A report on Telex

A Teletype Model 32 used for Telex service
A late-model British Telecom "Puma" telex machine of the 1980s

Station-to-station switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network, using telegraph-grade connecting circuits for two-way text-based messages.

- Telex
A Teletype Model 32 used for Telex service

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Teletype teleprinters in use in England during World War II

Teleprinter

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Electromechanical device that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.

Electromechanical device that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.

Teletype teleprinters in use in England during World War II
Example of teleprinter art: a portrait of Dag Hammarskjöld, 1962
Hughes telegraph, an early (1855) teleprinter built by Siemens and Halske. The centrifugal governor to achieve synchronicity with the other end can be seen.
Siemens t37h (1933) without cover
Keyboard of a Baudot teleprinter, with 32 keys, including the space bar
International Telegraph Alphabet 2 development of the Baudot–Murray code
A Creed & Company Teleprinter No. 7 in 1930
Olivetti Teleprinter
Siemens Fernschreiber 100 teleprinter
A Teletype Model 33 ASR teleprinter, with punched tape reader and punch, usable as a computer terminal
A Teletype Model 32 ASR used for Telex service
A Teletype Model 33 ASR with paper tape reader and punch, as used for early modem-based computing

These included a simple pair of wires; dedicated non-switched telephone circuits (leased lines); switched networks that operated similarly to the public telephone network (telex); and radio and microwave links (telex-on-radio, or TOR).

Western Union

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American multinational financial services company, headquartered in Denver, Colorado.

American multinational financial services company, headquartered in Denver, Colorado.

A Western Union telegram sent on September 7, 1896 to report on the positions of two comets.
A 12-year-old Western Union messenger boy in Tampa, Florida, 1911
Advertisement for Western Union "Tourate" telegram service, 1939
60 Hudson Street, Manhattan, was WU's headquarters in the early and middle 20th century
Western Union Telegraph storefront seen in the Chamber of Commerce Building in Toledo, Ohio, 1895
Logo, 1969 to 1990
Western Union European Regional Operations Center in Vilnius
A Western Union outlet in Angeles City, Philippines
WU phone parlors near Times Square, 2008

The company dominated the American telegraphy industry from the 1860s to the 1980s, pioneering technology such as telex and developing a range of telegraph-related services (including wire money transfer) in addition to its core business of transmitting and delivering telegram messages.

An early version from Baudot's 1888 US patent, listing A through Z, and ∗ (Erasure)

Baudot code

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Early character encoding for telegraphy invented by Émile Baudot in the 1870s.

Early character encoding for telegraphy invented by Émile Baudot in the 1870s.

An early version from Baudot's 1888 US patent, listing A through Z, and ∗ (Erasure)
An early "piano" Baudot keyboard
British variant of ITA2
Paper tape with holes representing the "Baudot–Murray Code". Note the fully punched columns of "Delete/Letters select" codes at start of the message (on the right) which were used to cut the band easily between distinct messages. The message then starts with a figure shift control followed by a carriage return.
Keyboard of a teleprinter using the Baudot code (US variant), with FIGS and LTRS shift keys
Weather teleprinter encoding
Table of ITA2 codes (expressed as hexadecimal numbers)
A four-row teletype keyboard with Roman and Cyrillic letters.

ITA2 is still used in telecommunications devices for the deaf (TDD), Telex, and some amateur radio applications, such as radioteletype ("RTTY").

A text message using SMS – the 160 character limit led to the abbreviations of "SMS language"

Text messaging

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Act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile devices, desktops/laptops, or another type of compatible computer.

Act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile devices, desktops/laptops, or another type of compatible computer.

A text message using SMS – the 160 character limit led to the abbreviations of "SMS language"
A text message on an iPhone announcing an AMBER Alert
A multimedia message displayed on a mobile phone
SMS is used to send "welcome" messages to mobile phones roaming between countries. Here, T-Mobile welcomes a Proximus subscriber to the UK, and Base welcomes an Orange UK customer to Belgium.
This sticker seen in Paris satirizes the popularity of communication in SMS shorthand. In French: "Is that you? / It's me! / Do you love me? / Shut up!"
A driver with attention divided between a mobile phone and the road ahead
Two girls text during class at school
A text message that (he says) promises 500 Libyan dinars ($400) to anyone who "makes noise" in support of Gaddafi in the coming days
A recruitment ban in French SMS language: «Slt koi29 on é jamé 2tro @ s batre pour la P. ;-)» = «''Salut! Quoi de neuf? On n'est jamais de trop à se battre pour la Paix!»
Some health organizations manage text messaging services to help people avoid smoking

In 1933, the German Reichspost (Reich postal service) introduced the first "telex" service.

Acoustic coupler modems used a telephone handset as the audio medium, with the user dialing the desired number and then pressing the handset into the modem to complete the connection. These systems generally operated at a speed of 300 bits per second.

Modem

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Computer hardware device that converts data from a digital format into a format suitable for an analog transmission medium such as telephone or radio.

Computer hardware device that converts data from a digital format into a format suitable for an analog transmission medium such as telephone or radio.

Acoustic coupler modems used a telephone handset as the audio medium, with the user dialing the desired number and then pressing the handset into the modem to complete the connection. These systems generally operated at a speed of 300 bits per second.
Collection of modems once used in Australia, including dial-up, DSL, and cable modems.
TeleGuide terminal
The original 300-baud Hayes Smartmodem
USRobotics Sportster 14,400 Fax modem (1994)
V.34 modem implemented as an internal ISA card
V.34 data/fax modem as PC card for notebooks
Dial-up modem bank at an ISP
The Novation CAT acoustically coupled modem
A PCI Winmodem soft modem (on the left) next to a conventional ISA modem (on the right)
DSL modem
Cable modem
A bluetooth radio module with built-in antenna (left)
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An ONT providing data, telephone and television service
Null modem adapter

Teletype machines were granted access to remote networks such as the Teletypewriter Exchange using the Bell 103 modem.

ASCII chart from a pre-1972 printer manual

ASCII

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Character encoding standard for electronic communication.

Character encoding standard for electronic communication.

ASCII chart from a pre-1972 printer manual
ASCII (1963). Control pictures of equivalent controls are shown where they exist, or a grey dot otherwise.

TWX originally used the earlier five-bit ITA2, which was also used by the competing Telex teleprinter system.

Replica of Claude Chappe's optical telegraph on the Litermont near Nalbach, Germany

Telegraphy

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Long-distance transmission of messages where the sender uses symbolic codes, known to the recipient, rather than a physical exchange of an object bearing the message.

Long-distance transmission of messages where the sender uses symbolic codes, known to the recipient, rather than a physical exchange of an object bearing the message.

Replica of Claude Chappe's optical telegraph on the Litermont near Nalbach, Germany
Great Wall of China
Schematic of a Prussian optical telegraph (or semaphore) tower, c. 1835
19th-century demonstration of the semaphore
Cooke and Wheatstone's five-needle, six-wire telegraph (1837)
A Morse key (c. 1900)
An early Cooke and Wheatstone double-needle railway telegraph instrument at the National Railway Museum
A block signalling instrument as used in Britain in the 20th century
Australian troops using a Mance mk.V heliograph in the Western Desert in November 1940
US Forest Service lookout using a Colomb shutter type heliograph in 1912 at the end of a telephone line
A Baudot keyboard, 1884
A Creed Model 7 teleprinter, 1931
Creed paper tape reader at The National Museum of Computing
The first message is received by the Submarine Telegraph Company in London from Paris on the Foy–Breguet instrument in 1851. The equipment in the background is a Cooke and Wheatstone set for onward transmission.
The Eastern Telegraph Company network in 1901
Alexander Bain's facsimile machine, 1850
Marconi watching associates raising the kite (a "Levitor" by B.F.S. Baden-Powell ) used to lift the antenna at St. John's, Newfoundland, December 1901
Post Office Engineers inspect the Marconi Company's equipment at Flat Holm, May 1897
Western Union telegram (1930)
ITT Creed Model 23B teleprinter with telex dial-up facility
An illustration declaring that the submarine cable between England and France would bring those countries peace and goodwill

Where telegram services still exist, the transmission method between offices is no longer by telegraph, but by telex or IP link.

Radioteletype tuning indicator

Radioteletype

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Telecommunications system consisting originally of two or more electromechanical teleprinters in different locations connected by radio rather than a wired link.

Telecommunications system consisting originally of two or more electromechanical teleprinters in different locations connected by radio rather than a wired link.

Radioteletype tuning indicator
Tuning indicator on cathode ray tube
Punched tape of the type used with teleprinters in a Creed model 6S/2 5-hole paper tape reader
Electronic RTTY terminal, ca. 1980

Telex

Teletype Model 33 ASR teleprinter, with punched tape reader and punch, usable as a computer terminal

Teletype Model 33

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One of the first products to employ the newly-standardized ASCII code, which was first published in 1963.

One of the first products to employ the newly-standardized ASCII code, which was first published in 1963.

Teletype Model 33 ASR teleprinter, with punched tape reader and punch, usable as a computer terminal
This 1974 advertisement emphasizes the widespread and longterm use of the Teletype Model 33
Teletype Model 33 ASR teleprinter keyboard with punched tape reader and punch. The left-front unit is the tape reader with its three-position START/STOP/FREE lever in the STOP position. A less-common tape reader had a four-position START/AUTO/STOP/FREE lever. In the AUTO position it could be commanded on and off remotely. The tape punch is the unit directly behind the reader. As it exits the machine, the tape passes under a triangular lip that allows the tape to be easily torn by lifting against the sharp edge of the lip.
The Model 33 ASR keyboard supported an upper-case-only ASCII character subset
Model 32, used for Telex service, had a three-row keyboard and narrower, five-hole paper tape.
Model 35 ASR, at the Living Computer Museum in Seattle
Model 33 ASR in use in 1978
Paper tape punch and reader visible in foreground
Rear of unit, with bell and answer back drum to left of motor
Fully-exposed mechanism

The Teletype Model 33 contained an answer-back mechanism that was generally used in dial-up networks such as the TWX network.

This screenshot shows the "Inbox" page of an email client; users can see new emails and take actions, such as reading, deleting, saving, or responding to these messages.

Email

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Method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.

Method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.

This screenshot shows the "Inbox" page of an email client; users can see new emails and take actions, such as reading, deleting, saving, or responding to these messages.
The at sign, a part of every SMTP email address
When a "robot" on Wikipedia makes changes to image files, the uploader receives an email about the changes made.
Email operation
The interface of an email client, Thunderbird.

Sending an email is much less expensive than sending postal mail, or long distance telephone calls, telex or telegrams.