Tank

The first tank to engage in battle, the British Mark I tank (pictured in 1916) with the Solomon camouflage scheme
An M4 Sherman tank in Italy in 1943 during WWII.
A Leopard 2A7 tank in Germany.
A Japanese Type 10 firing.
Model of Leonardo da Vinci's fighting vehicle
British World War I Mark V* tank
French Renault FT tanks, here operated by the US army, pioneered the use of a fully traversable turret and served as pattern for most modern tanks.
French Hotchkiss H-39 light tank of 1939
German Tiger II tanks of Schwere Panzer Abteilung 503 (s.Pz.Abt. 503) 'Feldherrnhalle' posing in formation for a German newsreel in 1944
Cutaway of an M4A4 Sherman tank, the primary tank used by the United States and a number of the other western allies during the Second World War.
The Battle of Kursk was credited to be the largest tank battle ever fought, with each side deploying nearly 3,000 tanks.
Sherman tanks joining the U.S. Fifth Army forces in the beachhead at Anzio during the Italian Campaign, 1944
The Cold War era Soviet T-72 was the most widely deployed main battle tank across the world.
An Italian C1 Ariete in Rome in 2010.
Graphic representation of the US Army's cancelled XM1202 Mounted Combat System
Labelled diagram of an M1 Abrams
A sectioned 105mm rifled Royal Ordnance L7 tank gun
German Leopard 2A6 from a Panzerbattalion fires its main gun during the shoot-off of Strong Europe Tank Challenge.
A Merkava Mk IIID Baz firing
The Russian T-90 is fitted with a "three-tiered" protection systems:
1: Composite armour in the turret
2: Third generation Kontakt-5 ERA
3: Shtora-1 countermeasures suite.
PLA's Type 99a tank with disruptive camouflage painting
A British Challenger 2 Theatre Entry Standard fitted with a mobile camouflage system.
Troops carry a lightweight wood-framed "dummy" tank into position.
The British Challenger II is protected by second-generation Chobham armour
Blazer explosive reactive armour (ERA) blocks on an Israeli M-60
IDF Merkava Mk4 tank with Trophy APS ("מעיל רוח") during training
M1 Abrams offloading from Landing Craft Air Cushioned vehicle.
The M1 Abrams is powered by a 1500 shp Honeywell AGT 1500 gas turbine engine, giving it a governed top speed of 45 mph on paved roads, and 30 mph cross-country.
The tank commander's position in an AMX Leclerc
Positions of crewmembers in a Russian T-72B3 tank. The driver (3) is seated in the vehicles front, commander (1) and gunner (2) are positioned in the turret, directly above the carousel (4), which contains the ammunition for the autoloading mechanism.
A view in a M1A1 Abrams tank of the gunner's station (bottom left) and commander's station (top right)
The Indian Arjun MBT's hydropneumatic suspension at work, while moving over a bump track.
German Army Leopard 2A6M incorporates networked battlefield technology
Merkava Mark 4 main battle tank is equipped with a digital C4IS battle-management system.
Circular review system of the company LimpidArmor

Armoured fighting vehicle intended as a primary offensive weapon in front-line ground combat.

- Tank
The first tank to engage in battle, the British Mark I tank (pictured in 1916) with the Solomon camouflage scheme

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L30 gun on a Royal Scots Dragoon Guards Challenger 2 tank.

Tank gun

L30 gun on a Royal Scots Dragoon Guards Challenger 2 tank.
This 2-pounder (40 mm) gun, typical of early WWII designs, was adequate for destroying lightly armored early war tanks.
The long-barrelled 75 mm gun of this Panzer IV is typical of larger late WWII designs built to destroy heavily armored tanks.
Rifling on an L7
Denel GT-2, a South African copy of the 90mm French DEFA D921 low-pressure rifled tank gun. This was the product of recoil control experiments aimed at allowing light tanks to carry larger cannon.
An M1 Abrams firing.
Challenger 2 after firing a high-explosive shell during a firepower demonstration. The power of tank guns can cause the ground to shake and dust to rise.
The inside of a Rheinmetall 120 mm smoothbore tank gun (seen from the muzzle) of a Leopard 2A4.
French Saint-Chamond tank of 1917, with 75 mm gun in nose
Replica of German A7V "Wotan" showing 57 mm Maxim-Nordenfelt gun in front
British Mk II tank captured by German troops in April 1917, showing long 57 mm naval gun in side sponson

A tank gun is the main armament of a tank.

German Army Leopard 2A5 main battle tanks in August 2010

Main battle tank

German Army Leopard 2A5 main battle tanks in August 2010
Early model Mark I tank at the Battle of Somme, 1916
Abandoned French Hotchkiss H-39 light cavalry tank, Battle of France, 1940
New Panther tanks being loaded for transport to the Eastern Front
Centurion Mk 3
Soviet T-64 undergoing decontamination.
A very early model M60 with M48 turret and 105mm cannon.
A German Leopard 2 in the PSO-version, prepared for asymmetric warfare.
The Challenger 2 is equipped with Chobham armour, an advanced composite armour.
IDF Merkava Mk. IVm tank pictured on the Gaza border. It has the Trophy Active Protection System installed, which have become operational in the IDF since 2011 to deal with missile threats.
The Russian T-14 Armata has a three-tier protection system, with the Afghanit APS, the Malachit ERA, and composite armour.
Merkava Mk 3d BAZ of the Israel Defense Forces firing its main gun.
French Leclerc
Circular review system of the company LimpidArmor
Ukrainian BM Oplot, produced by the KMDB guided onto a tank transporter.
A former British Army Challenger 1
The Italian Ariete. Its relatively low weight (54 tonnes) facilitates mobility, especially while crossing bridges.
U.S. Marines during the Iraq War ride on an M1A1 Abrams tank in April 2003.
Mechanics at Anniston Army Depot line up an M1 Abrams turret with its hull.

A main battle tank (MBT), also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fulfills the role of armor-protected direct fire and maneuver of many modern armies.

A modern naval gun turret (A French 100 mm naval gun on the Maillé-Brézé pictured) allows firing of the cannons via remote control. Loading of ammunition is also often done by automatic mechanisms.

Gun turret

Mounting platform from which weapons can be fired that affords protection, visibility and ability to turn and aim.

Mounting platform from which weapons can be fired that affords protection, visibility and ability to turn and aim.

A modern naval gun turret (A French 100 mm naval gun on the Maillé-Brézé pictured) allows firing of the cannons via remote control. Loading of ammunition is also often done by automatic mechanisms.
The commander's cupola of a Conqueror tank with a machine gun.
Captain Cowper Coles' proposed cupola ship, 1860.
BEP vignette In the Turret (engraved before 1863).
HMS Captain was one of the first ocean-going turret ships.
HMS Prince Albert, a pioneering turret ship, whose turrets were designed by Cowper Phipps Coles.
Inboard plans of USS Monitor.
Turret of USS Monitor
HMS Thunderer, right elevation and plan from Brassey's Naval Annual, 1888
Superposed turrets on USS Georgia (BB-15)
four-gun turret
Bismarcks secondary battery 15 cm gun turret
Animation showing gun turret operation of the Stark I turret of the British BL 15 inch /42 naval gun. Compare the layout and nomenclature with the US design below.
Cutaway illustration of a US 16"/50 caliber Mark 7 gun turret
HMS Dreadnought had a main battery 12 inch wing turret on either beam.
Diagram of the battlecruiser Von der Tann, Brassey's Naval Annual 1913, showing wing turrets amidships.
The pre-dreadnought battleship with two main gun turrets on centreline and four secondary on the sides
The GRP gunhouse is a common feature on modern naval gun turrets, this example being on the frigate.
The Boulton & Paul Overstrand biplane was the first RAF bomber to carry an enclosed turret.
A Martin YB-10 service test bomber with the USAAC - the first flight of the B-10 design occurred in mid-February 1932.
A B-24 Liberator rear turret.
A B-17's Bendix chin turret, remotely controlled by the bombardier.
One of the FDSL 131 remote gun turrets of a Messerschmitt Me 210 being maintained, with cover removed.
The Rolls-Royce Armoured Car with its new open-topped turret, 1940.
US Army tank troops with Renault FTs on the Western Front, 1918. The FT was the first operational tank to carry a turret.
Fort Drum in 1983, with USS New Jersey (BB-62) in the background
Consolidated B-24J Liberator nose turret
Dorsal gun turret on a Grumman TBM Avenger
B-29 remote controlled aft ventral turret
Wing turrets of an Me 323
Avro Lancaster tail turret
The tail turret or "barbette" of a Boeing B-52 Stratofortress
The Admiralty Pier Turret was built to protect the port of Dover in 1882.
A German built 190 mm gun turret at Fort Copacabana in Brazil, completed in 1914.
Turret of the Maginot Line; this could retract into the ground when not firing, for added protection.
A twin 305 mm gun turret at Kuivasaari, Finland, completed in 1935.
One of three 40.6cm guns at Batterie "Lindemann", a German Cross-Channel gun.
alt= A ground mounted turret|12 cm tornautomatpjäs m/70 developed to defend vital points like seaports from enemy landing ships, as well as area denial and fire support, even on a nuclear battlefield.

The term cupola is also used for a rotating turret that carries a sighting device rather than weaponry, such as that used by a tank commander.

A shoot-off between Leopard 2A6 tanks during the Strong Europe Tank Challenge, 2018

Armoured warfare

Use of armored fighting vehicles in modern warfare.

Use of armored fighting vehicles in modern warfare.

A shoot-off between Leopard 2A6 tanks during the Strong Europe Tank Challenge, 2018
British heavy tank of World War I
J.F.C. Fuller
Mikhail Tukhachevsky
A T-34-85 tank on display at the Musée des Blindés in April 2007
Heinz Guderian (right edge) guiding an armoured force in Poland
Structure of a U.S. tank battalion in November 1944. Each battalion had 53 M4 Sherman medium tanks and 17 M5 Stuart light tanks. Heavy armoured divisions had 6 battalions (318 M4 Tanks, 102 M5 Tanks) while light armoured divisions had 3 (159 M4 Tanks, 51 M5 Tanks). Many U.S. infantry divisions had a permanent tank battalion attached during the length of the war in Europe.
M10 tank destroyer in action near Saint-Lô, June 1944
Warsaw Pact "Big Seven" threats
Czechoslovak armoured personnel carrier OT-62 TOPAS, produced by Podpolianske strojárne Detva in Slovakia
A combined force of M1 Abrams tanks, Bradley IFVs and a logistical convoy advancing during the Gulf War
A Leclerc tank in a hull-down position. Note the observation periscope which would allow the commander to observe in turret-down position.
The German Puma is a well protected infantry fighting vehicle capable of delivering troops to the frontline.
Close-up of an A-10 GAU-8 Avenger gun
AH-64 Apache, an attack helicopter designed to destroy armoured vehicles
French AMX-10RC during Operation Desert Shield in the Gulf War
Graphic representation of the U.S. Army's cancelled XM1202 Mounted Combat System

Much of the application of armoured warfare depends on the use of tanks and related vehicles used by other supporting arms such as infantry fighting vehicles, self-propelled artillery, and other combat vehicles, as well as mounted combat engineers and other support units.

FGM-148 Javelin anti-tank missile of the United States Army

Anti-tank guided missile

Guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily armored military vehicles.

Guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily armored military vehicles.

FGM-148 Javelin anti-tank missile of the United States Army
The 9M133 Kornet tripod-mounted ATGM of the Russian Ground Forces
The Brimstone missile is a fire-and-forget missile of the RAF
PARS 3 LR fire-and-forget missile of the German Army
Spike missile, capable of making a top attack flight profile
Merkava Mk 4m with the Trophy APS during Operation Protective Edge

It was intended to be light enough to deploy with airborne forces, yet powerful enough to knock out any tank then in service (it used a 26 kg high-explosive squash head warhead).

Crusader Mark I with auxiliary turret

Cruiser tank

Crusader Mark I with auxiliary turret
A damaged Cruiser Mk I Close Support abandoned in Calais, 1940.
Cruiser Tank Mark I (A9)
The Cruiser Mark III (A13) with large wheels typical of the Christie suspension
2-pounder armed Crusader in the desert.
Comet

The cruiser tank (sometimes called cavalry tank or fast tank) was a British tank concept of the interwar period for tanks designed as modernised armoured and mechanised cavalry, as distinguished from infantry tanks.

The Battle of Marathon, an example of the double-envelopment, a form of flanking maneuver

Flanking maneuver

Movement of an armed force around an enemy force's side, or flank, to achieve an advantageous position over it.

Movement of an armed force around an enemy force's side, or flank, to achieve an advantageous position over it.

The Battle of Marathon, an example of the double-envelopment, a form of flanking maneuver
The Battle of Kirkuk (1733)
Flanks of a stationary group

Armored vehicles such as tanks replaced cavalry as the main force of flanking maneuvers in the 20th century, as seen in the Battle of France in World War II.

A Soviet IS-3 heavy tank

Heavy tank

A Soviet IS-3 heavy tank
The German Tiger I heavy tank
IS-2 heavy tank
A Soviet IS-3 heavy tank

Heavy tank is a term used to define a class of tanks produced from World War I through the end of the Cold War.

British World War I Mark V* tank

Armoured fighting vehicle

Armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.

Armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.

British World War I Mark V* tank
Battle of Zama by Henri-Paul Motte, 1890
A Helepolis-like Siege Engine showing ballistae, stairs and movement capstan
Model of a vehicle sketched by Leonardo da Vinci
F.R. Simms' Motor Scout, built in 1898 as an armed car
F.R. Simms' 1902 Motor War Car, the first armoured car to be built
The Mark IX tank, the first armoured personnel carrier
British Gun Carrier Mark I (60 pdr)
Armour-thickness chart for a Panther tank
Engine replacement for a Bergepanzer 2
Ripsaw M5 unmanned light tank
Indian T-90 Bhisma with appliqué reactive armour and standard 125 mm main gun
The Carden-Loyd tankette concept was adopted by many armies
Maus
Churchill Crocodile flame tank
A British Matilda tank displaying a captured Italian flag
2 pdr-armed Crusader in the desert
Panhard AML armoured car
United States Army M1127 reconnaissance vehicle
The ARTEC Boxer armoured personnel carrier
The German Puma infantry fighting vehicles
Polish AMZ Tur
BTR-80s coming ashore, engine snorkels and waterjet deployed
Two U.S. Marine Corps Assault Amphibious Vehicles emerge from the surf onto the sand of Freshwater Beach, Australia
IDF Puma - combat engineering vehicle and section carrier
A German army Rheinmetall Keiler. It uses a heavy-duty rotor-powered mine flail, which causes mines it comes in contact with to safely detonate.
IDF Caterpillar D9 armoured bulldozer
Flakpanzer Gepard, Germany
At AUSA 2017, a JLTV Utility variant mounting Boeing's SHORAD Launcher
A Russian 2S19 Msta-S in 2014
The Soviet SU-76 was easily constructed in small factories incapable of producing proper tanks
A Karl-Gerät firing in Warsaw,1944
An American M1129 Mortar Carrier
BM-30 Smerch 300 mm rocket launcher in raised position
A Norwegian anti-tank platoon equipped with NM142 TOW missile launchers
Replica of the "Hurban" armoured train located in Zvolen, Slovakia
Improvised armoured truck in 1916, during the Easter Rising.
A Gun Truck of the type used in Iraq, based on an M939 five-ton truck
A ZU-23-2 technical used by the forces of the National Transitional Council during the Libyan civil war, in October 2011
A CV-9035 Swedish infantry fighting vehicle used by U.S. Army
The M113, one of the most common tracked APCs, on duty during the Iraq War
An ATF Dingo of the German Army is a mine-resistant and ambush-protected infantry mobility vehicle used by several European armed forces
A United States Army National Guard M1117 armoured security vehicle
A French Nexter Aravis in Strasbourg
Norwegian soldiers running operations in an Iveco LMV in Faryab province, Afghanistan. The Iveco LMV is widely used by European militaries.
An RMMV Survivor R used by the Saxony State Police. In this configuration, it does not feature the .50 machine gun and grenade launcher remote weapon station used in the standard military configuration.
A remotely controlled Panther armoured mine clearing vehicle leads a column down a road in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 16 May 1996.
Marines with 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion launch a M58 MICLIC from an assault breacher vehicle
An armoured IDF Caterpillar D9R bulldozer, nicknamed "דובי" ('Teddy bear') in Israel. Its armour allows it to work under heavy fire.
BPz3 "Büffel", German Army
An M60A1 armoured vehicle-launched bridge (AVLB), deploying its scissors-type bridge
An M1132 engineer squad vehicle (ESV) issued to combat engineer squads in the US Army Stryker brigade combat teams

Tanks, armoured cars, assault guns/armoured self-propelled guns, infantry fighting vehicles and armoured personnel carriers (APC) are all examples of AFVs.

Clockwise from top left:
* Men of the Royal Irish Rifles, concentrated in the trench, right before going over the top on the first day of the Battle of the Somme
* British soldier carries a wounded comrade from the battlefield on the first day of the Somme
* A young German soldier during the Battle of Ginchy
* American infantry storming a German bunker
* A German Gotha G.IV heavy bomber
* American troops with Renault FT tanks moving in the Argonne Forest to the frontlines during the Meuse–Argonne offensive

Western Front (World War I)

One of the main theatres of war during the First World War.

One of the main theatres of war during the First World War.

Clockwise from top left:
* Men of the Royal Irish Rifles, concentrated in the trench, right before going over the top on the first day of the Battle of the Somme
* British soldier carries a wounded comrade from the battlefield on the first day of the Somme
* A young German soldier during the Battle of Ginchy
* American infantry storming a German bunker
* A German Gotha G.IV heavy bomber
* American troops with Renault FT tanks moving in the Argonne Forest to the frontlines during the Meuse–Argonne offensive
Map of the Western Front and the Race to the Sea, 1914
Map of the Western Front, 1915–16
Ruins of Carency after it was recaptured by France
German soldier on the Western Front in 1916
French soldiers observing enemy movements
British infantry advance near Ginchy. Photo by Ernest Brooks.
The Hindenburg Line at Bullecourt seen from the air
Map of the Western Front, 1917
British Army on the Western Front (August 1917)
Two United States soldiers run toward a bunker past the bodies of two German soldiers.
Map of the final German offensives, 1918
German tank in Roye, 21 March 1918
Italian regiments in 1918

To break the deadlock of trench warfare on the Western Front, both sides tried new military technology, including poison gas, aircraft, and tanks.