A report on Tang dynasty and Xinjiang

The empire during the reign of Wu Zetian, circa 700
Portrait painting of Emperor Gaozu (born Li Yuan, 566–635), the first Tang Emperor.
Dzungaria (Red) and the Tarim Basin or Altishahr (Blue)
Empress Wu (Wu Zetian), the sole officially recognized empress regnant of China in more than two millennia. She first ruled through her husband and sons for almost three decades, then became emperor herself and ruled in her own right for another fifteen years.
Northern Xinjiang (Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (Red) and Altishahr/the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Map of An Lushan Rebellion
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Altishahr) by the Tien Shan Mountains
The Leshan Giant Buddha, 71 m high; begun in 713, completed in 803
Map of Han Dynasty in 2 CE. Light blue is the Tarim Basin protectorate.
Nanchan Temple (Wutai), built during the late 8th century
Old Uyghur/Yugur art from the Bezeklik murals
Xumi Pagoda, built in 636
The Tarim Basin in the 3rd century AD
A late Tang mural commemorating the victory of General Zhang Yichao over the Tibetans in 848 AD, from Mogao cave 156
A Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel. Sancai ceramic statuette, Tang dynasty
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang wearing the robes and hat of a scholar
Mongol states from the 14th to the 17th centuries: the Northern Yuan dynasty, Four Oirat, Moghulistan and Kara Del
Tang tomb figure of an official dressed in Hanfu, with a tall hat, wide-sleeved belted outer garment, and rectangular "kerchief" in front. A white inner gown hangs over his square shoes. He holds a tablet to his chest, a report to his superiors.
The Dzungar–Qing Wars, between the Qing Dynasty and the Dzungar Khanate
Civil service exam candidates gather around the wall where results had been posted. Artwork by Qiu Ying.
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1756, between the Manchu and Oirat armies
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang giving audience to Zhang Guo, by Ren Renfa (1254–1327)
The Qing Empire ca. 1820
Emperor Taizong (r. 626–649) receives Gar Tongtsen Yülsung, ambassador of the Tibetan Empire, at his court; later copy of an original painted in 641 by Yan Liben (600–673)
Scene from the 1828 Qing campaign against rebels in Altishahr
The Chinese Tang dynasty during its greatest extension, controlling large parts of Central Asia.
Yakub Beg, ruler of Yettishar
Chinese officer of the Guard of Honour. Tomb of Princess Chang-le (长乐公主墓), Zhao Mausoleum, Shaanxi province. Tang Zhenguan year 17, i.e. 644 CE
19th-century Khotan Uyghurs in Yettishar
A 10th-century mural painting in the Mogao Caves at Dunhuang showing monastic architecture from Mount Wutai, Tang dynasty; Japanese architecture of this period was influenced by Tang Chinese architecture
Kuomintang in Xinjiang, 1942
Tomb figure of mounted warrior similar to the one unearthed from the tomb of Crown Prince Li Chongrun
Governor Sheng Shicai ruled from 1933 to 1944.
Tomb guardian (wushi yong), early 8th century
The Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic encompassed Xinjiang's Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay districts.
A bas relief of a soldier and the emperor's horse, Autumn Dew, with elaborate saddle and stirrups, designed by Yan Liben, from the tomb of Emperor Taizong c. 650
Close to Karakoram Highway in Xinjiang.
Illustration of Byzantine embassy to Tang Taizong 643 CE
Pamir Mountains and Muztagh Ata.
Tang dynasty Kai Yuan Tong Bao (開元通寳) coin, first minted in 621 in Chang'an, a model for the Japanese 8th-century Wadōkaichin
Taklamakan Desert
Sancai glazed horse tomb figure
Tianchi Lake
Tomb figure of a horse with a carefully sculpted saddle, decorated with leather straps and ornamental fastenings featuring eight-petalled flowers and apricot leaves.
Black Irtysh river in Burqin County is a famous spot for sightseeing.
A contract from the Tang dynasty that records the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five Chinese coins. Found in the Astana Cemetery in Turfan.
Kanas Lake
Tomb Figure of a Sogdian merchant, 7th-century
Largest cities and towns of Xinjiang
A mural depicting a corner tower, most likely one of Chang'an, from the tomb of Prince Yide (d. 701) at the Qianling Mausoleum, dated 706
Statue of Mao Zedong in Kashgar
Map of Chang'an in Tang Dynasty
Nur Bekri, Chairman of the Xinjiang Government between 2007 and 2015
The bronze Jingyun Bell cast 711, height 247 cm high, weight 6,500 kg, now in the Xi'an Bell Tower
The distribution map of Xinjiang's GDP per person (2011)
A Tang dynasty era copy of the preface to the Lantingji Xu poems composed at the Orchid Pavilion Gathering, originally attributed to Wang Xizhi (303–361 AD) of the Jin dynasty
Ürümqi is a major industrial center within Xinjiang.
A poem by Li Bai (701–762 AD), the only surviving example of Li Bai's calligraphy, housed in the Palace Museum in Beijing.
Wind farm in Xinjiang
Calligraphy of Emperor Taizong on a Tang stele
Sunday market in Khotan
A Tang dynasty sculpture of a Bodhisattva
Ürümqi Diwopu International Airport
An 8th-century silk wall scroll from Dunhuang, showing the paradise of Amitabha
Karakorum highway
A timber hall built in 857, located at the Buddhist Foguang Temple of Mount Wutai, Shanxi
This flag (Kök Bayraq) has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.
A Tang sancai-glazed carved relief showing horseback riders playing polo
"Heroic Gesture of Bodhisattvathe Bodhisattva", example of 6th-7th-century terracotta Greco-Buddhist art (local populations were Buddhist) from Tumxuk, Xinjiang
A late Tang or early Five Dynasties era silk painting on a banner depicting Guanyin and a female attendant in silk robes, from the Dunhuang caves, now in the British Museum
Sogdian donors to the Buddha, 8th century fresco (with detail), Bezeklik, Eastern Tarim Basin
Palace ladies in a garden from a mural of Prince Li Xian's tomb in the Qianling Mausoleum, where Wu Zetian was also buried in 706
A mosque in Ürümqi
Tang era gilt-gold bowl with lotus and animal motifs
People engaging in snow sports by a statue of bodhisattva Guanyin in Wujiaqu
A Tang sancai-glazed lobed dish with incised decorations, 8th century
Christian Church in Hami
Tomb figure of a lady attendant, 7th- to 8th-century; during the Tang era, female hosts prepared feasts, tea parties, and played drinking games with their guests.
Catholic Church in Urumqi
A rounded "offering plate" with design in "three colors" (sancai) glaze, 8th-century
Temple of the Great Buddha in Midong, Ürümqi
A page of Lu Yu's The Classic of Tea
Taoist Temple of Fortune and Longevity at the Heavenly Lake of Tianshan in Fukang, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture
A square bronze mirror with a phoenix motif of gold and silver inlaid with lacquer, 8th-century
Emin Minaret
The Diamond Sutra, printed in 868, is the world's first widely printed book to include a specific date of printing.
Id Kah mosque in Kashgar, largest mosque in China
The Dunhuang map, a star map showing the North Polar region. c. 700. The whole set of star maps contains over 1,300 stars.
Erkin Tuniyaz, the incumbent Chairman of the Xinjiang Government
"Great Tang" (Dà Táng) in seal characters.
A Tang Dynasty sancai statuette of Sogdian musicians riding on a Bactrian camel, 723 AD, Xi'an.

The Western Regions during the Tang era were known as Qixi (磧西).

- Xinjiang

In fact, it was during this rebellion that the Tang withdrew its western garrisons stationed in what is now Gansu and Qinghai, which the Tibetans then occupied along with the territory of what is now Xinjiang.

- Tang dynasty
The empire during the reign of Wu Zetian, circa 700

26 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority

Turkic peoples

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The Turkic peoples are a collection of diverse ethnic groups of Central, East, North, South and West Asia as well as parts of Europe, who speak Turkic languages.

The Turkic peoples are a collection of diverse ethnic groups of Central, East, North, South and West Asia as well as parts of Europe, who speak Turkic languages.

The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority
The distribution of the Turkic languages
Map from Kashgari's Diwan (11th century), showing the distribution of Turkic tribes.
A page from "Codex Kumanicus". The Codex was designed in order to help Catholic missionaries communicate with the Kumans.
Descriptive map of Turkic peoples.
Eastern Hemisphere in 500 BCE
Genetic, archeologic and linguistic evidence links the early Turkic peoples to the "Northeast Asian gene pool". Proto-Turks are suggested to have adopted a nomadic lifestyle and expanded from eastern Mongolia westwards.
Xiongnu, Mongolic, and proto-Turkic tribes (ca. 300 CE)
Territory of the Xiongnu, which included Mongolia, Western Manchuria, Xinjiang, East Kazakhstan, East Kyrgyzstan, Inner Mongolia, and Gansu.
Huns (c.450 CE)
First Turk Khaganate (600 CE)
The Eastern and Western Turkic Khaganates (600 CE)
Colored terracotta figurine of a Gokturk male found in a Kurgan, Kazakhstan, 5th-6th c.
A Turkic warrior from the Göktürk period. The horse's tail is knotted in Turkic style. His hair is long, braided and his big-collared caftan and boots are Turkic clothing features.
The migration of the Bulgars after the fall of Old Great Bulgaria in the 7th century
Golden Horde
Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur painting from the Bezeklik murals
Old Uyghur Princes from the Bezeklik murals.
The Turkic Later Tang Dynasty
Kangar Union after the fall of Western Turkic Khaganate, 659–750
Oghuz Yabgu State (c.750 CE)
Ghaznavid Empire at its greatest extent in 1030 CE
A map showing the Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092.
Head of Seljuq male royal figure, 12–13th century, from Iran.
Map of the Timurid Empire at its greatest extent under Timur.
Silver dirham of AH 329 (940/941 CE), with the names of Caliph al-Muttaqi and Amir al-umara Bajkam (de facto ruler of the country)
Independent Turkic states shown in red
Map of TÜRKSOY members.
Bashkirs, painting from 1812, Paris
A shaman doctor of Kyzyl.
Circle dance of Shamans 1911
An Old Uyghur Khagan
Göktürk petroglyphs from Mongolia (6th to 8th century)
A Penjikent man dressed in “Turkic“ long coats, 6th-8th c.
Kyz kuu.
Turk vassal blacksmiths under Mongolian rule
Turkic hunting scene, Gokturk period Altai
Battle scene of a Turkic horseman with typical long hair (Gokturk period, Altai)
Old Uyghur king from Turfan, from the murals at the Dunhuang Mogao Caves.
Old Uyghur prince from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur woman from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Princess.
Old Uyghur Princesses from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Prince from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur noble from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Manichaean Elect depicted on a temple banner from Qocho.
Old Uyghur donor from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Manichaean Electae from Qocho.
Old Uyghur Manichaean clergymen from Qocho.
Fresco of Palm Sunday from Qocho.
Manicheans from Qocho
Khan Omurtag of Bulgaria, from the Chronicle of John Skylitzes.
Ghaznavid portrait, Palace of Lashkari Bazar.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Schlumberger |first1=Daniel |title=Le Palais ghaznévide de Lashkari Bazar |journal=Syria |date=1952 |volume=29 |issue=3/4 |page=263 & 267|doi=10.3406/syria.1952.4789 |jstor=4390312 |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/4390312 |issn=0039-7946}}</ref>
Azerbaijani girls in traditional dress.
Gagauz women and man.
Bashkir boys in national dress.
A Chuvash girl in traditional dress.
Khakas people with traditional instruments.
Nogai man in national costume.
Turkish girls in their traditional clothes, Dursunbey, Balikesir Province.
Turkmen girl in national dress.
Tuvan men and women in Kyzyl, Tuva.
Kazakh man in traditional clothing.
Uzbek with traditional cuisine.
Kyrgyz traditional eagle hunter.
Tuvan traditional shaman.
Yakut Sakha family in traditional attire.

Chinese Turkestan remained part of the People's Republic of China.

The Tang historian Yan Shigu described the Hu people of his day as "blue-eyed and red bearded" descendants of the Wusun, whereas "no comparable depiction of the Kök Türks or Tiele is found in the official Chinese histories."

Tocharians

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The geographical spread of the Indo-European languages, with Tocharian in the east.
Female donor with label in Tocharian, Kizil Caves.
The Tocharian script is very similar to the Indian Brahmi script from the Kushan period, with only slight variations in calligraphy. Tocharian language inscription: Se pañäkte saṅketavattse ṣarsa papaiykau "This Buddha was painted by the hand of Sanketava", on a painting carbon dated to 245-340 AD.
Tocharian Prince mourning the Cremation of the Buddha, in [[:File:Maya Cave 224, mural 3.jpg|a mural]] from Maya Cave (224) in Kizil. He is cutting his forehead with a knife, a practice of self-mutilation also known among the Scythians.
Major oasis states of the ancient Tarim Basin
Tocharian kneeling devotees circa 300 AD, in the paintings of the Cave of the Hippocampi (Cave 118), Kizil Caves.
The Buddhist Cave with the Ring-Bearing Doves (Cave 123) at the Kizil Caves near Kucha, built circa 430-530 CE.
Monks from the Cave of the Painters circa 500 AD, Kizil Caves.
Ambassador from Kucha (龜茲國 Qiuci-guo), one of the main Tocharian cities, visiting the Chinese Southern Liang court in Jingzhou circa 516–520 AD at the time of Hephthalite domination over the region, with explanatory text. Portraits of Periodical Offering of Liang, 11th century Song copy.
King Suvarnapushpa of Kucha is historically known and ruled 600–625 AD. Cave 69, Kizil Caves.
Tocharian knights from Kizilgaha caves (Cave 30). Circa 600 CE
Emperor Taizong's campaign against the oasis states
Prince Tottika, Kizil Cave 205.

The Tocharians, or Tokharians ( US : or ; UK : ), were speakers of Tocharian languages, Indo-European languages known from around 7600 documents from around 400 to 1200 AD, found on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China).

For several centuries, the Tarim basin was ruled by the Xiongnu, the Han Dynasty, the Tibetan Empire and the Tang Dynasty.

Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )

Mongols

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East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia, Inner Mongolia in China and the Buryatia Republic of the Russian Federation.

East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia, Inner Mongolia in China and the Buryatia Republic of the Russian Federation.

Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )
Asia in 500, showing the Rouran Khaganate and its neighbors, including the Northern Wei and the Tuyuhun Khanate, all of them were established by Proto-Mongols
Mongol man with a hat, Yuan dynasty
Mongol wearing a hat, 14th c.
Yuan dynasty Mongol rider
A portrait of Kublai Khan by Araniko (1245–1306)
Mongol huntsmen, Ming dynasty
The Northern Yuan dynasty and Turco-Mongol residual states and domains by the 15th century
Map showing wars between Qing Dynasty and Dzungar Khanate
A Dzungar soldier called Ayusi from the high Qing era, by Giuseppe Castiglione, 1755
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1755 between the Qing (that ruled China at the time) and Mongol Dzungar armies. The fall of the Dzungar Khanate
Khorloogiin Choibalsan, leader of the Mongolian People's Republic (left), and Georgy Zhukov consult during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol against Japanese troops, 1939
World War II Zaisan Memorial, Ulaan Baatar, from the People's Republic of Mongolia era.
Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (right)
A Mongolic Ger
Chronological tree of the Mongolic languages
Buddhist temple in Buryatia, Russia
Timur of Mongolic origin himself had converted almost all the Borjigin leaders to Islam.
Mongols grazing livestock, by Roy Chapman Andrews photographs in 1921
Mural of a Mongol family, Yuan dynasty
The Mughal Emperor Babur and his heir Humayun. The word Mughal is derived from the Persian word for Mongol.
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire and location of today's Mongols in modern Mongolia, Russia and China.
Mongol women in traditional dress
Strong Mongol men at August games. Photo by Wm. Purdom, 1909
Mongol Empress Zayaat (Jiyatu), wife of Kulug Khan (1281–1311)
Genghis' son Tolui with Queen Sorgaqtani
Hulegu Khan, ruler of the Ilkhanate
13th century Ilkhanid Mongol archer
Mongol soldiers by Rashid al-Din, BnF. MS. Supplément Persan 1113. 1430-1434 AD.
Kalmyk Mongol girl Annushka (painted in 1767)
A 20th-century Mongol Khan, Navaanneren
The 4th Dalai Lama Yonten Gyatso
Dolgorsürengiin Dagvadorj became the first Mongol to reach sumo's highest rank.
Mongol women archers during Naadam festival
A Mongol musician
A Mongol Wrangler
Buryat Mongol shaman
Kalmyks, 19th century
Mongol girl performing Bayad dance
Buryat Mongols (painted in 1840)
Daur Mongol Empress Wanrong (1906–1946), also had Borjigin blood on maternal side.
Buryat Mongol boy during shamanic rite
Concubine Wenxiu was Puyi's consort
A Mongolian Buddhist monk, 1913

The designation "Mongol" briefly appeared in 8th century records of Tang China to describe a tribe of Shiwei.

With the independence of Outer Mongolia, the Mongolian army controlled Khalkha and Khovd regions (modern day Uvs, Khovd, and Bayan-Ölgii provinces), but Northern Xinjiang (the Altai and Ili regions of the Qing Empire), Upper Mongolia, Barga and Inner Mongolia came under control of the newly formed Republic of China.

Tarim Basin in the 3rd century AD (the territory of Shule is colored purple)

Shule Kingdom

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Tarim Basin in the 3rd century AD (the territory of Shule is colored purple)
The capital of the Shule Kingdom, Kashgar, is marked

The Shule Kingdom (Chinese: 疏勒) was an ancient Iranian oasis kingdom of the Taklamakan Desert that was on the Northern Silk Road, in the historical Western Regions of what is now Xinjiang in Northwest China.

Although a vassal of the Chinese Tang Dynasty from the 7th century, Shule was conquered by the Tibetan Empire in the late 8th century and was eventually incorporated into the Kara-Khanid Khanate during the Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang.

Ili River

Dzungaria

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Ili River
Heaven Lake of Tian Shan
Kanas Lake
Bayanbulak Grassland
Dzungaria (red) and the Tarim Basin (blue)
Northern Xinjiang - Dzungarian Basin (yellow), Eastern Xinjiang - Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (red), Southern Xinjiang - Tarim Basin (blue)
A map of the Dzungar Khanate, by a Swedish officer in captivity there in 1716-1733, which include the region known today as Zhetysu
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Taklamakan) by the Tien Shan Mountains

Dzungaria (also transliterated as Zungaria; Dzungharia or Zungharia; Dzhungaria or Zhungaria; Djungaria or Jungaria; or literally züüngar, Mongolian for "left hand") is a geographical subregion in Northwest China that corresponds to the northern half of Xinjiang—hence it is also known as Beijiang.

Before the 21st century, all or part of the region has been ruled or controlled by the Xiongnu Empire, Han dynasty, Xianbei state, Rouran Khaganate, Turkic Khaganate, Tang Dynasty, Uyghur Khaganate, Yenisei Kyrgyz Khaganate, Liao dynasty, Kara-Khitan Khanate, Mongol Empire, Yuan Dynasty, Chagatai Khanate, Moghulistan, Qara Del, Northern Yuan, Four Oirat, Dzungar Khanate, Qing Dynasty, and the Republic of China; since 1950, it has been under the control of the People's Republic of China.

The eight main dialect areas of Mandarin in Mainland China

Han Chinese

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East Asian ethnic group and nation native to China.

East Asian ethnic group and nation native to China.

The eight main dialect areas of Mandarin in Mainland China
The main varieties of Chinese in mainland China and Taiwan
Lungshan Temple of Manka in Taipei
A female servant and male advisor dressed in silk robes, ceramic figurines from the Western Han era
Map of Tang China in 742, showing the major provinces of the empire
Han Chinese man wears a queue in compliance with Manchu custom during the Qing dynasty
Zhang Zeduan's painting Along the River During the Qingming Festival captures the daily life of people from the Song dynasty at the capital, Bianjing, today's Kaifeng.
A Song dynasty Chinese painting Night Revels of Han Xizai showing scholars in scholar's robes and musicians dressed in a Hanfu variant, 12th-century remake of a 10th-century original by Gu Hongzhong.
A traditional representation of The Vinegar Tasters, an allegorical image representing Buddhists, Confucianists, and Taoists
Map showing the expansion of Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC.

Among some southern Han Chinese varieties such as Cantonese, Hakka and Minnan, a different term exists – Tang Chinese (, literally "the people of Tang"), derived from the later Tang dynasty, regarded as another zenith of Chinese civilization.

Han Chinese are almost the majority in every Chinese province, municipality, and autonomous region except for the autonomous regions of Xinjiang (38% or 40% in 2010) and Tibet Autonomous Region (8% in 2014), where Uighurs and Tibetans are the majority, respectively.

Greatest extent of the Western Turkic Khaganate after the Battle of Bukhara (brown), and their southern expansion as the Tokhara Yabghus and Turk Shahis (ochre)

Western Turkic Khaganate

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Turkic khaganate in Eurasia, formed as a result of the wars in the beginning of the 7th century after the split of the Turkic Khaganate (founded in the 6th century on the Mongolian Plateau by the Ashina clan) into a western and an eastern Khaganate.

Turkic khaganate in Eurasia, formed as a result of the wars in the beginning of the 7th century after the split of the Turkic Khaganate (founded in the 6th century on the Mongolian Plateau by the Ashina clan) into a western and an eastern Khaganate.

Greatest extent of the Western Turkic Khaganate after the Battle of Bukhara (brown), and their southern expansion as the Tokhara Yabghus and Turk Shahis (ochre)
Western Turk officer attending the reception of ambassadors by king Varkhuman of Samarkand. Afrasiab murals, 7th century CE. The Turks had a Mongoloid appearance.
An early Turk Shahi ruler named Sri Ranasrikari "The Lord who brings excellence through war" (Brahmi script). In this realistic portrait, he wears the Turkic double-lapel caftan. Late 7th to early 8th century CE.
Map of the six major protectorates during Tang dynasty.
Turkic officers during a audience with king Varkhuman of Samarkand. 648-651 CE, Afrasiyab murals, Samarkand. They are recognizable by their long plaits.
A Turkic nobleman with long plaited hair, from Tashkent. Coin of the Turkic dynasties of Chach. Circa 605-630 CE.
Tang dynasty military campaigns against the Western Turks
Federal symbol of the Western Turks circa 650 CE. Eleven poles symbolizing the five Dulu tribes, the five Nushibi tribes, with the central pole symbolizing the rulership of a Yabghu-Qaghan. Afrasiab murals.
Western Turk attendants and officers, all recognizable by their long plaits, at the court of Samarkand. Afrasiab murals, 7th century CE.
Seated Turkic attendants, at the court of Samarkand. Afrasiab murals, 7th century CE.
A Turk (center) mourning the Buddha, Maya Cave (Cave 224), Kizil Caves. He is cutting his forehead with a knife, a practice of self-mutilation also known among the Scythians.

The Western Turkic Khaganate was subjugated by the Tang dynasty in 657 and continued as its vassal until their collapse.

Indo-European prevalence in Central Asia declined as the expeditions accelerated Turkic migration into what is now Xinjiang.

Qinghai

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Landlocked province in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.

Landlocked province in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.

The Dongguan Mosque in Qinghai
Oil well in Tsaidam (Qaidam), Qinghai
View of the Qinghai Lake.
China National Highway 109 in Qinghai
The Khoshut Khanate (1642–1717) based in the Tibetan Plateau
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of Nationalist China (right), meets with the Muslim generals Ma Bufang (second from left), and Ma Buqing (first from left) in Xining, Qinghai, in August 1942
Nyenpo Yurtse, Jigzhi County, Qinghai
Riyue Mountain in Qinghai
A Taoist temple dedicated to Jiutian Xuannü on Mount Fenghuang, in Lunmalong village, Duoba, Xining
A Buddhist temple on Riyue Mountain, in Huangyuan County, Xining
Mosques and Chinese folk temples characterising the skyline of Huangyuan County
Rongwo Tibetan Buddhist Monastery in Tongren County
Great Mosque of Duoba, Xining

Qinghai borders Gansu on the northeast, Xinjiang on the northwest, Sichuan on the southeast and the Tibet Autonomous Region on the southwest.

It was a battleground during the Tang and subsequent Central Plain dynasties when they fought against successive Tibetan tribes.

Tang Dynasty's conquest of Western Turks (Tujue) Khanate

Tang campaigns against the Western Turks

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Tang Dynasty's conquest of Western Turks (Tujue) Khanate
Tang emissaries to King Varkhuman in Samarkand, 648–651 CE, Afrasiab murals
Chinese officer of the Guard of Honour. Tomb of Princess Changle (长乐公主墓), Zhao Mausoleum, Shaanxi province. Tang Zhenguan year 17, ie 644 CE
Turkish officers during a audience with king Varkhuman of Samarkand. 648–651 CE, Afrasiyab murals, Samarkand. They are recognizable by their long plaits.

The Tang campaigns against the Western Turks, known as the Western Tujue in Chinese sources, were a series of military campaigns conducted by the Tang dynasty against the Western Turkic Khaganate in the 7th century AD. Early military conflicts were a result of the Tang interventions in the rivalry between the Western and Eastern Turks in order to weaken both.

Indo-European prevalence in Central Asia declined as the expeditions accelerated Turkic migration into what is now Xinjiang.

Emperor Taizong's campaign against the Western Regions

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In the years following Tang Taizong's subjugation of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the emperor began to exert his military power toward the oasis city-states of the Tarim Basin (part of the area known in Chinese histories as the Western Regions).

In the years following Tang Taizong's subjugation of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the emperor began to exert his military power toward the oasis city-states of the Tarim Basin (part of the area known in Chinese histories as the Western Regions).

Tang's campaigns against Western Regions and Western Tujue
Chinese officer of the Guard of Honour. Tomb of Princess Changle (长乐公主墓), Zhao Mausoleum, Shaanxi province. Tang Zhenguan year 17, ie 644 CE

In contrast to the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Western Turkic Khaganate did not pose a major threat to the Tang dynasty in the early years of the dynasty's existence, as it was farther from Tang-held territory and had a general indifference towards Chinese ambitions.

Qu Wentai also entered into an alliance with Ashina Bobu against a Tang ally, Yiwu (伊吾), in modern Hami, Xinjiang), as well as Yanqi.