Telephone switchboard

switchboardswitchboardscentral switchboardcord boardsmanual officemanual servicemanual switchingmanual telephone exchangemanual telephone systemmanually operated PMBX switchboards
A telephone switchboard is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in enterprises to interconnect circuits of telephones to establish telephone calls between the subscribers or users, or between other exchanges.wikipedia
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Telephone

phonetelephonesLocal Telephone Service
A telephone switchboard is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in enterprises to interconnect circuits of telephones to establish telephone calls between the subscribers or users, or between other exchanges.
Being impractical beyond just a few customers, these systems were quickly replaced by manually operated centrally located switchboards.

Switchboard operator

telephone operatoroperatoroperators
The switchboard was an essential component of a manual telephone exchange, and was operated by switchboard operators who used electrical cords or switches to establish the connections.
In the early days of telephony, through roughly the 1960s, companies used manual telephone switchboards, and switchboard operators connected calls by inserting a pair of phone plugs into the appropriate jacks.

Telephone exchange

exchangescentral officeexchange
The switchboard was an essential component of a manual telephone exchange, and was operated by switchboard operators who used electrical cords or switches to establish the connections. The electromechanical automatic telephone exchange, invented by Almon Strowger in 1888, gradually replaced manual switchboards in central telephone exchanges around the world.
In 1887 Puskás introduced the multiplex switchboard.

Business telephone system

PBXprivate branch exchangekey telephone system
A private branch exchange (PBX) in a business usually has an attendant console for the operator, or an auto-attendant, which bypasses the operator entirely.
Originally having started as an organization's manual switchboard or attendant console operated by a telephone operator or just simply the operator, PBXs have evolved into VoIP centers that are hosted by the operators or even manufacturers.

Panel switch

panelother exchange typespanel dial systems
Conversion to Panel switch and other automated switching systems first eliminated the "B" operator and then, usually years later, the "A".
Similar to the divided-multiple telephone switchboard, the panel system consisted of an originating section and a terminating section.

Traffic Service Position System

TSPS Automated Coin Toll SystemAutomated Coin Toll System
Cord switchboards used for these purposes were replaced in the 1970s and 1980s by TSPS and similar systems, which greatly reduced operator involvement in calls.
The Traffic Service Position System (TSPS) was developed by Bell Labs in Columbus, Ohio to replace traditional cord switchboards.

Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company

ITT KelloggKellogg-ITT RelaymaticMilo G. Kellogg
Late in the 1890s this measure failed to keep up with the increasing number of lines, and Milo G. Kellogg devised the Divided Multiple Switchboard for operators to work together, with a team on the "A board" and another on the "B".
Kellogg himself held more than 150 patents, and had invented the divided multiple telephone switchboard, which became the flagship product of the new company.

Emma Nutt

Emma Nutt Day
Thus, on September 1, 1878, Boston Telephone Dispatch hired Emma Nutt as the first woman operator.
Telephone switchboard

Phone connector (audio)

headphone jackTRRS3.5 mm audio jack
Each cord has a three-wire TRS phone connector: tip and ring for testing, ringing and voice; and a sleeve wire for busy signals.
The phone connector was invented for use in telephone switchboards in the 19th century and is still widely used.

Cord circuit

junctors
Each column consists of a front key and a rear key, a front lamp and a rear lamp, followed by a front cord and a rear cord, making up together a cord circuit.
In telecommunication, a cord circuit is a switchboard circuit in which a plug-terminated cord is used to establish connections manually between user lines or between trunks and user lines.

Telecommunication

telecommunicationscommunicationstelecom
A telephone switchboard is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in enterprises to interconnect circuits of telephones to establish telephone calls between the subscribers or users, or between other exchanges.

Telephone call

callphone callphone calls
A telephone switchboard is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in enterprises to interconnect circuits of telephones to establish telephone calls between the subscribers or users, or between other exchanges.

Electromechanics

electromechanicalelectro-mechanicalelectromechanical engineering
The electromechanical automatic telephone exchange, invented by Almon Strowger in 1888, gradually replaced manual switchboards in central telephone exchanges around the world.

Almon Brown Strowger

Almon B. StrowgerStrowger
The electromechanical automatic telephone exchange, invented by Almon Strowger in 1888, gradually replaced manual switchboards in central telephone exchanges around the world.

Bell System

BellBell Operating CompaniesBell Telephone
In 1919, the Bell System in Canada also adopted automatic switching as its future technology, after years of reliance on manual systems.

Business

for-profitenterprisefirm
A private branch exchange (PBX) in a business usually has an attendant console for the operator, or an auto-attendant, which bypasses the operator entirely.

Attendant console

A private branch exchange (PBX) in a business usually has an attendant console for the operator, or an auto-attendant, which bypasses the operator entirely.

Automated attendant

auto attendantauto-attendantphone tree
A private branch exchange (PBX) in a business usually has an attendant console for the operator, or an auto-attendant, which bypasses the operator entirely.

Telegraphy

telegraphtelegramcable
The use of a central exchange was soon found to be even more advantageous than in telegraphy.

New England Telephone and Telegraph Company

New England TelephoneNew England Telephone CompanyNew England Telephone and Telegraph
In 1894, New England Telephone and Telegraph Company installed the first battery-operated switchboard on January 9 in Lexington, Massachusetts.

Electric battery

batterybatteriesbattery-powered
In 1894, New England Telephone and Telegraph Company installed the first battery-operated switchboard on January 9 in Lexington, Massachusetts.

Lexington, Massachusetts

LexingtonLexington, MALexington MA
In 1894, New England Telephone and Telegraph Company installed the first battery-operated switchboard on January 9 in Lexington, Massachusetts.

Direct distance dialing

direct dialdirect distance dialdirect distance dialling
As telephone exchanges converted to automatic (dial) service, switchboards continued to serve specialized purposes.

Long-distance calling

long distancelong-distancelong distance call
Before the advent of direct-dialed long distance calls, a subscriber would need to contact the long-distance operator in order to place a toll call.

Multi-frequency signaling

multi-frequencyMFmultifrequency
In the 1940s, with the advent of dial pulse and multi-frequency operator dialing, the operator would plug into a tandem trunk and dial the NPA (area code) and operator code for the information operator in the distant city.