Tarshish

Tar-TarnishTharsis
Tarshish occurs in the Hebrew Bible with several uncertain meanings, most frequently as a place (probably a large city or region) far across the sea from the Land of Israel and Phoenicia (Tarshish is currently the name of a village in Mount Lebanon District in Lebanon).wikipedia
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Phoenicia

PhoeniciansPhoenicianPhoenicio
Tarshish was said to have exported vast quantities of important metals to Israel and Phoenicia.
Tarshish occurs in the Hebrew Bible with several uncertain meanings, and one of the most recurring is that Tarshish is a place, probably a city or country, that is far from the Land of Israel by sea where trade occurs with Israel and Phoenicia.

Tarsus, Mersin

TarsusTarsosBishop of Tarsus
The Jewish-Portuguese scholar, politician, statesman and financier Isaac Abarbanel (1437–1508 A.D.) described Tarshish as “the city known in earlier times as Carthage and today called Tunis." One possible identification for many centuries preceding the French scholar Bochart (d. 1667), and following the Roman historian Flavius Josephus (d. 100 A.D.), had been with inland town of Tarsus in Cilicia (south-central Turkey).
Tarsus has been suggested as a possible identification of the biblical Tarshish, where the prophet Jonah wanted to flee, but Tartessos in Spain is a more likely identification for this.

Reges Tharsis

This verse is the source text of the liturgical antiphon Reges Tharsis in Christian Cathedral music.
"Reges Tharsis et insulae" ("Kings of Tarshish and the islands") is a common Latin motet and antiphon title.

Dodanim

* Genesis 10:4 lists the descendants of Japhet, the son of Noah, as "The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim."
Dodanim's brothers, according to Genesis 10:4, were Elishah, Tarshish and Chittim.

Jonah

Jonah and the WhaleYunusJonas
* Jonah 1:3, 4:2 mentions Tarshish as a distant place: "But Jonah rose to flee to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord. He went down to Joppa and found a ship going to Tarshish."
Instead, Jonah boards a ship to Tarshish.

Jaffa

JoppaYafoJaffa, Israel
* Jonah 1:3, 4:2 mentions Tarshish as a distant place: "But Jonah rose to flee to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord. He went down to Joppa and found a ship going to Tarshish."
Jaffa is mentioned four times in the Hebrew Bible, as a city opposite the territory given to the Hebrew Tribe of Dan, as port-of-entry for the cedars of Lebanon for Solomon's Temple, as the place whence the prophet Jonah embarked for Tarshish and again as port-of-entry for the cedars of Lebanon for the Second Temple of Jerusalem.

Nora Stone

The same place-name occurs in the Akkadian inscriptions of Esarhaddon (the Assyrian king, d. 669 BC) and also on the Phoenician inscription on the Nora Stone; its precise location was never commonly known, and was eventually lost in antiquity.
According to Cross the stone has been erected by a general, Milkaton, son of Shubna, victor against the Sardinians at the site of TRSS, surely Tarshish.

Solomon

King SolomonSalomonSchlomo
In particular he continued his father's very profitable relationship with the Phoenician king Hiram I of Tyre (see 'wealth' below); they sent out joint expeditions to the lands of Tarshish and Ophir to engage in the trade of luxury products, importing gold, silver, sandalwood, pearls, ivory, apes and peacocks.

Tartessos

TartessianTartessusTartessians
* Jonah 1:3, 4:2 mentions Tarshish as a distant place: "But Jonah rose to flee to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord. He went down to Joppa and found a ship going to Tarshish." The Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the Targum of Jonathan render Tarshish as Carthage, but other biblical commentators as early as 1646 (Samuel Bochart) read it as Tartessos in ancient Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula), near Huelva and Sevilla today.
The analysis of written sources and the products exhumed, including inscriptions and thousands of Greek ceramics, some of which are works of excellent quality by known potters and painters, has led some scholars to suggest that this habitat can be identified not only with Tarshish mentioned in the Bible, in the Assyrian stele of Esarhaddon and perhaps in the Phoenician inscription of the Nora Stone, but also with the Tartessos of Greek sources –interpreting the Tartessus river as equivalent to the present-day Tinto River and the Ligustine Lake to the joint estuary of the Odiel and Tinto rivers flowing west and east of the Huelva Peninsula.

Generations of Noah

Table of Nationssons of NoahGenesis 10
* Genesis 10:4 lists the descendants of Japhet, the son of Noah, as "The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim."

Elishah

ElishaLisa
* Genesis 10:4 lists the descendants of Japhet, the son of Noah, as "The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim."
Vieira also identified Elisha's biblical brother Tarshish as the founder of Tartesos in Andalucia, implying both would have come to Iberia with Tubal (though this isn't the only theory on the identity of Tarshish).

Javan

YavanYāwān
* Genesis 10:4 lists the descendants of Japhet, the son of Noah, as "The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim."
9:13, etc.), his sons (as listed in Genesis 10) have usually been associated with locations in the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea and Anatolia: Elishah (modern Cyprus), Tarshish (Tarsus in Cilicia, but after 1646 often identified with Tartessus in Spain), Kittim (modern Cyprus), and Dodanim (alt.

Kittim

ChittimChittim (=Kittim)Citium
* Genesis 10:4 lists the descendants of Japhet, the son of Noah, as "The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim."

Tharsis

Tharsis bulgeTharsis regionTharsis Rise
The name Tharsis is the Greco-Latin transliteration of the biblical Tarshish, the land at the western extremity of the known world.

Eliezer

Eliezer of DamascusEliazerEliezer son of Dodavahu
He and Ahaziah built ships in Ezion Geber which were to sail to Tarshish for trade.

Priestly breastplate

HoshenbreastplateHigh Priest's breastplate
It is the first stone on the fourth row of the priestly breastplate.

Sofala

Cape of SoffalaBúzi-SofalaNova Sofala
Augustus Henry Keane (1833–1912) believed that Tarshish was Sofala, and that the Biblical land of Havilah was centered on the nearby Great Zimbabwe.
Alternately, in the late 1800s and early 1900s, Augustus Henry Keane argued that Sofala was the Biblical Tarshish.

Kudiramalai

Kudramalai
He fixed on "Tarshish" being the site of Kudiramalai, a possible corruption of Thiruketheeswaram.
French biblical scholar Samuel Bochart first suggested Tamilakam, whose people were known for their gold, pearl, ivory and peacock trade, for the ports of Ophir and Tarshish during King Solomon's reign.

Ophir

gold of OphirOfirOphyr
Bochart, apart from Spain (see there), also suggested eastern localities for the ports of Ophir and Tarshish during King Solomon's reign, specifically the Tamilakkam continent (present day South India and Northern Ceylon) where the Dravidians were well known for their gold, pearls, ivory and peacock trade.

Hebrew Bible

TanakhbiblicalHebrew Scriptures
Tarshish occurs in the Hebrew Bible with several uncertain meanings, most frequently as a place (probably a large city or region) far across the sea from the Land of Israel and Phoenicia (Tarshish is currently the name of a village in Mount Lebanon District in Lebanon).

Land of Israel

Eretz IsraelEretz YisraelIsrael
Tarshish occurs in the Hebrew Bible with several uncertain meanings, most frequently as a place (probably a large city or region) far across the sea from the Land of Israel and Phoenicia (Tarshish is currently the name of a village in Mount Lebanon District in Lebanon).

Esarhaddon

Esar-haddonAshur-ahha-iddinaKing Esarhaddon
The same place-name occurs in the Akkadian inscriptions of Esarhaddon (the Assyrian king, d. 669 BC) and also on the Phoenician inscription on the Nora Stone; its precise location was never commonly known, and was eventually lost in antiquity.

Neo-Assyrian Empire

Neo-AssyrianAssyrianAssyrians
The same place-name occurs in the Akkadian inscriptions of Esarhaddon (the Assyrian king, d. 669 BC) and also on the Phoenician inscription on the Nora Stone; its precise location was never commonly known, and was eventually lost in antiquity.

Solomon's Temple

First TempleTemple of SolomonTemple
However, Solomon's Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians, thus archaeological evidence has been difficult to uncover.

Septuagint

LXXGreek Old TestamentGreek
The Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the Targum of Jonathan render Tarshish as Carthage, but other biblical commentators as early as 1646 (Samuel Bochart) read it as Tartessos in ancient Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula), near Huelva and Sevilla today.