Tarabai

A 1927 depiction of Tarabai in battle by noted Marathi painter M. V. Dhurandhar
Equestrian statue of Tarabai in Kolhapur

The regent of the Maratha Empire of India from 1700 until 1708.

- Tarabai
A 1927 depiction of Tarabai in battle by noted Marathi painter M. V. Dhurandhar

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Maratha Empire

Confederacy that came to dominate a large portion of early modern India in the 18th century.

Confederacy that came to dominate a large portion of early modern India in the 18th century.

The Maratha Empire in 1758 with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Mughal Empire as its vassals
Maratha kingdom in 1680 (yellow)
A portrait of Shivaji Maharaj
Sambhaji, eldest son of Shivaji
Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath
Peshwa Baji Rao I
Peshwa Balaji Bajirao
Peshwa Madhavrao I
Mahadaji Shinde restored the Maratha domination of northern India
A mural depicting the British surrender during the First Anglo-Maratha War. The mural is a part of the Victory Memorial (Vijay Stambh) located at Vadgaon Maval, Pune.
Peshwa Madhavrao II in his court in 1790, concluding a treaty with the British
Battle of Assaye during the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Peshwa Baji Rao II signing of the Treaty of Bassein with the British
Maratha king of Gwalior at his palace
Pratapgad fort, one of the earliest forts administered by Shivaji.
Maratha darbar or court.
Gold coins minted during Shivaji's era, 17th century.
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Maratha Gurabs ships attacking a British East India Company ship
Arms of Maratha
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Thanjavur Maratha palace
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1759 (orange)
Maratha Empire in 1760 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1765 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1795 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1805
Maratha Princely States in 1823

Upon his release from Mughal captivity, Shahu became the Maratha ruler after a brief struggle with his aunt Tarabai, with the help of Balaji Vishwanath.

Shivaji's portrait (1680s) from the collection of British Museum

Shivaji

Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan.

Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan.

Shivaji's portrait (1680s) from the collection of British Museum
Shivneri Fort
South India at the turn of the 17th century
An early-20th-century painting by Sawlaram Haldankar of Shivaji fighting the Bijapuri general Afzal Khan
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A 20th century depiction of Shivaji's surprise attack on Mughal general Shaista Khan in Pune by M.V. Dhurandhar
Raja Jai Singh of Amber receiving Shivaji a day before concluding the Treaty of Purandar
20th century depiction by M.V. Dhurandhar of Raja Shivaji at the court of Mughal Badshah, Aurangzeb.
Statue of Shivaji opposite Gateway of India in South Mumbai
20th century depiction of the Coronation Durbar with over 100 characters depicted in attendance by M.V. Dhurandhar
Sambhaji, Shivaji's elder son who succeeded him
Sajjangad, where Samarth Ramdas was invited by Shivaji to reside, is now a place of pilgrimage.
Royal seal of Shivaji
Suvela Machi, view of southern sub-plateaux, as seen from Ballekilla, Rajgad
Sindudurg Fort provided anchorages for Shivaji's Navy
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1758
An early-20th-century painting by M. V. Dhurandhar of Shivaji and Baji Prabhu at Pawan Khind
A miniature Bronze statue of Shivaji Maharaj in the collection of the Shri Bhavani Museum of Aundh
Statue of Shivaji at Raigad Fort
A replica of Raigad Fort built by children on occasion of Diwali as a tribute to Shivaji.

The period saw the capture, torture, and execution of Sambhaji in 1689, and the Marathas offering strong resistance under the leadership of Sambhaji's successor, Rajaram and then Rajaram's widow Tarabai.

Rajaram I

The third Chhatrapati of Maratha Empire, who ruled from 1689 to his death in 1700.

The third Chhatrapati of Maratha Empire, who ruled from 1689 to his death in 1700.

A memorial atop Sinhgad Fort marking the place of death of Rajaram.

He was succeeded by his infant son Shivaji II under the regentship of his widow Tarabai.

A painting of Sambhaji, late 17th century

Sambhaji

The second Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire, ruling from 1681 to 1689.

The second Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire, ruling from 1681 to 1689.

A painting of Sambhaji, late 17th century
Watan Patra (grant document), by Chh. Sambhaji
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After his release Shahu had to fight a brief succession war with his aunt Tarabai, Rajaram's widow who claimed the throne for her own son, Shivaji II.

Shahu I

Shahu Bhosale I (Pronunciation: [ʃaːɦuː];c.

Shahu Bhosale I (Pronunciation: [ʃaːɦuː];c.

At that time his aunt Tarabai, the widow of Rajaram who governed the Maratha realm in the name of her son Shivaji, denounced Shahu as an impostor substituted by the Mughals for the son of Sambhaji.He fought a brief war with Tarabai to gain the Maratha throne in 1708.

Balaji Baji Rao

The 8th Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India.

The 8th Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India.

A 20th century of depiction of Tarabai by artist Baburao Painter. She unsuccessfully rebelled against the Peshwa in 1751.
Flag of the Maratha Empire.svg Maratha Confederacy at its zenith in 1760 (yellow areas)
A c. 1770 drawing of the Third battle of Panipat

Tarabai, the senior widow of Rajaram Chhatrapati after being released by her stepson Sambhaji II of Kolhapur was given asylum by Chhatrapati Shahu, her nephew.

Balaji Vishwanath

The first of a series of hereditary Peshwas hailing from the Bhat family who gained effective control of the Maratha Empire during the 18th century.

The first of a series of hereditary Peshwas hailing from the Bhat family who gained effective control of the Maratha Empire during the 18th century.

A painting of Balaji Vishwanath Peshwa in the Peshwa Memorial at the Parvati Hill temple complex, Pune
An information plaque describing Balaji Vishwanath Peshwa, a part of the Peshwa Memorial at Shrivardhan, Konkan

Since the death of Shivaji, his two sons Sambhaji and Rajaram continued the Maratha war against the Mughal Empire. Emperor Aurangzeb entered the Deccan in 1686, hoping to put an end to the fledgling Maratha state. Aurangzeb spent the next 27 years in the Deccan in ceaseless warfare against the Marathas. Despite the cruel executions of Sambhaji and early death of Rajaram, Rajaram's widow Tarabai continued the resistance while Sambhaji's son Shahu was captured at a very young age and held captive of the Mughals. Aurangzeb died at Ahmednagar in 1707 at the age of eighty-eight, with the Mughal armies exhausted and the treasury empty. The ensuing war of succession in the Mughal Empire resulted in accession of the aged Prince Mu'azzam, who ascended the Mughal throne under the title of Bahadur Shah

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660

Aurangzeb

The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from July 1658 until his death.

The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from July 1658 until his death.

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

His successor Rajaram, later Rajaram's widow Tarabai and their Maratha forces fought individual battles against the forces of the Mughal Empire.

Rajaram II of Satara

The sixth monarch of Maratha Empire.

The sixth monarch of Maratha Empire.

Tarabai had presented him to Shahu as her own grandson and used him to grab power after Shahu's death.

Samadhi of Shivaji I of Kolhapur, Panhala Fort

Shivaji II

Samadhi of Shivaji I of Kolhapur, Panhala Fort

Shivaji II of Maratha Empire, later Shivaji I of Kolhapur (9 June 1696 – 14 March 1726) was the son of the Maratha Chhatrapati, Rajaram I, and his wife Tarabai.