Taxonomy (biology)

taxonomictaxonomytaxonomistclassificationclassifiedtaxonomistsfirst describedbiological classificationtaxonomicallyscientific classification
In biology, taxonomy is the science of naming, defining (circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.wikipedia
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Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
In biology, taxonomy is the science of naming, defining (circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Organisms are classified by taxonomy into groups such as multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as protists, bacteria, and archaea.

Circumscription (taxonomy)

circumscribedcircumscriptioncircumscriptions
In biology, taxonomy is the science of naming, defining (circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
In biological taxonomy, circumscription is the definition of a taxon, that is, a group of organisms.

Domain (biology)

domaindomainsdomains of life
The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus, and species.
In biological taxonomy, a domain ( or ) (Latin: regio ), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese et.al.

Taxon

taxagrouppolytypic
Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

Class (biology)

classsubclassclasses
The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus, and species.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

Order (biology)

ordersuborderorders
The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus, and species.
What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all.

Genus

generageneric namegeneric
The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus, and species.
A genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

Species

specificspecific epithetspecific name
The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus, and species.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity.

Nomenclature codes

specific epithetbiological nomenclaturenomenclature code
There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy (definitions 1 and 2), or a part of systematics outside taxonomy.
Nomenclature codes or codes of nomenclature are the various rulebooks that govern biological taxonomic nomenclature, each in their own broad field of organisms.

Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
In biology, taxonomy is the science of naming, defining (circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Carl Linnaeus published a basic taxonomy for the natural world in 1735 (variations of which have been in use ever since), and in the 1750s introduced scientific names for all his species.

Ernst Mayr

MayrErnst W. MayrErnst Walter Mayr
Thus, Ernst Mayr in 1968 defined "beta taxonomy" as the classification of ranks higher than species.
He was also a renowned taxonomist, tropical explorer, ornithologist, philosopher of biology, and historian of science.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
In biology, taxonomy is the science of naming, defining (circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Some historians have marked the 18th century as a drab period in the history of science; however, the century saw significant advancements in the practice of medicine, mathematics, and physics; the development of biological taxonomy; a new understanding of magnetism and electricity; and the maturation of chemistry as a discipline, which established the foundations of modern chemistry.

Carl Linnaeus

LinnaeusL.Carl von Linné
The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the founder of the current system of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorizing organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms.
In Flora Lapponica Linnaeus's ideas about nomenclature and classification were first used in a practical way, making this the first proto-modern Flora.

Adolf Engler

Engl.EnglerDas Pflanzenreich
This approach was typified by those of Eichler (1883) and Engler (1886–1892).
He is notable for his work on plant taxonomy and phytogeography, such as Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien (The Natural Plant Families), edited with Karl A. E. von Prantl.

Charles Darwin

DarwinDarwinianCharles Robert Darwin
The publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships.
He learned the classification of plants, and assisted with work on the collections of the University Museum, one of the largest museums in Europe at the time.

On the Origin of Species

The Origin of SpeciesOrigin of SpeciesOn the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
The publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships.
John Ray developed an influential natural theology of rational order; in his taxonomy, species were static and fixed, their adaptation and complexity designed by God, and varieties showed minor differences caused by local conditions.

Phylogenetics

phylogeneticphylogenetic analysisphylogenetically
With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics, cladistics, and systematics, the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct.
Taxonomy is the identification, naming and classification of organisms.

Binomial nomenclature

scientific namebinomial namebinomial authority
The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the founder of the current system of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorizing organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms.
Classification is the ordering of items into groups based on similarities or differences; in biological classification, species are one of the kinds of item to be classified.

Invertebrate

invertebratesmacroinvertebratemacroinvertebrates
Some of his groups of animals, such as Anhaima (animals without blood, translated as invertebrates) and Enhaima (animals with blood, roughly the vertebrates), as well as groups like the sharks and cetaceans, are still commonly used today.
This makes the invertebrates paraphyletic, so the term has little meaning in taxonomy.

Systematics

systematicsystematistbiosystematics
With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics, cladistics, and systematics, the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct.
In 1970 Michener et al. defined "systematic biology" and "taxonomy" (terms that are often confused and used interchangeably) in relationship to one another as follows:

Andrea Cesalpino

Andrea CaesalpinoCesalpinoAndrea Caesalpinus
One of the earliest authors to take advantage of this leap in technology was the Italian physician Andrea Cesalpino (1519–1603), who has been called "the first taxonomist".
In his works he classified plants according to their fruits and seeds, rather than alphabetically or by medicinal properties.

Monograph

monographsmonographymonographic
A monograph or complete revision is a revision that is comprehensive for a taxon for the information given at a particular time, and for the entire world.
In biological taxonomy, a monograph is a comprehensive treatment of a taxon.

Linnaean taxonomy

LinnaeanLinneanLinnaean system
The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the founder of the current system of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorizing organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms.

Crocus

crocusesa flowerautumn crocus
Again, several plant groups currently still recognized can be traced back to Theophrastus, such as Cornus, Crocus, and Narcissus.

Augustin Pyramus de Candolle

DC.de CandolleA. P. de Candolle
The term itself was introduced in 1813 by de Candolle, in his Théorie élémentaire de la botanique.
While in Montpellier, de Candolle published his Théorie élémentaire de la botanique (Elementary Theory of Botany, 1813), which introduced a new classification system and the word taxonomy.