Telecommunication

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Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or electromagnetic systems.wikipedia
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Multiplexing

multiplexedmultiplexmultiplexes
Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing.
In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.

Transmission (telecommunications)

transmissiontransmittransmissions
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or electromagnetic systems.
In telecommunications, transmission (abbreviations: TX, Xmit) is the process of sending and propagating an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium, either wired, optical fiber or wireless.

Telephone

phonetelephonesLocal Telephone Service
20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication usually involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, networks, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, and communications satellites.
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

Electrical telegraph

telegraphelectric telegraphtelegraph line
20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication usually involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, networks, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, and communications satellites.
The electrical telegraph, or more commonly just telegraph, superseded optical semaphore telegraph systems, thus becoming the first form of electrical telecommunications.

Communication

communicationscommunicatecommunication skills
Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology.
Development of civilization has been closely linked with progress in telecommunication.

Wireless

wireless communicationwireless communicationswireless internet
A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, and other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications.
Wireless communication, or sometimes simply wireless, is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor.

Fiber-optic communication

fiber-opticfiber-optic networkfiber optic communication
20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication usually involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, networks, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, and communications satellites.
First developed in the 1970s, fiber-optics have revolutionized the telecommunications industry and have played a major role in the advent of the Information Age.

Radio

radio communicationradio communicationswireless
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or electromagnetic systems. 20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication usually involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, networks, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, and communications satellites. A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, and other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications.
Radio systems used for communication have the following elements.

Morse code

MorseCWMorse-code
His code was an important advance over Wheatstone's signaling method.
Morse code is a character encoding scheme used in telecommunication that encodes text characters as standardized sequences of two different signal durations called dots and dashes or dits and dahs.

Claude Chappe

ChappeChappe brothersChappe Telegraph
In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system (or semaphore line) between Lille and Paris.
This was the first practical telecommunications system of the industrial age, making Chappe the first telecom mogul with his "mechanical internet."

Asynchronous transfer mode

ATMAsynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)asynchronous
However, already in the 1960s, researchers started to investigate packet switching, a technology that sends a message in portions to its destination asynchronously without passing it through a centralized mainframe.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is, according to the ATM Forum, "a telecommunications concept defined by ANSI and ITU (formerly CCITT) standards for carriage of a complete range of user traffic, including voice, data, and video signals".

Communications system

communication systemcommunication systemstelecommunications system
Overall though, a basic telecommunication system consists of three main parts that are always present in some form or another:
In telecommunication, a communications system or communication system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole.

Information

informativeinputinputs
Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology.
These fields deal with those processes and techniques pertaining to information capture (through sensors) and generation (through computation, formulation or composition), processing (including encoding, encryption, compression, packaging), transmission (including all telecommunication methods), presentation (including visualization / display methods), storage (such as magnetic or optical, including holographic methods), etc. Information does not cease to exist, it may only get scrambled beyond any possibility of retrieval (within information theory, see lossy compression; in physics, the black hole information paradox gets solved with the aid of the holographic principle).

Point-to-point (telecommunications)

point-to-pointpoint to pointpoint-to-point connections
Telecommunication over fixed lines is called point-to-point communication because it is between one transmitter and one receiver.
In telecommunications, a point-to-point connection refers to a communications connection between two communication endpoints or nodes.

Transmitter

radio transmittertransmittersradio transmitters
A transmitter that takes information and converts it to a signal.
In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.

Free-space optical communication

laser communicationfree space opticsfree space
A transmission medium, also called the physical channel that carries the signal. An example of this is the "free space channel".
Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking.

Samuel Morse

Samuel F. B. MorseMorseSamuel F.B. Morse
These included Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse (inventors of the telegraph), Alexander Graham Bell (inventor of the telephone), Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest (inventors of radio), as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth (some of the inventors of television).
Heartbroken that for days he was unaware of his wife's failing health and her death, he decided to explore a means of rapid long distance communication.

Technology

technologiestechnologicaltechnical
Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology.
Humans have also been able to explore space with satellites (later used for telecommunication) and in manned missions going all the way to the moon.

Computer network

networknetworkingcomputer networking
A four-node network emerged on 5 December 1969, constituting the beginnings of the ARPANET, which by 1981 had grown to 213 nodes.
Computer networking may be considered a branch of electrical engineering, electronics engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of the related disciplines.

Repeater

digipeaterrepeatersrelay
For both types of network, repeaters may be necessary to amplify or recreate the signal when it is being transmitted over long distances.
In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it. Repeaters are used to extend transmissions so that the signal can cover longer distances or be received on the other side of an obstruction.

Electronics

electronicelectronic deviceelectronic equipment
Sometimes, telecommunication systems are "duplex" (two-way systems) with a single box of electronics working as both the transmitter and a receiver, or a transceiver.
Electronics is widely used in information processing, telecommunication, and signal processing.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
ARPANET eventually merged with other networks to form the Internet.
It is estimated that in 1993 the Internet carried only 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunication, by 2000 this figure had grown to 51%, and by 2007 more than 97% of all telecommunicated information was carried over the Internet.

Military communications

signalscommunicationssignal
World War I accelerated the development of radio for military communications.
Present-day military forces of an informational society conduct intense and complicated communicating activities on a daily basis, using modern telecommunications and computing methods.

Telecommunications network

networkcommunication networkcommunications network
20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication usually involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, networks, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, and communications satellites.
A telecommunications network is a collection of terminal nodes in which links are connected so as to enable telecommunication between the terminals.

Communication channel

channelchannelscommunications channel
Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing.
A communication channel or simply channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking.