A report on Tang dynasty and Xinjiang

The empire during the reign of Wu Zetian, circa 700
Portrait painting of Emperor Gaozu (born Li Yuan, 566–635), the first Tang Emperor.
Dzungaria (Red) and the Tarim Basin or Altishahr (Blue)
Empress Wu (Wu Zetian), the sole officially recognized empress regnant of China in more than two millennia. She first ruled through her husband and sons for almost three decades, then became emperor herself and ruled in her own right for another fifteen years.
Northern Xinjiang (Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (Red) and Altishahr/the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Map of An Lushan Rebellion
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Altishahr) by the Tien Shan Mountains
The Leshan Giant Buddha, 71 m high; begun in 713, completed in 803
Map of Han Dynasty in 2 CE. Light blue is the Tarim Basin protectorate.
Nanchan Temple (Wutai), built during the late 8th century
Old Uyghur/Yugur art from the Bezeklik murals
Xumi Pagoda, built in 636
The Tarim Basin in the 3rd century AD
A late Tang mural commemorating the victory of General Zhang Yichao over the Tibetans in 848 AD, from Mogao cave 156
A Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel. Sancai ceramic statuette, Tang dynasty
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang wearing the robes and hat of a scholar
Mongol states from the 14th to the 17th centuries: the Northern Yuan dynasty, Four Oirat, Moghulistan and Kara Del
Tang tomb figure of an official dressed in Hanfu, with a tall hat, wide-sleeved belted outer garment, and rectangular "kerchief" in front. A white inner gown hangs over his square shoes. He holds a tablet to his chest, a report to his superiors.
The Dzungar–Qing Wars, between the Qing Dynasty and the Dzungar Khanate
Civil service exam candidates gather around the wall where results had been posted. Artwork by Qiu Ying.
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1756, between the Manchu and Oirat armies
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang giving audience to Zhang Guo, by Ren Renfa (1254–1327)
The Qing Empire ca. 1820
Emperor Taizong (r. 626–649) receives Gar Tongtsen Yülsung, ambassador of the Tibetan Empire, at his court; later copy of an original painted in 641 by Yan Liben (600–673)
Scene from the 1828 Qing campaign against rebels in Altishahr
The Chinese Tang dynasty during its greatest extension, controlling large parts of Central Asia.
Yakub Beg, ruler of Yettishar
Chinese officer of the Guard of Honour. Tomb of Princess Chang-le (长乐公主墓), Zhao Mausoleum, Shaanxi province. Tang Zhenguan year 17, i.e. 644 CE
19th-century Khotan Uyghurs in Yettishar
A 10th-century mural painting in the Mogao Caves at Dunhuang showing monastic architecture from Mount Wutai, Tang dynasty; Japanese architecture of this period was influenced by Tang Chinese architecture
Kuomintang in Xinjiang, 1942
Tomb figure of mounted warrior similar to the one unearthed from the tomb of Crown Prince Li Chongrun
Governor Sheng Shicai ruled from 1933 to 1944.
Tomb guardian (wushi yong), early 8th century
The Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic encompassed Xinjiang's Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay districts.
A bas relief of a soldier and the emperor's horse, Autumn Dew, with elaborate saddle and stirrups, designed by Yan Liben, from the tomb of Emperor Taizong c. 650
Close to Karakoram Highway in Xinjiang.
Illustration of Byzantine embassy to Tang Taizong 643 CE
Pamir Mountains and Muztagh Ata.
Tang dynasty Kai Yuan Tong Bao (開元通寳) coin, first minted in 621 in Chang'an, a model for the Japanese 8th-century Wadōkaichin
Taklamakan Desert
Sancai glazed horse tomb figure
Tianchi Lake
Tomb figure of a horse with a carefully sculpted saddle, decorated with leather straps and ornamental fastenings featuring eight-petalled flowers and apricot leaves.
Black Irtysh river in Burqin County is a famous spot for sightseeing.
A contract from the Tang dynasty that records the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five Chinese coins. Found in the Astana Cemetery in Turfan.
Kanas Lake
Tomb Figure of a Sogdian merchant, 7th-century
Largest cities and towns of Xinjiang
A mural depicting a corner tower, most likely one of Chang'an, from the tomb of Prince Yide (d. 701) at the Qianling Mausoleum, dated 706
Statue of Mao Zedong in Kashgar
Map of Chang'an in Tang Dynasty
Nur Bekri, Chairman of the Xinjiang Government between 2007 and 2015
The bronze Jingyun Bell cast 711, height 247 cm high, weight 6,500 kg, now in the Xi'an Bell Tower
The distribution map of Xinjiang's GDP per person (2011)
A Tang dynasty era copy of the preface to the Lantingji Xu poems composed at the Orchid Pavilion Gathering, originally attributed to Wang Xizhi (303–361 AD) of the Jin dynasty
Ürümqi is a major industrial center within Xinjiang.
A poem by Li Bai (701–762 AD), the only surviving example of Li Bai's calligraphy, housed in the Palace Museum in Beijing.
Wind farm in Xinjiang
Calligraphy of Emperor Taizong on a Tang stele
Sunday market in Khotan
A Tang dynasty sculpture of a Bodhisattva
Ürümqi Diwopu International Airport
An 8th-century silk wall scroll from Dunhuang, showing the paradise of Amitabha
Karakorum highway
A timber hall built in 857, located at the Buddhist Foguang Temple of Mount Wutai, Shanxi
This flag (Kök Bayraq) has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.
A Tang sancai-glazed carved relief showing horseback riders playing polo
"Heroic Gesture of Bodhisattvathe Bodhisattva", example of 6th-7th-century terracotta Greco-Buddhist art (local populations were Buddhist) from Tumxuk, Xinjiang
A late Tang or early Five Dynasties era silk painting on a banner depicting Guanyin and a female attendant in silk robes, from the Dunhuang caves, now in the British Museum
Sogdian donors to the Buddha, 8th century fresco (with detail), Bezeklik, Eastern Tarim Basin
Palace ladies in a garden from a mural of Prince Li Xian's tomb in the Qianling Mausoleum, where Wu Zetian was also buried in 706
A mosque in Ürümqi
Tang era gilt-gold bowl with lotus and animal motifs
People engaging in snow sports by a statue of bodhisattva Guanyin in Wujiaqu
A Tang sancai-glazed lobed dish with incised decorations, 8th century
Christian Church in Hami
Tomb figure of a lady attendant, 7th- to 8th-century; during the Tang era, female hosts prepared feasts, tea parties, and played drinking games with their guests.
Catholic Church in Urumqi
A rounded "offering plate" with design in "three colors" (sancai) glaze, 8th-century
Temple of the Great Buddha in Midong, Ürümqi
A page of Lu Yu's The Classic of Tea
Taoist Temple of Fortune and Longevity at the Heavenly Lake of Tianshan in Fukang, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture
A square bronze mirror with a phoenix motif of gold and silver inlaid with lacquer, 8th-century
Emin Minaret
The Diamond Sutra, printed in 868, is the world's first widely printed book to include a specific date of printing.
Id Kah mosque in Kashgar, largest mosque in China
The Dunhuang map, a star map showing the North Polar region. c. 700. The whole set of star maps contains over 1,300 stars.
Erkin Tuniyaz, the incumbent Chairman of the Xinjiang Government
"Great Tang" (Dà Táng) in seal characters.
A Tang Dynasty sancai statuette of Sogdian musicians riding on a Bactrian camel, 723 AD, Xi'an.

The Western Regions during the Tang era were known as Qixi (磧西).

- Xinjiang

In fact, it was during this rebellion that the Tang withdrew its western garrisons stationed in what is now Gansu and Qinghai, which the Tibetans then occupied along with the territory of what is now Xinjiang.

- Tang dynasty
The empire during the reign of Wu Zetian, circa 700

26 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Asia in 600, showing the location of the Karluk tribes (modern-day east Kazakhstan).

Karluks

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The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs,, Qarluq, , Khallokh, قارلوق, Qarluq) were a prominent nomadic Turkic tribal confederacy residing in the regions of Kara-Irtysh (Black Irtysh) and the Tarbagatai Mountains west of the Altay Mountains in Central Asia.

The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs,, Qarluq, , Khallokh, قارلوق, Qarluq) were a prominent nomadic Turkic tribal confederacy residing in the regions of Kara-Irtysh (Black Irtysh) and the Tarbagatai Mountains west of the Altay Mountains in Central Asia.

Asia in 600, showing the location of the Karluk tribes (modern-day east Kazakhstan).

Famed for their woven carpets in the pre-Muslim era, they were considered a vassal state by the Tang Dynasty after the final conquest of the Transoxania regions by the Chinese in 739.

They then conquered Kankali and subdued Xinjiang.

East Asia

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Eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms.

Eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms.

Three sets of possible boundaries for the Central Asia region that overlap with conceptions of East Asia
The countries of East Asia also form the core of Northeast Asia, which itself is a broader region.
East Asia map of Köppen climate classification.
Tokyo is the capital of Japan and the largest city in the world, both in metropolitan population and economy.
Taipei is the capital, financial centre of Taiwan and anchors a major high-tech industrial area in Taiwan.
Seoul is the capital of South Korea, leading global technology hub.
Shanghai is the largest city in China.
Beijing is the capital of the People's Republic of China.
Osaka is the second largest metropolitan area in Japan.
Guangzhou is one of the most important cities in southern China. It has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub today.
Nagoya is the third largest metropolitan area in Japan. Nagoya is famous as the location of Lexus headquarters.
Kyoto was the imperial capital of Japan for eleven centuries.
Ulaanbaatar is the capital of Mongolia with a population of 1 million as of 2008.
Hong Kong is one of the global financial centres and is known as a cosmopolitan metropolis.
Pyongyang is the capital of North Korea, and is a metropolis on the Korean Peninsula.
Xi'an or Chang'an is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties. It has a significant cultural influence in East Asia.
UNSD geoscheme for Asia based on statistic convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories: 
North Asia
Central Asia
Western Asia
South Asia
East Asia
Southeast Asia
alt=|With a population of .646 million,Taipei is the capital, financial centre of Taiwan and anchors a major high-tech industrial area in Taiwan.

During the Tang dynasty, China exerted its greatest influence on East Asia as various aspects of Chinese culture spread to Japan and Korea.

Xinjiang (East Turkestan) and Tibet are sometimes seen as part of Central Asia.

Map of the Hexi Corridor

Hexi Corridor

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Important historical region located in the modern western Gansu province of China.

Important historical region located in the modern western Gansu province of China.

Map of the Hexi Corridor
Mural commemorating victory of General Zhang Yichao over the Tibetan Empire in 848. Mogao cave 156, late Chinese Tang Dynasty
Tang-era map showing the Hexi Corridor connecting China proper to the Tarim Basin
The ruins of a Han Dynasty watchtower made of rammed earth at Dunhuang.

The Tang dynasty fought the Tibetan Empire for control of areas in Inner and Central Asia.

It was during this rebellion that the Tang withdrew its western garrisons stationed in what is now Gansu and Qinghai, which the Tibetans then occupied along with the area that is modern Xinjiang.

Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000

Liao dynasty

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Imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü clan of the Khitan people.

Imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü clan of the Khitan people.

Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
The location of Balhae in the year 900
Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
Khitan man in tomb painting in Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia
Khitan tomb mural in Inner Mongolia – attendants holding a musical instrument, bow and arrows, boots, and a falcon
Liao or Jin dynasty (1115–1234) helmets and mask
Zhuoxie tu, a 10th-century painting of a rest stop for the khan
Khitan boys and girls
Khitan holding a mace
The King of Dongdan Goes Forth (東丹王出行圖), scroll, light colors on silk. 146.8 x 77.3 cm. National Palace Museum, Taipei. Attributed to Li Zanhua (李贊華 909–946), but possibly a later artist.
Khitans hunting with birds of prey, 9–10th centuries
Geyuan Temple Wenshu Hall built in 966 is the oldest extant Liao building
Liao silk boots
First conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, 993
Khitan invasion of Song in 1004
Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, 1018
Liao phoenix and dragon crowns
Liao dynasty dragon crown
Liao dynasty crown – side
Liao dynasty crown – back
The Pagoda of Fogong Temple, built by Emperor Daozong of Liao in 1056 at the site of his grandmother's family home.
Liao dynasty gold wire phoenix crown
Liao funerary mask and crown (female)
Gilt silver crown, excavated in 1986 from the tomb of Princess of Chen and her husband in Tongliao, Inner Mongolia.
Gilt bronze statue of the six-tusked elephant holding the throne of Puxian (Samantabhadra), the Bodhisattva of Universal Virtue, c. 1000 Liao dynasty
Epitaph of Xiao Guanyin, the wife of Emperor Daozong of Liao, in Khitan small script
Collapse of the Liao dynasty (1117–1124)
Depiction of Xiongnu cavalry in the Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute, commissioned by Emperor Gaozong of Song. While the subjects are the Xiongnu, the hairstyle depicted is distinctly Khitan, and likely based on northern steppe peoples contemporary to the Song.
Miniature model of a Khitan tent found in the Hadatu tomb in 1973
Fragment of a tomb mural showing a Khitan boy
Aguda, posthumously Emperor Taizu of Jin, founder of the Jurchen Jin dynasty
The Tianning Temple Pagoda, a Buddhist structure built at Liao Nanjing ("Southern Capital", modern Beijing) in 1120 during the last years of the Liao dynasty
The Qara Khitai empire in 1160
Liao paiza authorizing an imperial decree with the utmost urgency
Liao seal with the Chinese inscription 臨潢府軍器庫之印 "Seal of the Armoury of Linhuang Prefecture"
Horse and Archer, believed to have been painted by Yelü Bei.
Liao dynasty cavalry armour
Liao silver coin in Khitan large script translated as "天朝萬順" (Heavenly Dynasty — Myriad [affairs are] Favourable).
The only extant manuscript in the Khitan language, Folio 9 of manuscript codex Nova N 176
Female funerary mask and crown from the Liao dynasty
A Liao dynasty polychrome wood-carved statue depicting Guanyin in the Water Moon pose, which raises the right knee and rests the right arm on top of it, symbolizing the divinity of the Pure land, Guanyin's personal paradise, which Guanyin puts off going to until s/he has saved humanity.
One of the famous set of lifesize Yixian glazed pottery luohans, sancai, early 12th century
Liao gold waist ornament
Khitan hunters in a painting by Chen Juzhong, 1196
A brick stupa in the Khitan city of Hedong (Bars-Hot)
Luohan statue, Liao dynasty, 11th century
Liao era bronze figure of Gautama Buddha
Bronze Guanyin statue from the Chinese section of the Supreme Capital
Liao era painted wooden statue of Guanyin
Bronze statue of Guanyin, Liao dynasty, 10th century
Rebellion of Li Jinzhong and Sun Wanrong against the Tang dynasty in 696-697
Khitan crown (female), silver
Liao tomb mural showing Khitan men with banners, drums, and maces
Liao burial dress made of metal wire

Founded around the time of the collapse of the Tang dynasty, at its greatest extent it ruled over Northeast China, the Mongolian Plateau, the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, southern portions of the Russian Far East, and the northern tip of the North China Plain.

In the modern era, words related to Khitay are still used as a name for China by Turkic peoples, such as the Uyghurs in China's Xinjiang region and the Kazakhs of Kazakhstan and areas adjoining it, and by some Slavic peoples, such as the Russians and Bulgarians.

Map with historic extent of Manchuria. Inner Manchuria lies in Northeast China, coloured in red. Outer Manchuria to the north and the part today in Inner Mongolia to the west are in lighter red.

Manchuria

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Deprecated in the People's Republic China after 1949 due to its association with Manchurian nationalism and the breakaway of Manchukuo.

Deprecated in the People's Republic China after 1949 due to its association with Manchurian nationalism and the breakaway of Manchukuo.

Map with historic extent of Manchuria. Inner Manchuria lies in Northeast China, coloured in red. Outer Manchuria to the north and the part today in Inner Mongolia to the west are in lighter red.
One of the earliest European maps using the term "Manchuria" (Mandchouria) (John Tallis, 1851). Previously, the term "Chinese Tartary" had been commonly applied in the West to Manchuria and Mongolia
1900s map of Manchuria, in pink
Climate map of Manchuria or Northeast China.
Hailang River near Hailin City in Heilongjiang
A 12th-century Jurchen stone tortoise in today's Ussuriysk
The Three Kingdoms of Korea occupied roughly half of Manchuria, 5th century AD
The Mongol Yuan province of Liaoyang included northern Korea
Manchuria is the homeland of the Jurchens who became the Manchus.
A Jurchen man hunting from his horse, from a 15th-century ink-and-color painting on silk
The Manchu-led Qing dynasty circa 1820. Later Jin area in purple line
Map showing the original border (in pink) between Manchuria and Russia according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk 1689, and subsequent losses of territory to Russia in the treaties of Aigun 1858 (beige) and Peking 1860 (red)
Harbin's Kitayskaya Street (Russian for "Chinese Street"), now Zhongyang Street (Chinese for "Central Street"), before 1945
1940 Manchukuo visa issued at Hamburg
Map of Manchukuo (1933–1945)
Map of the three provinces of Northeast China (1911) {{sfnp|EB|1911}}
Map of Manchukuo and its rail network, c.{{nbsp}}1945
Map with the historic extent of Manchuria. Inner Manchuria lies in Northeast China, colored in red. Outer Manchuria to the north and the part today in Inner Mongolia to the west are in lighter red.

The Han dynasty (202 BCE to 9 CE and 25 to 220 CE), the Cao Wei dynasty (220–266), the Western Jin dynasty (266–316), the Tang dynasty (618–690 and 705–907) and some other minor kingdoms of China established control in parts of Manchuria and in some cases tributary relations with peoples in the area.

At the behest of people like Vasilii Poyarkov in 1645 and Yerofei Khabarov in 1650, Russian Cossacks killed some peoples like the Daur people of Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang to the extent that some authors speak of genocide.

Manichaean priests, writing at their desks. Eighth or ninth century manuscript from Gaochang, Tarim Basin, China.

Manichaeism

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Manichaeism (

Manichaeism (

Manichaean priests, writing at their desks. Eighth or ninth century manuscript from Gaochang, Tarim Basin, China.
Yuan Chinese silk painting Mani's Birth.
A 14th-century illustration of the execution of Mani
Sermon on Mani's Teaching of Salvation, 13th-century Chinese Manichaean silk painting.
Manichaean Painting of the Buddha Jesus depicts Jesus Christ as a Manichaean prophet. The figure can be identified as a representation of Jesus Christ by the small gold cross that sits on the red lotus pedestal in His left hand.
10th century Manichaean Electae in Gaochang (Khocho), China.
Akshobhya in the Abhirati with the Cross of Light, a symbol of Manichaeism.
A map of the spread of Manichaeism (300–500). World History Atlas, Dorling Kindersly.
Augustine of Hippo was once a Manichaean.
A 13th-century manuscript from Augustine's book VII of Confessions criticizing Manichaeism.
Amitābha in his Western Paradise with Indians, Tibetans, and Central Asians, with two symbols of Manichaeism: Sun and Cross.
The four primary prophets of Manichaeism in the Manichaean Diagram of the Universe, from left to right: Mani, Zoroaster, Buddha and Jesus.
Uyghur Manichaean clergymen, wall painting from the Khocho ruins, 10th/11th century AD. Located in the Museum für Indische Kunst, Berlin-Dahlem.
Worship of the Tree of Life in the World of Light; a Manichaean picture from the Bezeklik Caves
Manichaean Diagram of the Universe depicts the Manichaean cosmology.
An image of the Buddha as one of the primary prophets on a Manichaean pictorial roll fragment from Chotscho, 10th century.
Statue of prophet Mani as the "Buddha of Light" in Cao'an Temple in Jinjiang, Fujian, "a Manichaean temple in Buddhist disguise", which is considered "the only extant Manichean temple in China"
摩尼教文獻 The Chinese Manichaean "Compendium"
Two female musicians depicted in a Manichaean text

In the east it spread along trade routes as far as Chang'an, the capital of Tang China.

Some sites are preserved in Xinjiang and Fujian in China.