Telescope

telescopestelescopicspyglassastronomical telescopetelescopingtelescopyScopespy-glasstelescopicallyastronomical instrumentation
A telescope is an optical instrument that makes distant objects appear magnified by using an arrangement of lenses or curved mirrors and lenses, or various devices used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation.wikipedia
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Refracting telescope

refractorrefractor telescopeGalilean telescope
The first known practical telescopes were refracting telescopes invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century, by using glass lenses. The earliest existing record of a telescope was a 1608 patent submitted to the government in the Netherlands by Middelburg spectacle maker Hans Lippershey for a refracting telescope.
A refracting telescope (also called a refractor) is a type of optical telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image (also referred to a dioptric telescope).

Reflecting telescope

reflectorreflector telescopeprime focus
The reflecting telescope, which uses mirrors to collect and focus light, was invented within a few decades of the first refracting telescope. The potential advantages of using parabolic mirrors—reduction of spherical aberration and no chromatic aberration—led to many proposed designs and several attempts to build reflecting telescopes.
A reflecting telescope (also called a reflector) is a telescope that uses a single or a combination of curved mirrors that reflect light and form an image.

Optical instrument

optical instrumentsoptical devicesinstruments
A telescope is an optical instrument that makes distant objects appear magnified by using an arrangement of lenses or curved mirrors and lenses, or various devices used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation.
Common examples include microscopes, telescopes, and cameras.

Galileo Galilei

GalileoGalileanGalilei
The word telescope (from the Ancient Greek τῆλε, tele "far" and σκοπεῖν, skopein "to look or see"; τηλεσκόπος, teleskopos "far-seeing") was coined in 1611 by the Greek mathematician Giovanni Demisiani for one of Galileo Galilei's instruments presented at a banquet at the Accademia dei Lincei.
Galileo studied speed and velocity, gravity and free fall, the principle of relativity, inertia, projectile motion and also worked in applied science and technology, describing the properties of pendulums and "hydrostatic balances", inventing the thermoscope and various military compasses, and using the telescope for scientific observations of celestial objects.

17th century

seventeenth century17th17th-century
The first known practical telescopes were refracting telescopes invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century, by using glass lenses.
By the end of the century, Europeans and Indians were aware of logarithms, electricity, the telescope and microscope, calculus, universal gravitation, Newton's Laws of Motion, air pressure and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

Hans Lippershey

Hans LipperheyDutch lensmakerLippershey, Hans
The earliest existing record of a telescope was a 1608 patent submitted to the government in the Netherlands by Middelburg spectacle maker Hans Lippershey for a refracting telescope.
He is commonly associated with the invention of the telescope, because he was the first one who tried to obtain a patent for it.

Spitzer Space Telescope

SpitzerSpitzer telescopeGLIMPSE
On the other hand, the Spitzer Space Telescope, observing from about 3 μm (0.003 mm) to 180 μm (0.18 mm) uses a mirror (reflecting optics).
Unlike most telescopes that are named after famous deceased astronomers by a board of scientists, the new name for SIRTF was obtained from a contest open to the general public.

Amateur astronomy

amateur astronomeramateur astronomersstargazing
They may also be classified by whether they are operated by professional astronomers or amateur astronomers.
Amateur astronomy is a hobby where participants enjoy observing or imaging celestial objects in the sky using the unaided eye, binoculars, or telescopes.

X-ray telescope

X-ray telescopestelescopesX
An X-ray telescope (XRT) is a telescope that is designed to observe remote objects in the X-ray spectrum.

Airborne observatory

airborneairborne telescopeballoon
Telescopes may also be classified by location: ground telescope, space telescope, or flying telescope.
An airborne observatory is an airplane, airship, or balloon with an astronomical telescope.

Spherical aberration

aplanaticsphericalspherical aberrations
The potential advantages of using parabolic mirrors—reduction of spherical aberration and no chromatic aberration—led to many proposed designs and several attempts to build reflecting telescopes.
It is often considered to be an imperfection of telescopes and other instruments which makes their focusing less than ideal due to the spherical shape of lenses and mirrors.

Objective (optics)

objectiveobjective lensobjectives
The idea that the objective, or light-gathering element, could be a mirror instead of a lens was being investigated soon after the invention of the refracting telescope.
They are used in microscopes, telescopes, cameras, slide projectors, CD players and many other optical instruments.

Infrared telescope

Infraredinfrared survey telescopeinfrared telescopes
In the 20th century, many new types of telescopes were invented, including radio telescopes in the 1930s and infrared telescopes in the 1960s.
An infrared telescope is a telescope that uses infrared light to detect celestial bodies.

Optical telescope

telescopetelescopesoptical
An optical telescope is a telescope that gathers and focuses light, mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, to create a magnified image for direct view, or to make a photograph, or to collect data through electronic image sensors.

Infrared

IRnear-infraredinfra-red
Infrared astronomy uses sensor-equipped telescopes to penetrate dusty regions of space such as molecular clouds, detect objects such as planets, and to view highly red-shifted objects from the early days of the universe.

Mirror

mirrorslooking glassreflector
Mirrors are also used in scientific apparatus such as telescopes and lasers, cameras, and industrial machinery.

Spotting scope

hunter's telescopespotting scopes
A spotting scope is a small portable high-power telescope with added optics to present an erect image, optimized for the observation of terrestrial objects.

Light

visible lightvisiblelight source
Using a telescope, Rømer observed the motions of Jupiter and one of its moons, Io.

Giovanni Demisiani

Demisiani, Giovanni
The word telescope (from the Ancient Greek τῆλε, tele "far" and σκοπεῖν, skopein "to look or see"; τηλεσκόπος, teleskopos "far-seeing") was coined in 1611 by the Greek mathematician Giovanni Demisiani for one of Galileo Galilei's instruments presented at a banquet at the Accademia dei Lincei.
Demisiani is noted for coining the name telescope (from the Greek τῆλε, tele "far" and σκοπεῖν, skopein "to look or see") for a version of the instrument presented by Galileo Galilei to the Accademia dei Lincei at a banquet honoring Galileo’s induction into the Accademia in 1611.

Theodolite

transittheodolitesphototheodolite
It consists of a moveable telescope mounted so it can rotate around horizontal and vertical axes and provide angular readouts.

Camera lens

lenslensesphotographic lens
There is no major difference in principle between a lens used for a still camera, a video camera, a telescope, a microscope, or other apparatus, but the details of design and construction are different.

Solar telescope

coelostatphotoheliographSolar
Beyond these basic optical types there are many sub-types of varying optical design classified by the task they perform such as astrographs, comet seekers and solar telescopes.
A solar telescope is a special purpose telescope used to observe the Sun.

Comet seeker

comet-seeker
Beyond these basic optical types there are many sub-types of varying optical design classified by the task they perform such as astrographs, comet seekers and solar telescopes.
A comet seeker is a type of small telescope adapted especially to searching for comets: commonly of short focal length and large aperture, in order to secure the greatest brilliancy of light.

Astronomical interferometer

astronomical interferometryinterferometerinterferometry
Such multi-dish arrays are known as astronomical interferometers and the technique is called aperture synthesis.
An astronomical interferometer is an array of separate telescopes, mirror segments, or radio telescope antennas that work together as a single telescope to provide higher resolution images of astronomical objects such as stars, nebulas and galaxies by means of interferometry.

Aperture synthesis

synthetic apertureaperture synthesis imaginginterferometric imaging
Such multi-dish arrays are known as astronomical interferometers and the technique is called aperture synthesis.
Aperture synthesis or synthesis imaging is a type of interferometry that mixes signals from a collection of telescopes to produce images having the same angular resolution as an instrument the size of the entire collection.