people with traditional instruments.
Nogai man in national costume.
Turkish girls in their traditional clothes, Dursunbey, Balikesir Province.
Turkmen girl in national dress.
Tuvan men and women in Kyzyl, Tuva.
Kazakh man in traditional clothing.
Uzbek with traditional cuisine.
Kyrgyz traditional eagle hunter.
Tuvan traditional shaman.
Yakut Sakha family in traditional attire.

Possible Proto-Turkic ancestry, at least partial, has been posited for Xiongnu, Huns and Pannonian Avars, as well as Tuoba and Rouran, who were of Proto-Mongolic Donghu ancestry., as well as Tatars, Rourans' supposed descendants.

Chinese Turkestan remained part of the People's Republic of China.

The Tang historian Yan Shigu described the Hu people of his day as "blue-eyed and red bearded" descendants of the Wusun, whereas "no comparable depiction of the Kök Türks or Tiele is found in the official Chinese histories."

Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )

Mongols

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East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia, Inner Mongolia in China and the Buryatia Republic of the Russian Federation.

East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia, Inner Mongolia in China and the Buryatia Republic of the Russian Federation.

Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )
Asia in 500, showing the Rouran Khaganate and its neighbors, including the Northern Wei and the Tuyuhun Khanate, all of them were established by Proto-Mongols
Mongol man with a hat, Yuan dynasty
Mongol wearing a hat, 14th c.
Yuan dynasty Mongol rider
A portrait of Kublai Khan by Araniko (1245–1306)
Mongol huntsmen, Ming dynasty
The Northern Yuan dynasty and Turco-Mongol residual states and domains by the 15th century
Map showing wars between Qing Dynasty and Dzungar Khanate
A Dzungar soldier called Ayusi from the high Qing era, by Giuseppe Castiglione, 1755
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1755 between the Qing (that ruled China at the time) and Mongol Dzungar armies. The fall of the Dzungar Khanate
Khorloogiin Choibalsan, leader of the Mongolian People's Republic (left), and Georgy Zhukov consult during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol against Japanese troops, 1939
World War II Zaisan Memorial, Ulaan Baatar, from the People's Republic of Mongolia era.
Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (right)
A Mongolic Ger
Chronological tree of the Mongolic languages
Buddhist temple in Buryatia, Russia
Timur of Mongolic origin himself had converted almost all the Borjigin leaders to Islam.
Mongols grazing livestock, by Roy Chapman Andrews photographs in 1921
Mural of a Mongol family, Yuan dynasty
The Mughal Emperor Babur and his heir Humayun. The word Mughal is derived from the Persian word for Mongol.
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire and location of today's Mongols in modern Mongolia, Russia and China.
Mongol women in traditional dress
Strong Mongol men at August games. Photo by Wm. Purdom, 1909
Mongol Empress Zayaat (Jiyatu), wife of Kulug Khan (1281–1311)
Genghis' son Tolui with Queen Sorgaqtani
Hulegu Khan, ruler of the Ilkhanate
13th century Ilkhanid Mongol archer
Mongol soldiers by Rashid al-Din, BnF. MS. Supplément Persan 1113. 1430-1434 AD.
Kalmyk Mongol girl Annushka (painted in 1767)
A 20th-century Mongol Khan, Navaanneren
The 4th Dalai Lama Yonten Gyatso
Dolgorsürengiin Dagvadorj became the first Mongol to reach sumo's highest rank.
Mongol women archers during Naadam festival
A Mongol musician
A Mongol Wrangler
Buryat Mongol shaman
Kalmyks, 19th century
Mongol girl performing Bayad dance
Buryat Mongols (painted in 1840)
Daur Mongol Empress Wanrong (1906–1946), also had Borjigin blood on maternal side.
Buryat Mongol boy during shamanic rite
Concubine Wenxiu was Puyi's consort
A Mongolian Buddhist monk, 1913

The designation "Mongol" briefly appeared in 8th century records of Tang China to describe a tribe of Shiwei.

The Donghu neighboured the Xiongnu, whose identity is still debated today.

With the independence of Outer Mongolia, the Mongolian army controlled Khalkha and Khovd regions (modern day Uvs, Khovd, and Bayan-Ölgii provinces), but Northern Xinjiang (the Altai and Ili regions of the Qing Empire), Upper Mongolia, Barga and Inner Mongolia came under control of the newly formed Republic of China.