A report on Tattvartha Sutra

Tattvartha sutra
Chart showing Samyak Darsana as per Tattvarthasutra

Ancient Jain text written by Acharya Umaswami in Sanskrit, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century CE.

- Tattvartha Sutra
Tattvartha sutra

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The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).

Jainism

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Ancient Indian religion.

Ancient Indian religion.

The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).
Classification of Saṃsāri Jīvas (transmigrating souls) in Jainism
Lord Neminatha, Akota Bronzes (7th century)
Jain miniature painting of 24 tirthankaras, Jaipur, c. 1850
Jain temple painting explaining Anekantavada with Blind men and an elephant
A Jain monk in meditation, wearing the characteristic white robe and face covering
Nishidhi stone, depicting the vow of sallekhana, 14th century, Karnataka
Praying at the feet of a statue of Bahubali
Jain worship may include ritual offerings and recitals.
Celebrating Das Lakshana (Paryushana), Jain Center of America, New York City
The birth of Mahavira, from the Kalpa Sūtra (c.1375–1400 CE)
Shikharji
Idol of Suparśvanātha
A symbol to represent the Jain community was chosen in 1975 as part of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of Mahavira’s nirvana.
Rishabhdev, believed to have lived over 592.704×1018 years ago, is considered the traditional founder of Jainism.
The ruins of Gori Jain temples in Nagarparkar, Pakistan, a pilgrimage site before 1947.
Ranakpur Jain Temple
Dilwara Temples
Parshvanath Temple in Khajuraho
Girnar Jain temples
Jal Mandir, Pawapuri
Lodhurva Jain temple
Palitana temples
Saavira Kambada Basadi, Moodbidri, Karnataka
Jain temple, Antwerp, Belgium
Brahma Jinalaya, Lakkundi
Hutheesing Jain Temple

Jain texts such as Acaranga Sūtra and Tattvarthasūtra state that one must renounce all killing of living beings, whether tiny or large, movable or immovable.

Image of Umaswami / Umaswati

Umaswati

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Indian scholar, possibly between 2nd-century and 5th-century CE, known for his foundational writings on Jainism.

Indian scholar, possibly between 2nd-century and 5th-century CE, known for his foundational writings on Jainism.

Image of Umaswami / Umaswati
Chart showing Samyak Darsana as per Tattvarthasutra

He authored the Jain text Tattvartha Sutra (literally '"All That Is", also called Tattvarthadhigama Sutra).

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

Sanskrit

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Classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.

Classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.
A 17th-century birch bark manuscript of Pāṇini's grammar treatise from Kashmir
An early use of the word for "Sanskrit" in Late Brahmi script (also called Gupta script): Gupta ashoka sam.jpgGupta ashoka skrr.jpgGupta ashoka t.svg Saṃ-skṛ-ta 
Mandsaur stone inscription of Yashodharman-Vishnuvardhana, 532 CE.
Sanskrit's link to the Prakrit languages and other Indo-European languages
The Spitzer Manuscript is dated to about the 2nd century CE (above: folio 383 fragment). Discovered in the Kizil Caves, near the northern branch of the Central Asian Silk Route in northwest China, it is the oldest Sanskrit philosophical manuscript known so far.
A 5th-century Sanskrit inscription discovered in Java, Indonesia—one of the earliest in southeast Asia after the Mulavarman inscription discovered in Kutai, eastern Borneo. The Ciaruteun inscription combines two writing scripts and compares the king to the Hindu god Vishnu. It provides a terminus ad quem to the presence of Hinduism in the Indonesian islands. The oldest southeast Asian Sanskrit inscription—called the Vo Canh inscription—so far discovered is near Nha Trang, Vietnam, and it is dated to the late 2nd century to early 3rd century CE.
Sanskrit language's historical presence has been attested in many countries. The evidence includes manuscript pages and inscriptions discovered in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central Asia. These have been dated between 300 and 1800 CE.
One of the oldest surviving Sanskrit manuscript pages in Gupta script (c. 828 CE), discovered in Nepal
One of the oldest Hindu Sanskrit inscriptions, the broken pieces of this early-1st-century BCE Hathibada Brahmi Inscription were discovered in Rajasthan. It is a dedication to deities Vāsudeva-Samkarshana (Krishna-Balarama) and mentions a stone temple.
in the form of a terracotta plaque
Sanskrit in modern Indian and other Brahmi scripts: May Śiva bless those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kālidāsa)
One of the earliest known Sanskrit inscriptions in Tamil Grantha script at a rock-cut Hindu Trimurti temple (Mandakapattu, c. 615 CE)
The ancient Yūpa inscription (one of the earliest and oldest Sanskrit texts written in ancient Indonesia) dating back to the 4th century CE written by Brahmins under the rule of King Mulavarman of the Kutai Martadipura Kingdom located in eastern Borneo
Sanskrit festival at Pramati Hillview Academy, Mysore, India

Some of the revered texts of Jainism including the Tattvartha sutra, Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, the Bhaktamara Stotra and later versions of the Agamas are in Sanskrit.

Stela depicting Śhrut Jnāna, "the knowledge which is heard" (directly from the omniscient fordmakers)

Jain literature

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Jain literature refers to the literature of the Jain religion.

Jain literature refers to the literature of the Jain religion.

Stela depicting Śhrut Jnāna, "the knowledge which is heard" (directly from the omniscient fordmakers)
Statues depicting Bhadrabahu (the last leader of a unified Jain community) and the mauryan emperor Chandragupta (who became a Jain monk late in life).
[Top illustration] Mahavira attains kevala jñāna (complete knowledge); [Bottom] a samosarana (divine preaching hall). Folio 60 from Kalpasutra series, loose leaf manuscript, Patan, Gujarat. c. 1472.
The Suryaprajnaptisūtra, a 4th or 3rd century BCE Śvētāmbara astronomical and mathematical text. The top illustration depicts Mahavira, while the bottom one illustrates his great disciple Gautama.
Āchārya Pushpadanta, depicted writing down the Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama
Āchārya Kundakunda, one of the most important Digambara philosophers
The Tattvārthsūtra is regarded as the most authoritative book on Jainism, and the only text authoritative in both the Svetambara and Digambara sects
Bust of Hemachandra at Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University
Mangulam inscription dated 2nd century BCE

The 'substance' (Dravyānuyoga) exposition includes texts about ontology of the universe and self. Umāsvāmin's comprehensive Tattvārtha-sūtra is the standard work on ontology and Pūjyapāda's (464–524 CE) Sarvārthasiddhi is one of the most influential Digambara commentaries on the Tattvārtha. This collection also includes various works on epistemology and reasoning, such as Samantabhadra's Āpta-mīmāṃsā and the works of Akalaṅka (720-780 CE), such as his commentary on the Apta-mīmāṃsā and his Nyāya-viniścaya.

Broad classification of Karmas as per Jain philosophy

Karma in Jainism

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Basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism.

Basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism.

Broad classification of Karmas as per Jain philosophy
The soul travels to any one of the four states of existence after the death depending on its karmas
The common representation of the mango tree and men analogy of the lesyas.
Representation of a soul undergoing reincarnation.
Karma as moral action and reaction: goodness sown is reaped as goodness.

This is explained by Tattvārthasūtra 6.7: "[The] intentional act produces a strong karmic bondage and [the] unintentional produces weak, shortlived karmic bondage."

Nirjara

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One of the seven fundamental principles, or Tattva in Jain philosophy, and refers to the shedding or removal of accumulated karmas from the atma , essential for breaking free from samsara, the cycle of birth-death and rebirth, by achieving moksha, liberation.

One of the seven fundamental principles, or Tattva in Jain philosophy, and refers to the shedding or removal of accumulated karmas from the atma , essential for breaking free from samsara, the cycle of birth-death and rebirth, by achieving moksha, liberation.

Literally meaning "falling off", the concept is described first in chapter 9 of the classical Jain text, Tattvartha Sutra (True nature of Reality) written by Acharya Umasvati, in 2nd century CE, the only text authoritative in both Svetambara and Digambara sects of Jainism.

The three shikhar (top) of a Jain temple represents Ratnatraya (three jewels)

Ratnatraya

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Jainism emphasises that ratnatraya (triple gems of Jainism) — the right faith (Samyak Darshana), right knowledge (Samyak Gyana) and right conduct (Samyak Charitra) — constitutes the path to liberation.

Jainism emphasises that ratnatraya (triple gems of Jainism) — the right faith (Samyak Darshana), right knowledge (Samyak Gyana) and right conduct (Samyak Charitra) — constitutes the path to liberation.

The three shikhar (top) of a Jain temple represents Ratnatraya (three jewels)
In Jain flag, three dots above swastika represents Ratnatraya
Chart showing Samyak Darsana as per Tattvarthasutra
Fourteen stages on the Path to liberation

The very first sloka (aphorism) of the Sacred Jain text, Tattvartha sutra reads:"Right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct (together) constitute the path to liberation."

Jain emblem with the motto: परस्परोपग्रहो जीवानाम् (Parasparopagraho Jīvānām)

Parasparopagraho Jivanam

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Jain emblem with the motto: परस्परोपग्रहो जीवानाम् (Parasparopagraho Jīvānām)

Parasparopagraho Jīvānām (Sanskrit) is a Jain aphorism from the Tattvārtha Sūtra [5.21].

Depiction of Siddha Shila as per Jain cosmology which is abode of infinite Siddhas

Moksha (Jainism)

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Sanskrit or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death.

Sanskrit or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death.

Depiction of Siddha Shila as per Jain cosmology which is abode of infinite Siddhas

According to the Sacred Jain Text, Tattvartha sutra:"Owing to the absence of the cause of bondage and with the functioning of the dissociation of karmas the annihilation of all karmas is liberation."

Relief representing ahimsa

Ahimsa in Jainism

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Fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine.

Fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine.

Relief representing ahimsa
Painting in a Jain temple with the statement "ahinsā paramo dharma" (non-injury is the highest virtue/religion)
Violence (Himsa) gouache on paper, 17th century, Gujarat depicts animals of prey with their victims. The princely couple symbolises love, which is another occasion of violence.
Sculpture depicting the statement "ahimsā paramo dharma" (Photo:Ahinsa Sthal, Delhi)

Tattvārthasūtra defines hiṃsā or violence simply as removal of life by careless activity of mind, body and speech. Thus action in Jainism came to be regarded as truly violent only when accompanied by carelessness.