Tangier International Zone

Tangierinternational zoneInternational Administration of Tangierinternational cityinternational zone in Tangierinternational zone of TangierMorocco International ZoneTangiers
The Tangier International Zone (منطقة طنجة الدولية Minṭaqat Ṭanja ad-Dawliyya, Zone internationale de Tanger, Zona Internacional de Tánger) was a 373 sqkm international zone centered on the city of Tangier, Morocco, then under French and Spanish protectorate, under the joint administration of France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (later Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States), that existed from 1924 until its reintegration into independent Morocco in 1956.wikipedia
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Morocco

MoroccanSultanate of MoroccoKingdom of Morocco
The Tangier International Zone (منطقة طنجة الدولية Minṭaqat Ṭanja ad-Dawliyya, Zone internationale de Tanger, Zona Internacional de Tánger) was a 373 sqkm international zone centered on the city of Tangier, Morocco, then under French and Spanish protectorate, under the joint administration of France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (later Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States), that existed from 1924 until its reintegration into independent Morocco in 1956.
The country's strategic location near the mouth of the Mediterranean attracted the interest of Europe, and in 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier.

Spanish protectorate in Morocco

Spanish MoroccoSpanish Protectorate of MoroccoMorocco
The Tangier International Zone (منطقة طنجة الدولية Minṭaqat Ṭanja ad-Dawliyya, Zone internationale de Tanger, Zona Internacional de Tánger) was a 373 sqkm international zone centered on the city of Tangier, Morocco, then under French and Spanish protectorate, under the joint administration of France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (later Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States), that existed from 1924 until its reintegration into independent Morocco in 1956.
The city of Tangiers was excluded from the Spanish protectorate and received a special internationally controlled status.

Tangier

TangiersTangerTangier, Morocco
The Tangier International Zone (منطقة طنجة الدولية Minṭaqat Ṭanja ad-Dawliyya, Zone internationale de Tanger, Zona Internacional de Tánger) was a 373 sqkm international zone centered on the city of Tangier, Morocco, then under French and Spanish protectorate, under the joint administration of France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (later Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States), that existed from 1924 until its reintegration into independent Morocco in 1956.
Tangier was made an international zone in 1923 under the joint administration of France, Spain and Britain under an international convention signed in Paris on 18 December 1923.

Tangier Protocol

international legislative bodyTangier International ZoneTangier question
The zone was governed in accordance with the Tangier Protocol, although the Sultan of Morocco retained nominal sovereignty over the zone and jurisdiction over the native population.
The Tangier Protocol (formally the Convention regarding the Organisation of the Statute of the Tangier Zone) was an agreement signed between France, Spain and the United Kingdom by which the city of Tangier in Morocco became the Tangier International Zone.

French protectorate in Morocco

French MoroccoMoroccoFrench protectorate
The Tangier International Zone (منطقة طنجة الدولية Minṭaqat Ṭanja ad-Dawliyya, Zone internationale de Tanger, Zona Internacional de Tánger) was a 373 sqkm international zone centered on the city of Tangier, Morocco, then under French and Spanish protectorate, under the joint administration of France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (later Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States), that existed from 1924 until its reintegration into independent Morocco in 1956.
In 1947, Sultan Muhammad V planned to deliver a speech in what was then the Tangier International Zone to appeal for his country's independence from colonialism and for its territorial unity.

International city

international statusInternational Zoneinternationalized state
The international zone of Tangier had, by 1939, a population of about 60,000 inhabitants and 150,000 by 1950.

Spain during World War II

Spain in World War IISpainOperation Ilona
Despite calls by the writer Rafael Sánchez Mazas and other Spanish nationalists to annexe "Tánger español", the Francoist State publicly considered the occupation a temporary wartime measure.
Spanish troops occupied the Tangier International Zone on 14 June 1940, the same day Paris fell to the Germans.

List of administrators of the Tangier International Zone

Administrators of the Tangier International Zone
*List of administrators of the Tangier International Zone
This is a list of administrators of the Tangier International Zone during the period when it was governed in accordance with the Tangier Protocol.

Border control

border crossingimmigration policyInternational Zone

United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
The Tangier International Zone (منطقة طنجة الدولية Minṭaqat Ṭanja ad-Dawliyya, Zone internationale de Tanger, Zona Internacional de Tánger) was a 373 sqkm international zone centered on the city of Tangier, Morocco, then under French and Spanish protectorate, under the joint administration of France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (later Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States), that existed from 1924 until its reintegration into independent Morocco in 1956.

List of rulers of Morocco

King of MoroccoSultan of MoroccoKing
The zone was governed in accordance with the Tangier Protocol, although the Sultan of Morocco retained nominal sovereignty over the zone and jurisdiction over the native population.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
The governments of Italy, Portugal, and Belgium adhered to the convention in 1928, and the government of the Netherlands in 1929.

Portugal

PortuguesePortuguese RepublicPOR
The governments of Italy, Portugal, and Belgium adhered to the convention in 1928, and the government of the Netherlands in 1929.

Belgium

BelgianBELKingdom of Belgium
The governments of Italy, Portugal, and Belgium adhered to the convention in 1928, and the government of the Netherlands in 1929.

Netherlands

DutchThe NetherlandsHolland
The governments of Italy, Portugal, and Belgium adhered to the convention in 1928, and the government of the Netherlands in 1929.

Consular court

Consular Courts
As a result of the creation of the Mixed Court, the various European powers withdrew the consular courts that previously exercised jurisdiction there.

Bohemianism

bohemianbohemiansbohemia
The Zone had a reputation for tolerance, diversity of culture, religion, and bohemianism.

Coming out

came outopenlyopenly gay
Many of the latter were able to live an openly "out" life in the Zone.

Battle of France

Fall of FranceFranceinvasion of France
Spanish troops occupied Tangier on 14 June 1940, the same day Paris fell to the Germans.

Rafael Sánchez Mazas

SÁNCHEZ MAZAS, Rafael
Despite calls by the writer Rafael Sánchez Mazas and other Spanish nationalists to annexe "Tánger español", the Francoist State publicly considered the occupation a temporary wartime measure.

Francoist Spain

SpainFrancoistSpanish State
Despite calls by the writer Rafael Sánchez Mazas and other Spanish nationalists to annexe "Tánger español", the Francoist State publicly considered the occupation a temporary wartime measure.

Spanish Civil War

Civil WarSpaincivil war in Spain
In May 1944, although it had served as a contact point between himself and the later Axis Powers during the Spanish Civil War, Franco expelled all German diplomats from the Zone.

Rabat

Rabat, MoroccoRabat-SaléRabat, Modern Capital and Historic City: a Shared Heritage
In July 1952 the protecting powers met at Rabat to discuss the Zone's future, agreeing to abolish it.