A report on Tax

Total revenue from direct and indirect taxes given as share of GDP in 2017
Pieter Brueghel the Younger, The tax collector's office, 1640
Substitution effect and income effect with a taxation on y good.
Budget's constraint shift after an introduction of a lump sum tax or a general tax on consumption or a proportional income tax.
The Laffer curve. In this case, the critical point is at a tax rate of 70%. Revenue increases until this peak, then it starts decreasing.
General government revenue, in % of GDP, from social contributions. For this data, the variance of GDP per capita with purchasing power parity (PPP) is explained in 20% by social contributions revenue.
Egyptian peasants seized for non-payment of taxes. (Pyramid Age)
Public finance revenue from taxes in % of GDP. For this data, the variance of GDP per capita with purchasing power parity (PPP) is explained in 32% by tax revenue.
Diagram illustrating deadweight costs of taxes

Compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer by a governmental organization in order to fund government spending and various public expenditures (regional, local, or national), and tax compliance refers to policy actions and individual behaviour aimed at ensuring that taxpayers are paying the right amount of tax at the right time and securing the correct tax allowances and tax reliefs.

- Tax
Total revenue from direct and indirect taxes given as share of GDP in 2017

86 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Microeconomics analyzes the market mechanisms that enable buyers and sellers to establish relative prices among goods and services. Shown is a marketplace in Delhi.

Microeconomics

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Branch of mainstream economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms.

Branch of mainstream economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms.

Microeconomics analyzes the market mechanisms that enable buyers and sellers to establish relative prices among goods and services. Shown is a marketplace in Delhi.
The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability and demand. The graph depicts an increase (that is, right-shift) in demand from D1 to D2 along with the consequent increase in price and quantity required to reach a new equilibrium point on the supply curve (S).
United States Capitol Building: meeting place of the United States Congress, where many tax laws are passed, which directly impact economic welfare. This is studied in the subject of public economics.

Microeconomics also deals with the effects of economic policies (such as changing taxation levels) on microeconomic behavior and thus on the aforementioned aspects of the economy.

Transfer payment

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Redistribution of income and wealth by means of the government making a payment, without goods or services being received in return.

Redistribution of income and wealth by means of the government making a payment, without goods or services being received in return.

Governments pool taxes and other sources of revenue together and spend the money to further a certain agenda.

Lump-sum tax

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A lump-sum tax is a special way of taxation, based on a fixed amount, rather than on the real circumstance of the taxed entity.

John Maynard Keynes (1933) envisaged the financial transaction tax in 1936

Financial transaction tax

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John Maynard Keynes (1933) envisaged the financial transaction tax in 1936
Supporter (green) and opponents (red) of the EU financial transaction tax; undecided countries are in grey (date: March 2012) EU Financial transaction tax
A Robin Hood Tax march in Washington, D.C. in 2013
Europeans for Financial Reform

A financial transaction tax (FTT) is a levy on a specific type of financial transaction for a particular purpose.

Front view of Stuart Saunders Hogg Market, Kolkata

Market (economics)

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Composition of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations or infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.

Composition of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations or infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.

Front view of Stuart Saunders Hogg Market, Kolkata
Corn Exchange in London, circa 1809
New York Stock Exchange (United States), 1963
A market in Râmnicu Vâlcea by Amedeo Preziosi
Cabbage market by Václav Malý
Wet market in Singapore
Aberdeen (Scotland) fish market.
Fish market in Peru.
An Afghan market teeming with vendors and shoppers
Monday market in Portovenere, Italy
Wetherby (England) town's market
Gómez Palacio city's municipal market
Used cars market: due to presence of fundamental asymmetrical information between seller and buyer the market equilibrium is not efficient—in the language of economists it is a market failure
A coal power plant in Datteln—emissions trading or cap and trade is a market-based approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants
Perceptual mapping is a diagrammatic technique used by marketers that attempts to visually display the perceptions of customers or potential customers and the position of a product, product line, brand, or company is typically displayed relative to their competition
Works Project Administration poster (1937)
Market bargaining in Dilli Haat (Delhi)
Trade networks are very old and in this picture the blue line shows the trade network of the Radhanites, circa 870 CE
Yongsan Electronics Market in Seoul (South Korea)
Puritans drinking from pewter mugs at the tavern, Massachusetts.
Black market in La Paz
A Kula bracelet from the Trobriand Islands
The Kula ring
French crown jewels in the Louvre exhibition
United States home sales (blue)
Book Sales in the United Kingdom
Size and growth of the legal outsourcing market
Global mobiles applications market size

In economics, a market that runs under laissez-faire policies is called a free market, it is "free" from the government, in the sense that the government makes no attempt to intervene through taxes, subsidies, minimum wages, price ceilings and so on.

The ratio of German assets in tax havens in relation to the total German GDP, 1996–2008. The "Big 7" shown are Hong Kong, Ireland, Lebanon, Liberia, Panama, Singapore, and Switzerland.

Tax evasion

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The ratio of German assets in tax havens in relation to the total German GDP, 1996–2008. The "Big 7" shown are Hong Kong, Ireland, Lebanon, Liberia, Panama, Singapore, and Switzerland.
Tax campaigner Richard Murphy's estimate of the ten countries with the largest absolute levels of tax evasion. He estimated that global tax evasion amounts to 5 percent of the global economy.
The size of the shadow economy in Europe, 2011.
A "Lion's Mouth" postbox for anonymous denunciations at the Doge's Palace in Venice, Italy. Text translation: "Secret denunciations against anyone who will conceal favors and services or will collude to hide the true revenue from them."
Poster issued by the British tax authorities to counter offshore tax evasion.

Tax evasion is an illegal attempt to defeat the imposition of taxes by individuals, corporations, trusts, and others.

Air pollution from motor vehicles is an example of a negative externality. The costs of the air pollution for the rest of society is not compensated for by either the producers or users of motorized transport.

Externality

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Externality or external cost is an indirect cost or benefit to an uninvolved third party that arises as an effect of another party's activity.

Externality or external cost is an indirect cost or benefit to an uninvolved third party that arises as an effect of another party's activity.

Air pollution from motor vehicles is an example of a negative externality. The costs of the air pollution for the rest of society is not compensated for by either the producers or users of motorized transport.
Graph of Positive Externality in Production
Light pollution is an example of an externality because the consumption of street lighting has an effect on bystanders that is not compensated for by the consumers of the lighting.
Negative production externality
Negative consumption externality
Positive production externality
Positive consumption externality
Demand curve with external costs; if social costs are not accounted for price is too low to cover all costs and hence quantity produced is unnecessarily high (because the producers of the good and their customers are essentially underpaying the total, real factors of production.)
Supply curve with external benefits; when the market does not account for the additional social benefits of a good both the price for the good and the quantity produced are lower than the market could bear.
"Relative percentage price [∆] increases for broad categories [...] when externalities of greenhouse gas emissions are included in the producer's price."

Hence the most common approach may be to regulate the firm (by imposing limits on the amount of pollution considered "acceptable") while paying for the regulation and enforcement with taxes.

Bank tax

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A bank tax, or a bank levy, is a tax on banks which was discussed in the context of the financial crisis of 2007–08.

Gandhi making salt and disobeying the British salt production and tax laws.

Tax resistance

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Gandhi making salt and disobeying the British salt production and tax laws.
Egyptian peasants seized for non-payment of taxes during the Pyramid Age.
Boston Tea Party, 16 December 1773.
Henry David Thoreau, author of Civil Disobedience.
The White House Peace Vigil, started by Thomas in 1981 and supported by tax resister Ellen Thomas.

Tax resistance is the refusal to pay tax because of opposition to the government that is imposing the tax, or to government policy, or as opposition to taxation in itself.

Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, a National Health Service hospital in the United Kingdom.

Health system

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Organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

Organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, a National Health Service hospital in the United Kingdom.
A child being immunized against polio.
Percentage of overweight or obese population in 2010, Data source: OECD's iLibrary, http://stats.oecd.org, retrieved 2013-12-12
Percentage of obese population in 2010, Data source: OECD's iLibrary, http://stats.oecd.org, retrieved 2013-12-13
Chart comparing 2008 health care spending (left) vs. life expectancy (right) in OECD countries.
Physicians per 1000 vs Health Care Spending in 2008 for OECD Countries. The data source is http://www.oecd.org
Hospital beds per 1000 vs Health Care Spending in 2008 for OECD Countries. The data source is http://www.oecd.org

1) general taxation to the state, county or municipality