Tanker (ship)

Commercial crude oil supertanker AbQaiq
The Thomas W. Lawson (1902), converted in 1906 into the world's first sailing tanker.
A US Navy T2 tanker in 1943
The small coastal tanker Pegasus on the River Weser
Chemical tanker Sten Aurora on the Firth of Clyde
The Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC) in 2008, after her capture by Somali pirates

Ship designed to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk.

- Tanker (ship)

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LNG carrier

LNG Rivers, a Moss-type carrier with a capacity of 135000 m3
Diagram of new build rate.
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LNG carrier under construction at DSME shipyard, Okpo-dong
The inside of a Moss-type LNG carrier
LNG Moss-type tanker, side view
Interior of a non-spherical, Technigaz Mark III stainless steel membrane, LNG tank

An LNG carrier is a tank ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG).

Pipeline transport

Long-distance transportation of a liquid or gas through a system of pipes—a pipeline—typically to a market area for consumption.

HDPE pipelines on a mine site in Australia.
A "Pig" launcher/receiver, on the natural gas pipeline in Switzerland
An elevated section of the Alaska Pipeline.
Major Russian gas pipelines to Europe in 2009. Deliveries on some pipelines were disrupted by or became controversial after the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, including the 2022 Russia–European Union gas dispute.
Gas pipe in the dry region of Antofagasta, Chile.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline from Russia to Ukraine
The Los Angeles Aqueduct in Antelope Valley.
District heating pipeline in Austria with a length of 31 km
Thor Pipeline in Randers, Denmark
The SCADA System for pipelines.
The Trans Alaska Pipeline crossing under the Delta River and over ridge of the Alaska Range
An underground petroleum pipeline running through a park

Although pipelines can be built under the sea, that process is economically and technically demanding, so the majority of oil at sea is transported by tanker ships.

Exxon Valdez

Commercial crude oil supertanker AbQaiq

Oriental Nicety, formerly Exxon Valdez, Exxon Mediterranean, SeaRiver Mediterranean, S/R Mediterranean, Mediterranean, and Dong Fang Ocean, was an oil tanker that gained notoriety after running aground in Prince William Sound, spilling its cargo of crude oil into the sea.

Chemical tanker

Chemical tanker Ursula Essberger
The deck of a chemical tanker has a complicated piping system. This is the Saudi chemical tanker of 1986 built Al Farabi, carrying molasses, in Brest.
Chemical tanker Sten Aurora

A chemical tanker is a type of tanker ship designed to transport chemicals in bulk.

Petroleum industry

The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transportation (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.

World oil reserves, 2013.
Oil Field in Baku, Azerbaijan, 1926
Natural oil spring in Korňa, Slovakia.
Oil wells in Boryslav
Galician oil wells
World crude oil production from wells (excludes surface-mined oil, such as from Canadian heavy oil sands), 1930-2012
NIS refinery in Pančevo, Serbia

downstream (oil tankers, refiners, retailers and consumers)

Ship

Large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying cargo or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research, and fishing.

Main parts of ship. 1: Funnel; 2: Stern; 3: Propeller and Rudder; 4: Portside (the right side is known as starboard); 5: Anchor; 6: Bulbous bow; 7: Bow; 8: Deck; 9: Superstructure
Fijian voyaging outrigger boat with a crab claw sail
One of the sailing trimarans depicted in Borobudur temple, c. 8th century AD in Java, Indonesia
Egyptian sailing ship, c. 1422–1411 BC
A Roman ship carved on the face of the "Ship Sarcophagus", c. 2nd century AD
A Japanese atakebune from the 16th century
Replica of Magellan's Victoria. Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe in 1519–1522.
Painting of the Battle of Trafalgar by Auguste Mayer.
Italian full-rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor
RMS Titanic departs from Southampton. Her sinking led to tighter safety regulations
Colombo Express, one of the largest container ships in the world, owned and operated by Hapag-Lloyd of Germany
Ship carrying containers in Gadiara (West Bengal, India)
Passenger ship of Köln-Düsseldorfer on the river Rhine
Hurma, Hans and Voima at the Lake Saimaa in the harbour of Imatra, Finland, at a heritage ship meeting in 2009
Two modern container ships in San Francisco
Albatun Dos, a tuna boat at work near Victoria, Seychelles
The weather ship MS Polarfront at sea.
American aircraft carrier USS Harry S. Truman and a replenishment ship
A ship's hull endures harsh conditions at sea, as illustrated by this reefer ship in bad weather.
A ship's engine room
The rudder and propeller on a newly built ferry
Aerial view of the, showing a 39° wake, characteristic of vessels passing through water.
Vessels move along the three axes: 1. heave, 2. sway, 3. surge, 4. yaw, 5. pitch, 6. roll
Lines plan for the hull of a basic cargo ship
MS Freedom of the Seas under construction in a shipyard in Turku.
A ship launching at the Northern Shipyard in Gdańsk, Poland
Able seaman using a needlegun scaler on a mooring winch.
Workers drag steel plate ashore from beached ships in Chittagong, Bangladesh
The tanker Exxon Valdez spilled 10800000 USgal of oil into Alaska's Prince William Sound.
A cargo ship pumps ballast water over the side
Exhaust stack on a container ship.
Ship breaking near Chittagong, Bangladesh

In terms of tonnage, 29% of ships were tankers, 43% are bulk carriers, 13% container ships and 15% were other types.

Free surface effect

Mechanism which can cause a watercraft to become unstable and capsize.

A liquid hitting a wall in a container will cause sloshing.

The free surface effect can affect any kind of craft, including watercraft (where it is most common), bulk cargo or liquid tanker semi-trailers and trucks (causing either jackknifing or roll-overs), and aircraft (especially fire-fighting water-droppers and refueling tankers where baffles mitigate but do not eliminate the effects).

Petroleum

Naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations.

Fractional distillation apparatus.
Oil derrick in Okemah, Oklahoma, 1922.
Shale bings near Broxburn, 3 of a total of 19 in West Lothian.
This wartime propaganda poster promoted carpooling as a way to ration vital gasoline during World War II.
Unconventional resources are much larger than conventional ones.
Octane, a hydrocarbon found in petroleum. Lines represent single bonds; black spheres represent carbon; white spheres represent hydrogen.
Structure of a vanadium porphyrin compound (left) extracted from petroleum by Alfred E. Treibs, father of organic geochemistry. Treibs noted the close structural similarity of this molecule and chlorophyll a (right).
A hydrocarbon trap consists of a reservoir rock (yellow) where oil (red) can accumulate, and a caprock (green) that prevents it from egressing.
Some marker crudes with their sulfur content (horizontal) and API gravity (vertical) and relative production quantity.
Nominal and inflation-adjusted US dollar price of crude oil, 1861–2015.
Oil consumption per capita (darker colors represent more consumption, gray represents no data) (source: see file description).
Diesel fuel spill on a road.
Seawater acidification.
Global fossil carbon emissions, an indicator of consumption, from 1800. {{legend|black|Total}}{{legend|blue|Oil}}
Rate of world energy usage per year from 1970.<ref name="BP-Report-2012">BP: Statistical Review of World Energy {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130516003736/http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle800.do?categoryId=9037130&contentId=7068669 |date=May 16, 2013 }}, Workbook (xlsx), London, 2012</ref>
Daily oil consumption from 1980 to 2006.
Oil consumption by percentage of total per region from 1980 to 2006: {{legend|red|US}}{{legend|blue|Europe}}{{legend|#D1D117|Asia and Oceania}}.
Oil consumption 1980 to 2007 by region.

Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have damaged natural ecosystems and human livelihoods in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, the Galápagos Islands, France and many other places.

William Davies (master mariner)

British sea captain and business man, a founding partner in the City of London shipping company Davies and Newman and Chairman of the London General Shipowners Society.

A barque in 1878
All Souls, Langham Place

He quickly specialized in the new business of moving bulk oil across the Atlantic and around the world, which led to his observations on the expansion of oils in tankers.

International Maritime Organization

Specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.

The headquarters of the IMO are located on Albert Embankment, Lambeth, London.
Current Secretary-General Kitack Lim (left), with predecessor Secretaries-General O'Neill, Mitropoulos and Sekimizu
International Maritime Organization as of 2014:
An image of the main hall assembly chamber, where the MSC and MEPC committees of the International Maritime Organization meet each year.

Recent initiatives at the IMO have included amendments to SOLAS, which upgraded fire protection standards on passenger ships, the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) which establishes basic requirements on training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers and to the Convention on the Prevention of Maritime Pollution (MARPOL 73/78), which required double hulls on all tankers.